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EX  BIBLIOTHECA 
FRANC.  BABINGER 


NARRATIVE  OF  TRAVELS 


EUROPE,   ASIA,   AND  AFRICA, 


THE   SEVENTEENTH   CENTURY, 


evliya  efendi. 


TRANSLATED  FROM  THE  TURKISH 

BY 

THE   RITTER   JOSEPH   VON   HAMMER, 

F.M.R.A.S.,  &c.  &c.  &.C. 


VOL.  n. 


LONpON: 
PRINTED  FOR  THE  ORIENTAL  TRANSLATION  FUND 

OF  GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND ; 

SOLD  BY 

WILLIAM  H.  ALLEN  &  CO.  LEADENHALL  STREET. 


M.DCCCL. 


EXBIBLIOTHECA 
FRANC.  BABINGER 


LONDON : 
PRINTED    BY    WILLIAM    NICOL,    CO,    PALL    MALL. 


?ffc, 


y'. 


:n. 


^ 


CONTENTS. 


Page 


JOURNET  TO  BrUSSA. 

Description  of  the  Town  and  Fortress  of  Mo- 
dania     ....... 

Description  of  the  Buildings  of  Brüssa 
The  Public  Officers  of  Briissa 
Description  of  the  Imperial  and  other  Mosques 
The   Mosque    of    Khodavenkiar,   or  Sultân 

Murâdl 

The  Mosque  of  Sultân  Bâyâzid  I. 
The  Mosque  of  Mohammed  I. 
The  Mosque  of  Murâd  II.  the  son  of  Moham 
med  I.  ..... 

The  Mosque  of  Emir  Sultân 

The  Colleges  of  Briissa 

The    Convents,   Imârets,   Khans,   Fountains, 

Mills,  and  Sebils  of  Briissa 
Praise  of  the  Baths  of  Bn'issa 
Description  of  the  hot  spring  of  Chekirgel 
Sultân  ...... 

Description   of  the   sulphurous    hot    spring 

(Gogurdli  Kaplijeh) 
Description  of  New  Kaplijeh 
Description  of  the  Market  of  Briissa 
Description  of  the  bridge  of  Erghandi  . 
Description  of  the  Walks  and  pleasure-places 
of  Briissa        ..... 

A  Dissertation  on  Mountains 
Description  of  the  Ice-worm 
Language,  Dress,  and  Manufactures  of  the 

Inhabitants  of  Briissa 
The  Climate  of  Briissa 

The  Eatables,  Beverages  and  Fruits  of  Briissa 

Visit  to  the  Monuments  and  Tombs  of  the 

first  Ottoman  Sultans      .... 

Short  account  of  the  Conquests  of  Osman 

Khân 19 

Conquests  of  Sultan  Orkhân         .  .  .     ib. 

Visit  to  Sultân  Orkhan's  Tomb    .  .  .     ib. 

Notice  of  Haji  Begtâsh,  the  Great  Saint       .     ib. 
Short  account  of  Sultan  Murâd  I.  .  .21 

Tomb  of  Sultân  Murâd  I.  Kbodavendkiâr      .     ib. 
Short  account  of  liderim  Bâyazid  .  .     ib. 

Short  account  of  Sultân  Mohammed  I.  .      22 

Short  account  of  the  reign  of  Murâd  II.       .     ib. 


2 

4 

ib. 

6 


ib. 
ib. 

ib. 

8 

ib. 

ib. 
10 


11 
ib. 
12 
13 

14 
15 
16 

17 
ib. 
ib. 

18 


Page 
Tombs  of  Ottoman  Princes  .  .     23 

Visit  to  the  Tombs  of  Saints  at  Briissa  ,     24 

Journey  to  Nicomedia. 

Qualities  of  a  Mineral  Spring       .         .         .30 
Pilgrimages  of  Nicomedia    .         .         .  .33 

Journey  to  Batum  and  Trebisonde. 

Description  of  the  Ancient  Town  of  Sinope    .     36 
Description  of  the  Castle  of  Samsun     .  .     39 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Onia  .  .     40 

Description  ofthe  Town  and  Ancient  Fortress 

of  Trebisonde,  the  Capital  ofthe  Lezgians     41 
Begs  of  Abaza  Tribes  .  .  .  .43 

The  Commanding  Officers  and  Magistrates  of 
Trebisonde     .  .  .  .  .  .     ib. 

Praise  of  the  Poets  of  Trebisonde  .         .     44 

Form  and  size  of  the  Town,  and  description 
of  its  Monuments   .  .  .  .  .     ib. 

Description  of  the  Lower  Castle  .         .         .     ib. 
Description  of  the  Mosques  .  .  .45 

Description  of  the  Scientific  Colleges,  Baths, 
Market-places,  &c.  .  .  .46 

Description  of  the  complexion  of  the  Inhabi- 
tants of  Trebisonde  .  .  .  .47 

Occupations,  Guilds,  &c.     .  .  .  .     ib. 

Description  of  the  principal  Arts  and  Handi- 
crafts    .......     4S 

Eatables  and  Beverages       .  .  .  .     ib. 

Walks  of  Trebisonde 49 

Praise  of  the  River  Kosh-oghlan  .  .     50 

Visit  to  the  Monuments  of  Sultans  and  Saints     ib. 

Journey  to  Georgia  and  Mingrelia. 
Description  of  Mingrelia      .         .         .         .51 


Journey  to  Azak  (Assov.) 

Description  of  the  Land  of  Abaza 
Specimen  of  the  Abaza  Language 
Specimen  of  the  Sadasha  Abaza  . 

Journey  to  the  Crimea. 
Description  of  the  Castle  of  Baliklava  . 


52 

58 
ib. 


67 


OS'^ 


'^ 


CONTENTS. 


Page 
Description  of  the  Convent  of  Kilghra  Sul- 
tân         70 

Return  to  Constantinople    .         .         .         .73 

Expedition  against  Malta  in   the 
YEAR  1055  (1645). 

Station  of  Gallipolis 78 

Siege  of  the  Fortress  of  Canea     .  .  .79 

Cause  of  the  Death  of  Yûssüf  Pâshâ      .         .     83 

JOURNBT    TO    ErZBRUM. 

Gebize      .......     89 

Praise  of  the  Lake  of  Sabiinja       .  .         .91 

The  Station  of  Khandak-bazâri  .  .  .92 
Places  of  Pilgrimage  at  Boll  .  .  .93 
Pilgrimage  to  Habib  Karamanı     .  .  .94 

Pilgrimage  to  the  tomb  of  the  great   Saint 

Koyi'm  Bâbâ 96 

Pilffrimaffe  to  the  Tomb  of  Burhandedeh       .     97 
Form  and  Size  of  Amasia    .  .  .  .98 

Inhabitants,  Language,  Dress,  Provisions, &c.   100 
Of  the  Walks,  and  Pilgrimages  or  Tombs       .   101 
The  Town  and  Castle  of  Nigissar  .  .   102 

The  Hot- Spring  of  Nigissâr         .         .         .103 
Pilgrimages  of  Nigissâr        .  .  .  .104 

The  Governorship  of  Erzerum  or  Erzenrdm  .     ib. 
Pilgrimage  of  Mama  Khati'in        .         .         .107 
Description  of  the  Fortress  of  Erzerum  .   108 

Description  of  the  great  river  Euphrates  .   110 

Of  the  Form  and  Size  of  the  Fortress   of 
Erzen'im  .  .         .         .  .  .111 

Praise  of  the  Palaces  of  Erzerum  .  .     ib. 

Of  the  Mosques ib. 

Fountains  .         .         .         .         .         .112 

Of  the   Baths,    Khans,    Market-places   and 

Markets 113 

Of  the  Inhabitants,  Climate,  Products,  &c.  .  ib. 
Genealogies  of  Erzerum       .  .  .  .     ib. 

Description  of  Mount  Eğerli  .  .  .115 
Praise  of  Balaam,  the  son  of  Baur  .  .  ib. 
Pilgrmiages  ;  Tomb  of  Sheikh  Kârzûni  .  116 

Stations    of   our  Military  expedition  to    the 

Castle  of  Shüshik 117 

Size  and  Form  of  the  Fortress  Hassan  .  .118 

Description  of  the  Hot-baths  .  .  .119 
Size  and  Form  of  the  Castle  of  Khinis  .         .  120 


Description  of  the  Hot-bath  .  .  .  120 
Description    of    the    Castle    of   Shiishek    or 

Shi'ishik 121 

Size  and  form  of  Magii  •  ■  •  .122 
Description  of  our  journey  along  the  Aras  to 

Persia 123 

Curiosities  of  Uch  Kiiisse    .         .         .         .  1 25 

Pilgrunage  of  Mohammed  Shah's  Tomb  ib. 

Journey  from  Nakhshivan  to  Tabriz. 

Pilgrimage    of  Riza,    the    Son   of  Hossein 

Bikara 129 

Description  of  the  Capital  of  Azerbeijan,  the 

ancient  town  of  Tabriz     .  .  .  .    1 33 

Description  of  the  Mosques  of  Tabriz     .  .134 

Colleges  of  Tabriz 135 

Praise  of  the  Air  and  Climate  .  .  .136 
Account  of  the  Persian  Crown  (Taj)  .  .  ib. 
Arts   and    Handicrafts,    Provisions,    Fruits, 

Beverages,  Gardens,  &c.  .         .         .137 

Account  of  a  curious  conversation  .  .   1 39 

General  Praise  of  Tabriz       .  .  .  .   1 40 

Bad  and  reprehensible  things  in  Iran  .  .  141 
Pilgrimages  and  Visits  in  the  town  of  Tabriz  .  142 
Description  of  the  Expedition  we  undertook 

with  the  Kkân  to  Sham  Ghâzân         .  .143 

Description  of  Merâghâ       .  .  .  .144 

Description  of  Ajan     .  .  .  .  .145 

Places  of  Pilgrimage  at  Erdebil     .         .         .  147 

Journey  from  Tabriz  to  Erivan. 

Pilgrimage  to  the  Tomb  of  Shems  Tabriz!  .  1 49 
Description  of  the  Town  of  Erivan  (Revân)  .  150 
Description  of  the  important  town  of  Genje  .  154 
Pilgrimages  (or  Tombs)  of  Martyrs       .  .     ib. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Sheki  .  .156 
Account  of  the  Tribe  of  Ettels  .  .  .157 
Pilgrimage  of  Ashâr-bâbâ  ....  158 
Praise  of  Mount  Caucasus    .  .  .  .     ib. 

Description  of  the  Town  of  Shamâkhi  .  .  159 
Description  of  the  Fortress  of  Baku       .  .162 

Description  of  our  journey  from  Baku  through 

Georgia  .  .         .         .  .  .163 

Description    of  a    Whale  with    ears  like   an 

Elephant 164 

Description  of  Derbend  the  Gate  of  Gates      .  1 65 


CONTENTS. 


Ill 


Size  and  figure  of  the  Castle 

Description  of  the  Iron  Gate 

Buildings  within  the  Castle 

Pilgrimages 

The  Pilgrimage  of  the  Forty 


Page 
166 

ib. 
167 
168 

ib. 


Journey  to  Georgia. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Serir-ul- Allan  .  1 69 
Tomb  of  Emir  Sultân  .         .         .         .170 

Description  of  the  old  town  of  Kâkht     .  .     ib. 

Description  of  Georgia  or  Shûshâdistân,  viz  : 

Betlis 171 

Size  and  Figure  of  the  Fortress  .  .172 

Products    .......     ib. 

The  Hot-baths  of  Tiflis        .         .         .         .     ib. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Kusekht     .  .173 

Description  of  Sûrân  .  .  .  .  .     ib. 

Specimen  of  the  Georgian  Shushad  Language  ib. 
Genealogy  of  the  Georgian  Kings  .  .173 
Description   of  the  Stronghold  of  Akhaska, 

Sultân  Seh'm's  conquest    .  .  .  .   1 74 

Khas  or  Revenues  of  the  Sanjak  Begs  .  .175 
Number  of  Ziamets  and  Timars    .  .  .     ib. 

Form  and  size  of  the  Castle  of  Akhachka  .  176 
Castles  of  Georgia  belonging  to  the  Province 

ofChaldir 177 

Stations  of  the  Journey  from  Akhaska  to  Er- 

zeriim    .  .  .  .  .  .  .178 

Castles  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Erdehân       .     ib. 

i 

Journey    to    Erivan    in    the    year  I 

1057(1647).  I 

[ 
Journeys  on  our  return 

Journey  to  Baiburd,  Janja,  Isper, 
Tortum  and  Akchbkala'a. 

Form  and  size  of  the  Castle 
Description  of  the  River  Jorilgh  . 
Pilgrimages        .... 
Description  of  the  Castle  of  Tortum 
Size  and  Shape  of  the  Castle 


.   185 


188 
189 
ib. 
190 
191 


Page 
Account  of  our  Inroad  into  Mingrelia  .  .  195 
Of  the  Language  of  the  JVIingrelians      .         .197 

Moral  Reflections 198 

Account  of  our  return  from  Erzeriim  to  Con- 
stantinople in  the  month  of  Zilka'deh  1057 

(1647) 199 

Our  journey  to  the  Castle  of  Kumakh    .         .     ib. 
Description  of  the  Castle  of  Kumakh     .         .  '201 
Description  of  the  Castle  of  Erzenjan    .  .   202 

Praise  of  the  Eatables  and  Beverages     .  .  204 

Pilgrimages         .  .  .  .  .  .     ib. 

Description  of  the  strong  Castle  of  Shin  or 
Shiibin  Kara-hissar  ....  205 

Description  of  a  Lion  .....  207 

Praise  of  the  Alum,  called  Solomon's  Alum   .  208 
Description  of  the  Castle  of  Lâdik  .  .  209 

The  Walks  of  Lâdik 210 

The  warm  baths  of  Lâdik    .         .         .         .211 
Description  of  the  Lake  of  Lâdik  .  .     ib. 

Pilgrimages  of  Lâdik  .....  212 
Description  of  Merzifun       .  .  .  .     ib. 

Description  of  the  Baths       ....  213 
Praise  of  Pirdedeh       .  ,  .  .  .     ib. 

Products 215 

Pilgrimage  to  the  Saints  of  Merzifun    .         .     ib. 
Journey  from  Merzifun  to  Kopri  .  .  .216 

Description  of  the  old  town  and  great  bridge 

of  Kopri 217 

Description  of  the  town  of  Gumish        .  .  220 

Praise  of  Sheikh  Bârdâkli-bâbâ     .  .  .  225 

Form  of  the  Castle 227 

The  Pilgrimages  of  Karânji-bâbâ  Sultân  .     ib. 

Description  of  Angora  ....  229 

Praises  of  Haji  Bairâm  the  Saint  .  .  .   231 

The  Eatables  and  Products  .         .         .         .     ib. 

Pilgrimages         ......   233 

Description  of  the  town  of  Beg-bazâri  or 
Bebek-bazari  ......  239 

Journey  from  Beg-bazâri  to  Constantinople  .   240 
Description  of  the  tomb  of  the  great  Saint 
Akshems-ud-din      .         .         .         .         .241 


NOTES. 


Note  \,  p.  16. —  It  is  a  Journey  of  two  days  from  Briissa  to  the  top. 

The  summit  is  easUy  reached  in  nine  hours,  on  horseback,  the  journey  having  been  accomplished  in  that 
time  by  the  Translator,  in  the  company  of  Mr.  Stratton,  the  British  Minister,  and  B.  Bielfields,  the 
Prussian  Charge  d'affaires,  in  the  year  1804.  Evliya  evidently  places  the  time  necessary  for  rest,  and 
Turkish  indolence,  to  the  account  of  the  length  and  difficulty  of  the  road. 

Note  2,  p.  197. — The  inhabitants  of  Tortum  all  assembled  to  form  the  istikbâl  (solemn  meeting .) 

See  Morier's  Travels,  First  journey  through  Persia.  Bushire  to  Shiraz  :  "At  two  o'clock  we  came  to 
Ahmadi^h,  at  half  past  two  we  passed  a  small  fort  called  Khosh  Auh,  where  a  large  body  of  people  were 
waiting  our  passage.  (In  the  Journey  this  is  the  first  notice  of  the  Istakball,  which  so  frequently  recurs  in 
the  future  progress  of  the  mission,  as  an  honorary  assemblage  called  forth  to  receive  a  distinguished 
traveller,  and  to  conduct  him  in  his  passage.)  They  were  all  armed  with  pikes,  matchlocks,  swords,  and 
shields  ;  and  gave  us  two  vollies  as  a  salute.  They  then  advanced  to  us  and  being  announced  by  the  Arz- 
Beg,  wished  us  a  prosperous  journey.  They  were  answered  by  the  usual  civility  "Khosh  amedeed,  you  are 
welcome."  As  we  proceeded  our  party  was  headed  bv  the  soldiery.  They  were  commanded  by  a  man 
on  horseback,  all  in  tatters,  who  with  his  whip  kept  them  together,  and  excited  them  with  his  voice  where 
he  wanted  them  to  run.  Two  of  the  chosen  of  the  village  performed  feats  before  us  on  their  lean  horses, 
and  helped  to  increase  the  excessive  dust,  which  involved  us.  This  party  kept  pace  with  us,  until  we  were 
again  met  by  a  similar  host,  the  van  of  the  little  army  who  were  waiting  our  reception  at  Borazjoon  : 
these  also  fired  their  muskets." 

Note  3, p.  2\\.—The  river  Khalliz. 

This  was  no  doubt  originally  called  Halys,  which  seems  to  have  formerly  been  the  name,  not  only  of 
this  river,  but  of  the  whole  Kizil  Irmak. 


LONDON  : 
PRINTED    BY    WILLIAM    NICDL,    60.    PALL    MALL. 


THE 


TRAVELS 


OF 


evliya  efendi. 


JOURNEY    TO    BRUSSA. 

Praise  be  to  God  !  for  before  all  things  it  is  the  duty  of  men  and  genii  to  praise 
him,  who  made  the  heavens  and  all  the  wonders  therein,  Angels  and  Eden,  Hûrîs 
and  Rizwan  the  guardian  of  Paradise ;  who  created  roses  and  daffodils,  nightin- 
gales and  murmuring  fountains,  pearls  and  corals  ;  the  moon  and  the  radiant  sun  : 
greetings  also  be  to  Ahmed  the  prophet,  who  by  his  family  accomplished  his  divine 
mission  !  Praise  be  to  the  Creator !  who  out  of  nothing  called  me  into  existence  and 
destined  me  to  obey  him,  imposing  on  me  the  duties  of  Islam,  the  prayer,  fast, 
alms  and  pilgrimage.  In  accomplishment  of  this  sacred  duty,  I,  his  lowly  servant 
Evliya,  left  my  family,  and,  with  the  desire  of  performing  the  pilgrimage,  first  tried 
my  strength  by  commencing,  in  the  month  of  Moharrem  1040,  a  journey  on  foot 
through  the  environs  and  quarters  of  Constantinople  ;  the  account  of  which  is 
contained  in  the  first  volume  of  these  travels.  My  ardent  wish  was  to  see 
Jerusalem  and  Baghdad,  Mecca  and  Medina,  Cairo  and  Damascus,  according  to 
my  dream  related  in  the  introduction  to  the  first  volume  of  these  travels,  when 
the  prophet  appeared  to  me  in  the  night,  and  I,  by  a  slip  of  the  tongue,  said  to  him, 
instead  of  the  usual  form,  Shifd'at  yd  ressid-allah  (Intercession,  O  envoy  of  God) 
Siydhat  yd  ressul-allah  (Travelling,  O  envoy  of  God)  and  he,  graciously  smiling, 
granted  my  wish. 

"  Whatever  God  willeth,  he  prepares  the  means  for  its  accomplishment."  Thus 
ten  years  after  this  dream,  when  I  came  to  the  house  of  my  friend  Okjî  Zâdeh 
Chelebî,  I  found  that  preparations  were  made  for  a  journey  to  Brussa.  He  invited 
me  to  be  his  companion  according  to  the  maxim,  "First  the  companion,  then  the 
road;"  and  said,  "Let  us  spend  a  fortnight  in  visiting  all  the  remarkable  monu- 

VOL.  II.  B 


2  THETRAVELSOF 

ments  at  Brussa  :  the  tombs  of  the  Ottoman  Sultans,  particularly  that  of  the  great 
Saint  Emir  Sultan,  and  by  this  visit  illuminate  our  hearts."  I  accepted  this 
proposal  as  a  divine  inspiration,  saying,  "  in  God's  name  !  "  to  which  all  present 
responded,  giving  us  their  best  wishes  for  a  prosperous  journey. 

For  the  first  time  then,  without  the  knowledge  of  my  family,  I  set  out  on  this 
journey,  in  the  year  1050,  accompanied  by  twenty  friends  in  a  boat  of  Modania, 
leaving  the  town  of  Constantinople,  the  place  of  my  birth,  with  the  intention  of 
seeing  other  towns  and  villages.  The  present  volume  gives  an  account  of  this 
journey,  which  I  undertook  in  consequence  of  the  verse  of  the  Kordn,  "  Travel 
therein  safely  day  and  night,"  and  describes  all  the  hardships  I  underwent ;  for 
according  to  the  tradition  of  the  prophet ;  "  A  journey  is  a  fragment  of  hell."  We 
weighed  anchor  at  Emîrgûneh,  on  the  Bosphorus,  and  called  at  Findikli  to  take  on 
board  as  passengers  some  clever  ship-builders  ;  and  in  the  morning  on  the  first 
Friday  of  Moharrem  of  the  year  1050,  the  boatmen  finding  the  time  favourable  for 
sailing,  unfurled  the  sails  and  weathered  the  point  of  the  Seraglio ;  laying  the 
ship's  head  towards  Brussa,  the  object  of  our  voyage.  All  the  passengers  were  in 
high  spirits,  and  some  of  them  implored  the  Lord's  assistance  for  a  happy  voyage 
by  singing  spiritual  songs.  Some  Musicians  encouraged  me  to  accompany  them  in 
their  strains,  and  so,  after  having  preluded  awhile,  I  fixed  on  the  measure  girdanieh, 
and  sung  three  tetrasticks  and  one  sumâyi  of  the  compositions  of  Dervish  Omerbes- 
teh.  Several  of  the  boatmen  accompanied  us  on  their  instruments,  chokur,  with  such 
effect,  that  water  came  into  the  mouths  of  the  hearers  with  delight.  Amidst  these 
amusements  we  came  to  the  island  of  Heibeli  (Prince's  Islands),  eighteen  miles 
distant  from  Constantinople,  and  nine  in  circumference ;  it  contains  a  famous 
Convent  which  is  visited  every  year  by  many  boats  from  Constantinople.  The 
inhabitants  are  all  wealthy  Greeks,  captains  and  masters  of  ships.  The  public 
officers  are  the  Bostânji-bâshı  (of  Constantinople)  andan  officer  of  the  Janissaries. 
From  hence  we  weighed  anchor  with  a  brisk  gale,  the  vessel  cutting  the  waves 
with  a  rapidity  as  though  fire  was  bursting  forth  from  it,  and  after  five  hours' 
sailing  landed  happily  on  the  coast  of  Modania. 

Description  of  the  Town  and  ancient  Fortress  of  Modania. 

It  was  built  by  a  Greek  Princess  called  Modina.  Here  I  was  first  enabled  to 
perform  my  Friday's  prayer,  which  I  did  with  great  devotion,  and  then  went 
forth  to  view  the  town.  It  is  the  port  of  Brussa,  and  forms  a  safe  harbour,  being 
closed  against  the  wind  from  seven  points  and  open  only  to  the  North.  The 
anchorage  is  excellent.  At  the  head  of  the  harbour  stands  the  custom-house,  the 
lease  of  which  amounts  to  a  million  aspers.    The  town  is  built  by  the  sea-shore. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  3 

on  a  low  rocky  ground.  Prince  Orkhdn,  with  his  father  Osman's  permission, 
conquered  this  town  in  the  year  721  (1321)  and  destroyed  the  walls  in  several 
places,  that  it  might  no  longer  afford  shelter  to  the  infidels.  It  is  governed  by  a 
Voivode,  subordinate  to  Brûssa,  the  chief  seat  of  the  Sanjak  of  Khodâvendkiâr. 
The  judge  is  appointed  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers  a  day.  His  annual 
revenue  amounts  to  two  thousand  piastres.  This  appointment  is  sometimes  given 
to  the  Molla  of  Brûssa  as  Pashmaklik  (pin-money).  Tlie  houses  are  all  faced 
with  brick.  There  are  three  mosques  (jâmî)  and  seven  mesjids,  three  khans,  one 
bath,  two  schools  for  boys,  and  two  hundred  small  streets ;  but  no  room  for  read- 
ing the  Koran  or  tradition,  because  the  greater  number  of  the  inhabitants  are 
Greeks.  There  are  fine  gardens  producing  superior  figs  and  grapes.  From  the 
excellence  of  its  vinegar,  it  has  acquired  the  name  of  Darkhill  (vinegar-house). 
South-east  of  the  town  we  passed  on  horseback  continuously  through  gardens  and 
the  cultivated  field  called  Filehdar.  The  river  Nilüfer,  not  fordable  in  the 
beo-inning  of  spring,  is  a  clear  stream,  which  issuing  from  the  mountains  Rvihbân, 
Ketelî  and  Castel,  waters  the  valley  of  Fillehddr  and  disembogues  into  the  White 
Sea.  The  main  road  crosses  it  over  a  handsome  bridge,  each  arch  of  which 
resembles  the  arch  of  heaven ;  its  name,  as  well  as  that  of  the  river,  was  received 
from  its  builder  the  Princess  Nilüfer,  daughter  of  a  Sultân  (Orkhân)  :  after  con- 
tinuing our  journey  among  gardens  and  vineyards  for  two  hours,  we  reached  the 
town  of  Brûssa,  the  emporium  of  silk,  the  ancient  capital  of  this  country  (Bithynia). 
The  town  of  Brussa  having  been  built  towards  the  North  on  natural  rocks  has 
no  ditch,  but  on  the  side  of  the  head  fountain  (Bünâr-bâshî)  and  the  quarter  of 
the  Mills,  it  has  a  deep  one,  which  at  the  time  of  the  Asiatic  rebellions  of  Kara 
Yaziji,  Kallender  and  Said  Arab  was  filled  up.  Some  of  the  stones  of  the  walls 
are  of  the  size  of  the  cupola  of  a  bath,  and  some  bear  Greek  inscriptions  on 
them.  The  town  is  protected  against  southerly  and  easterly  winds  from  its 
being  situated  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Olympus.  The  houses  have  a  northern  aspect 
and  look  over  the  plain  of  Filehdar.  The  fortress,  the  circumference  of  which  is 
eleven  thousand  paces,  has  six  thousand  battlements,  sixty-seven  towers,  and  four 
gates,  viz.  the  gate  of  the  head  fountain,  the  prison-gate,  the  hot-bath s'-gate  to 
the  west,  and  the  gate  of  the  fishmarket.  This  stronghold  was  besieged  more  than 
once  by  the  Seljukians,  who  came  with  an  army  of  twenty  thousand  men  ;  the  siege 
lasted  between  seven  and  eight  months,  the  besiegers  retiring  only  on  the  ap- 
proach of  winter.  Osmfin  the  founder  of  the  Ottoman  dynasty  besieged  it  three 
times,  but  was  compelled  on  the  last  occasion  by  an  attack  of  the  gout  to  retire 
to  Iconium.  He  sent  his  son  Orkhân  with  Sheikh  Hâjî  Begtâsh,  who  renewed 
the  siege,  and  built  two  great  towers,  one  at  the  side  of  the  hot-baths  (Kaplijab), 


4  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

and  the  other  on  the  side  of  the  head  fountain  (Bunâr-bîîshî),  which  took  seven 
months  to  complete.  Orkhân  posted  himself  at  the  hot-bath,  his  nephew  Timur- 
beg,  at  the  head-fountain,  and  Yalabanjik-beg  at  the  mountain's  side.  It  sur- 
rendered in  722  (1322)  after  a  year's  siege,  and  Osman  died  at  the  moment  he 
received  the  news.  Orkhfin  his  successor  entered  Bnissa  with  Hajî  Begtâsh,  there 
fixed  his  residence,  and  buried  his  father's  body  in  the  castle.  Osman  conquered 
seventy  towns  during  the  lifetime  of  his  father  Ertoghrul.  His  first  conquest 
was  in  Koja-Ui  by  Akcheh  Koja.  Near  Niceea  at  the  castle  of  Wailakabtid,  he 
begat  his  son  Orkhan  on  Sheikh  Edebali's  daughter,  who  was  related  to  the  pro- 
phet, so  that  the  Ottoman  Sultfins  are  Seyyids  or  Sherifs  on  the  mother's  side. 
Sheikh  Türsün  their  first  divine  was  a  relation  of  Sheikh  Edebâlî,  and  said  the 
first  prayer  from  the  pulpit  in  Sultân  Osman's  name.  Brüssa  soon  became  popu- 
lated by  mussulman  colonists  from  all  quarters. 

Description  of  the  Buildings  of  Bnissa. 

The  interior  of  the  fortress  contains  two  thousand  houses,  and  many  high 
palaces,  but  no  gardens,  there  are  seven  quarters  and  as  many  mosques,  one  bath 
and  twenty  shops.  The  mosque  of  Sultân  Orkhân  is  one  hundred  and  ten  feet 
square,  with  a  minareh  of  one  story.  Sultân  Orkhân  lies  buried  here,  and  the 
large  drum  called  Orkhân's  drum  is  suspended  in  this  mosque ;  it  was  used  during 
Sultân  Orkhân's  reign.  The  palace  in  the  castle  was  the  residence  of  the  early 
Ottoman  Emperors  to  the  time  of  Mohammed  II.,  who  removed  to  Constan- 
tinople ;  Sultân  Murâd  I.  having  previously  resided  at  Adrianople.  Since  Brüssa 
has  had  its  own  Böstânjî-bashî  (like  Constantinople)  the  streets  of  the  castle  are 
paved  with  large  stones,  and  in  some  places  stones  are  found  with  inscriptions  of 
the  time  of  the  Infidels,  by  which  may  be  ascertained  how  long  the  houses  have 
been  built;  they  are  all  built  of  stone,  faced  with  brick,  and  have  a  kind  of 
sexangular  chimneys  to  let  out  the  smoke,  which  look  very  well.  In  some  places 
also  grow  cypress -nut  trees  and  vines,  and  from  the  elevation  of  the  ground,  the 

air  is  very  wholesome. 

The  public  Officers  of  Bnissa. 

The  first  is  the  Pâshâ  of  the  Sanjâk,  Khodavendkiâr,  appointed  with  a  revenue 
of  618,079  aspers  khâss.  There  are  four  hundred  and  twenty  fiefs  called  ziâmet 
and  one  thousand  and  five  tîmârs.  The  feudal  militia  is  commanded  by  an 
Alâi-beg,  Cherî-bâshî  and  Jûz-bâshî,  and  assemble  at  the  Pasha's  command  in 
time  of  war.  The  Pâshâ  leads  five  hundred  men  of  his  own.  The  judge  (Molla) 
is  appointed  with  500  aspers,  and  is  promoted  from  hence  to  the  posts  of  Adrianople 
and  Constantinople,  it  is  a  high  office,  valued  annually  at  forty  thousand  piastres. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  r, 


O 


Seven  Naîbs  (deputies)  in  the  town  are  subordinate  to  the  Molla.  The  five  other 
districts  are  those  of  Kînâ,  Fileli,  Abolonia,  Castel,  and  Chokurjeh.  The  civil 
officers  are,  a  Chokâdâr  of  the  janissaries,  a  chamberlain  (Kâpüjf-bâshî) ;  the 
commanding  officer  of  the  janissaries,  the  colonel  of  the  armourers  (Jebeji),  the 
officer  of  the  Sîpâhıs  (Kiayâ-yerf) ;  the  Mufti,  the  head  of  the  Sherifs,  the 
inspector  of  the  silk,  of  the  custom-house,  the  Voivode  of  the  town  and  the 
provost,  who  all  have  power  of  life  and  death. 

The  lower  town  was  fortified  in  the  time  of  Mohammed  III.  the  conqueror  of 
Erla  against  the  Anatolian  rebels  Kara  Yaziji,  Kalender-oghli,  Deli  Hassan,  and 
Jennet-oghH,  but  it  is  not  very  strong ;  it  extends  from  East  to  West  to  the  foot 
of  Mount  Olympus  for  the  length  of  one  farsang  and  the  breadth  of  half  a  farsang. 
The  circuit  is  fifteen  hundred  paces,  the  walls  are  not  very  high.  There  is  but 
one  ditch  near  the  gate  of  the  Tatars  and  no  where  else,  and  there  is  no  need  of 
it,  because  if  an  enemy  were  to  dig  approaches,  water  would  rush  up  in  the 
trenches.  Guns  and  falconets  are  mounted  on  the  towers,  which  are  fired  on 
festivals  ;  there  is  no  other  garrison  than  the  doorkeepers,  but  there  are  six 
thousand  guards  in  the  town.  The  gates  are  of  iron  and  above  each  are  towers 
whence  grenades  and  stones  may  be  thrown  on  the  besiegers.  The  gate  of  theTâtârs 
opens  to  the  East,  that  of  Filehdar  to  the  North ;  and  that  of  Hassan  Pâshâ 
towards  the  Kiblah.  There  are  twenty-thousand  large  and  small  houses  built 
in  the  ancient  style ;  the  most  conspicuous  of  all  is  the  ancient  residence 
of  the  Emperors,  in  the  upper  town  or  fortress,  it  has  three  baths  and  three 
hundred  rooms,  but  no  garden  on  account  of  the  narrowness  of  the  place.  There 
are  in  the  whole  town  one  hundred  and  sixty-six  quarters  of  Moslims,  seven  of 
Armenians,  nine  of  Greeks,  six  of  Jews,  and  one  of  Copts.  The  quarter  of  the 
Meskins  (Lepers)  is  a  separate  quarter  leading  to  the  road  of  Sultân  Murâd. 
The  upper  part  of  the  town  with  Mount  Olympus  rising  in  the  background  is 
beautiful  when  seen  from  the  plain  of  Filehdar,  an  hour's  distance  from  it,  and 
I  can  truly  say  that  I  have  seen  nothing  like  it  during  my  travels.  Briissa  is  a 
very  devout  town,  abounding  with  Divines,  expounders  of  the  Koran  and  keepers 
of  tradition,  who  are  found  no  where  else  so  numerous,  excepting  at  Baghdad. 
Mount  Olympus  at  the  back  of  the  town  on  the  south  side  is  a  mine  of  living 
water,  no  less  than  one  thousand  and  sixty  well-known  springs  flow  from  it,  and 
supply  water  in  abundance  to  the  palaces  and  houses.  It  abounds  also  in  all 
kinds  of  flowers,  particularly  in  syringa  (Erghiwan),  the  annual  assembly  of  Emir 
Sultân  held  in  the  season  when  the  syringa  is  in  perfection  being  much  celebrated. 
The  inhabitants  being  fair,  the  air  good,  the  water  full  of  holiness,  contribute 
altogether,  to  render  Brussa  one  of  the  most  delicious  spots  on  earth. 


6  THETRAVELSOF 

Description  of  the  Imperial  and  other  Mosques. 

There  are  in  all  one  thousand  and  forty  places  of  worship,  three  hundred  and 
fifty-seven  of  which  are  mosques  of  Sultans,  Vezirs,  and  other  great  men.  The 
first  is  the  great  mosque  Ulü-jami'î  built  by  liderim  Bayazîd,  on  an  airy  elevated 
spot  of  Brüssa,  it  is  supported  within  by  large  square  pillars,  the  bases  of  which 
are  gilt  and  painted  to  the  height  of  a  man,  with  inscriptions,  such  as,  Yd  Hanndn, 
"  O  all  gracious!"  Yd  Menndn,  "  O  all  merciful,"  Yd  Diijdn,  "  O  all  faithful!" 
Yd  Hassdn,  "  O  all  beautiful !"  and  other  names  of  God.  The  letters  of  these 
inscriptions  are  three  cubits  high ;  nineteen  cupolas  covered  with  lead  and 
crowned  with  golden  crescents  are  supported  by  these  pillars.  The  twentieth 
cupola  is  placed  on  the  centre  of  the  mosque,  and  is  left  open  so  that  light  and 
air  may  enter,  but  birds  and  animals  are  shut  out  by  a  grating  of  brass  wire. 
Directly  beneath  this  cupola  is  a  round  basin  of  water,  wherein  fish  are  swimming 
and  whence  the  Moslim  community  take  the  water  necessary  for  their  ablutions. 
The  pulpit  made  of  black  nut  is  skilfully  carved  and  chiselled  with  flowers  and 
arabesques  of  all  kinds.  It  must  be  absolutely  seen,  for  it  is  so  wonderful  that  it 
cannot  easily  be  described,  and  has  no  equal  any  where  except  at  Sinope  on  the 
Black  Sea.  The  mahfil  or  place  where  the  Muezzins  repeat  the  proclamation 
of  prayer,  is  painted  with  great  art.  The  mosque  is  lighted  by  glass  windows  on 
the  four  sides,  and  the  floor  covered  with  carpets  which  are  not  found  elsewhere 
because  this  mosque  is  so  richly  endowed.  It  is  nightly  lighted  by  seven  hundred 
lamps,  and  is  crowded  with  people  at  all  hours,  because  no  less  than  seventy 
lectures  are  read  here  on  scientific  subjects  to  two  thousand  scholars.  The 
distance  from  one  of  the  side-gates  to  the  other  is  three  hundred  and  fifty  feet, 
and  from  the  Kiblah  to  the  mihrab  one  hundred  and  eighty  feet ;  it  has  three 
gates.  On  the  left  side,  the  gate  of  the  Emperor's  oratory  (mahfil),  the  gate  of 
the  Kiblah  (opposite  to  the  mihrab),  and  on  the  right  side,  the  gate  of  the 
Mehkemeh.  Outside  of  the  Kiblah-gate  is  a  stone  bench  ;  it  has  no  great  court- 
yard like  other  mosques,  but  a  small  one,  in  the  centre  of  which  the  Mufti  Abd- 
ul-aziz  Efendi  has  built  a  basin  with  water-pipes. 

On  the  right  and  left  are  two  high  brick  minareh,  and  at  that  of  the  Mehkemeh- 
gate  is  a  fountain  (jet  d'eau),  the  water  of  which  comes  from  Mount  Olympus, 
but  it  is  now  in  ruins,  the  pipes  having  become  decayed  by  age.  When  it  rains 
the  water  collects  in  the  basin  of  this  fountain  on  the  top  of  the  Minareh,  and  the 
birds  flock  hither  to  drink.  In  short  there  is  no  more  holy  mosque  than  this 
in  Brussa ;  it  is  the  Ayâ  Sofia  of  Brussa,  and  has  therefore  been  described  the 
first,  but  the  first  consecrated  in  chronological  order,  was  that  of  Orkhan  in  the 
upper  castle. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  7 

The  Mosque  of  Khodavendkidr,  or  Sultdn  Murdd  I. 

On  the  west  side  of  Bnissa  at  half  an  hour's  distance,  in  a  separate  suburb 
called  Eskikaplijah  is  Sultan  Murjid's  mosque,  built  in  a  peculiar  style,  because 
the  architect  was  a  Frank.  The  lower  part  is  devoted  to  worship,  the  upper 
devoted  to  science,  is  distributed  into  rooms  for  students,  so  that  each  may  follow 
the  Imam's  directions  at  prayer.  The  length  from  the  Kiblah  to  the  mihrab  is  one 
hundred  feet,  and  the  breadth  seventy  feet.  On  one  of  the  columns  appears  a 
falcon,  which  having  been  recalled  by  Sultân  Murâd  I.  and  not  obeying,  was  by 
his  curse  changed  into  stone.  This  mosque  has  one  gate,  and  a  minareh  one 
story  high,  but  no  courtyard. 

Description  of  the  Mosque  of  Sultdn  Bdyazid  I. 

It  is  a  small  mosque,  situate  on  the  East  side  of  Bnissa,  surrounded  by  fields 
and  gardens,  and  not  much  frequented  on  account  of  its  distance  from  the  town  ; 
it  is  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  long  and  one  hundred  in  width,  in  the  old  simple 
style,  and  remained  unfinished  during  the  war  of  Timiir,  but  was  completed  by 
Mussa  Ilderîm's  son. 

The  Mosque  of  Mohammed  I. 

This  celebrated  and  elegant  mosque,  known  by  the  name  of  Yeshil  imaret 
(the  green  building)  entirely  built  of  marble,  stands  upon  a  hill  on  the  East  side 
of  Brussa,  and  has  two  cupolas  without  columns,  one  hundred  and  eight  feet  long 
and  eighty  feet  in  width.  It  is  impossible  to  give  an  idea  of  the  mihrab  (altar) 
and  minber  (pulpit)  because  the  carving  is  beyond  all  conception;  the  only 
gate  is  also  ornamented  with  such  elegant  arabesque  carvings,  that  they  could 
not  be  represented  finer  even  by  the  pen  on  Chinese  paper.  The  stone-cutter 
who  worked  this  gate,  spent  full  three  years  on  it,  during  which  he  received 
forty  thousand  ducats  from  Mohammed  I.  as  is  generally  reported ;  in  short,  there 
is  no  mosque  of  more  elegant  and  exquisite  workmanship  in  the  world.  The 
reason  of  its  being  named  the  green  building,  arises  from  the  cupola  and  the 
minareh  being  covered  with  green  fayence  which  radiates  like  emeralds  in  sunshine. 
Tall  plane  trees  surround  the  outside.  I  saw  no  finer  mosque  in  Brussa,  and 
other  travellers  say  no  where  else. 

Description  of  the  Mosque  of  Murdd  II.  the  son  of  Mohammed  I. 

On  the  west  side  of  the  town  is  a  certain  suburb  composed  of  this  mosque  and 

its  appurtenances  of  colleges,  khans  and  gardens.     The  builder  was  Murad  II. 

the  son  of  Mohammed  I.  and  father  of  Mohammed  II.  who  died  at  Adrianople 

and  was  buried  here.     It  is  a  holy  mosque  and  has  two  cupolas.     From  the  gate 


8  THETRAVELSOF 

of  the  Kiblali  to  the  mihr.lb  the  length  is  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet,  the  width 
sixty.  The  (mihrâb)  altar,  (minber)  pulpit  and  station  of  the  Muezzins  (mahfil) 
are  in  the  ancient  simple  style,  built  in  the  year  850  (1446).  Tall  plane-trees 
adorn  the  courtyard.     Many  Princes  of  the  Ottoman  family  are  buried  here. 

The  Mosque  of  Emir  Sultân. 

This  mosque  is  built  on  a  mound  and  is  the  last  of  the  Imperial  Mosques  which 
I  visited. 

On  the  east  side  of  the  town  is  the  mosque  of  Monlâ  Arab  Jebbârî,  a  small 
mosque  built  after  the  model  of  the  great  mosque  Uhi-jami'i,  its  fine  situation 
invites  the  people  to  pray  there.  The  mosque  of  Uftadi  Efendi  is  in  the 
inner  castle.  Of  the  Mesjids  or  small  mosques  (where  Khutbeh  is  not  said  on 
Fridays)  it  is  the  principal.  The  Mesjid  Zeiniler,  the  building  of  the  Mufti  Abd- 
ul-latif,  where  I  read  the  Koran  from  beginning  to  end  in  one  day,  without  inter- 
ruption. Here  the  Molla  Khosrew  composed  his  famous  book.  At  that  time 
two  hundred  lead-covered  mosques  and  seven  hundred  minarehs  might  be  seen 
from  Kazi-yaila,  a  height  half  way  up  Mount  Olympus. 

The  Colleges  of  Briissa. 

The  colleges  are  those  of  Orkhan,  Ilden'm,  Murad,  Mohammed  I.,  Emîr-sultân, 
Issa-beg,  Kâssem  pâshd,  Joneid,  Kadri,  Tenarî,  Zein-ud-dîn  Hâfî,  Bâyazîd-pâshâ, 
and  Hamza-beg. 

The  Convents,  Imdrets,  Khdns,  Fountains,  Mills  and  Sehils  of  Brûssa. 
There  are  three  hundred  convents,  the  most  handsome  of  which  are,  that  of 
Mevlana  Jelal-ud-din  containing  eighty  cells  for  Dervishes,  and  a  place  for  the 
dance  (sima'a).  That  of  Emîr-sultân  entirely  covered  with  lead,  which  stands  on 
a  high  hill.  That  of  Zeiniler  of  the  sect  of  Na'amân  Ben  Thâbet.  That  of  Uftâdî 
Efendi,  in  the  inner  castle,  of  Khalveti  dervishes.  That  of  Abdal  Murad  Sultân 
of  the  Begtâshis,  men  fervent  in  piety,  who  bareheaded  and  barefooted  with  open 
breasts,  wait  upon  the  Moslims  who  frequent  this  delightful  walk  ;  it  was  built 
by  Orkhan  and  possesses  more  than  a  thousand  kettles,  pans,  and  copper  vessels ; 
visitors  perform  their  devotions  here.  That  of  Sheikh  Kili  near  the  camel-driver's 
station,  the  dervishes  are  Begtashis  and  very  poor,  having  no  endowment,  it  was 
built  by  Sultân  Orkhan.  That  of  Abdal  Sultân  Mussa  built  by  the  same.  That  of 
Ak-bi'ik  Sultân  of  the  order  of  Begtâsh.  That  of  Abu  Ishak  Kasûli  who  is 
buried  at  Erzerum  within  the  gate  of  Tebriz.  That  of  Gulsheni;  seventeen 
Convents  of  Khalvetis  ;  nine  of  Kadris ;  three  of  Nakshbendis ;  one  of  Rufa'ais ; 
one  of  Kalenders,  and  one  of  wrestlers. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  g 

The  Imîiıets  (dining  establishments  for  the  poor)  are  those  of  Murâd  I. 
liderim  Bâyazîd,  Emîr  Sultân,  and  that  of  Mohammed  I.,  called  the  green  one. 

There  are  one  hundred  and  eight  khans ;  the  principal  one  is  the  rice  khdn, 
which  has  iron  gates,  a  large  stable,  worthy  of  Antar,  with  two  hundred  cells ; 
the  silk  khan,  of  the  same  size,  where  the  inspector  of  the  silk  resides  ;  the  cus- 
tom of  the  silk  is  let  for  three  hundred  purses  a  year ;  the  butter  khdn  on  the 
gate  of  which  is  suspended  a  cask,  which,  being  filled  with  biiza,  was  once  drank 
out  by  a  single  man  who  had  laid  a  bet  that  he  would  do  it.  There  are  also 
seventy  khans  called  Mujerred  Khans  for  unmarried  people.  The  caravanserai 
of  All  Pasha  was  built  by  Sinan  the  famous  architect,  and  has  doorkeepers. 

The  fountains  of  Briissa  amount  to  the  number  of  two  thousand  and  sixty, 
every   one    of  which   vies   with    the    spring   of  life.      The    Mufti    Azfz    Efendi 
himself  built  two  hundred,  his  name  appearing  on  all  of  them,  with  an  inscription 
begging  for  a  fatihah  from  those  who  drink.      Besides  these  public  fountains, 
each  of  the  twenty-three  thousand  houses   has  its  own  supply.     From   certain 
springs  water-courses  pass  from  house  to   house,  along  the  streets,  and   carry 
water  to  many  basins,  water-pipes,  baths  and  gardens.     The  town  bein"-  built  at 
the  foot  of  Mount  Olympus,  and  the  houses  rising  in  rows  one  above  the  other 
the  water  naturally  flows  to  them.     There  are  seventeen  fountains,  from  which 
this  large  quantity  of  water  is  derived,  the  principal  one  is  that  called  Bûnâr- 
bâshî,  which  rushes  out  of  the  rock  in  several  places  on  Mount  Olympus  and 
spreads  itself  over  the  town.     The  head  fountains  of  Sûnderlî,  of  Chatâl  Kainak, 
of  Kepiz,  of  Nâshî  Dersi,  of  Sobran,  of  ArejH,  of  Charshu,  of  Bellor  Kainak,  of 
Samanlı  Kainak,  the  latter  obtained  the  name  of  straw-boiler,  because  it  issues 
from  Mount  Olympus,  flows  for  some  distance  underground,  and  comes  out  again 
at  another  place,  which  is  proved  by  the  re-appearance  of  straws  that  have  been  put 
into  the  upper  part  of  the  stream ;  the  Sheker  Kainak  (sugar-boiler) ;  the  Selâm 
Kiassî  Kainaghî ;  the  Kirâl  Kainak  (king's  boiler) ;  the  Murâd-dedeh  Kainaghî ;  in 
short  there  are  seventeen  large  fountains   which  yield  the  clearest  and  coldest 
water;    but   the  channels  decaying  in  the  course  of  time,  the   keepers  of  the 
aqueducts,   at  night,   throw  horsedung  into  them,  by  which   the   openings  are 
obstructed  and  the  purity  of  the  water  is  spoiled ;  they  would  not  dare  to  do  this 
in  the  day-time  because  they  would  be  punished  for  it  by  the  public  officers. 

The  Water-mills  are  an  hundred  and  seventy,  which  succeed  one  another  from 
the  head  fountain  (Bûnâr-bâshî)  to  the  fish-market  and  all  the  way  down  from 
Balabânjik ;  also  in  the  valley  of  Eghzândî,  at  the  tanners,  the  quarter  of  the 
lepers,  the  foot  of  the  Castle,  the  gate  of  Hassan  Pâshâ,  &c.  The  establishments 
for  distributing  water  (Sebils)  are  six  hundred.     Although  here,  as  at  Brussa, 

VOL.  11.  c 


10  THETRAVELSOF 

there  is  such  abundance  of  water  that  these  estabHshments  are  superfluous,  yet 
the  generosity  of  the  Ottoman  Sultdns  provided  them  for  the  distribution  of  iced 
water  in  the  summer  months. 

Praise  of  the  Baths  of  Brüssa. 

The  cleanhness  and  elegance  of  the  bath  of  Sultan  Mohammed  is  beyond 
all  description ;  the  bath  of  Ainebegi-Charshu  was  founded  by  liderim  Khdn ; 
the  bath  of  Takht-ul-kala' ;  the  bath  of  Kayaghan  Charshii ;  the  bath  of 
Bostanı,  of  the  castle  of  the  Cutlers,  of  Murad,  and  of  liderim,  have  all  two 
rooms  each  (Chifteh).  There  are  besides  three  thousand  private  baths  in  the 
palaces,  some  of  which  are  also  devoted  by  the  proprietors  to  public  use.  The 
hotbaths  in  Turkish  are  called  Ilijeh;  in  Arabic,  Maîhamîm;  in  Persian, 
Germab ;  in  Rumeli,  Kainarjeh  (boiling) ;  and  at  Brûssa,  Kaplijeh  (from 
Ka-Kvoç  smoke,  which  hangs  over  these  hot  springs;)  in  the  Mogolic  language 
they  are  called  Kerensa,  and  in  Europe,  bagnio.  These  springs  are  impregnated 
with  sulphur  from  mines  which  they  pass  through  underground,  and  when  mixed 
with  cold  water,  are  equally  wholesome  for  bathing  or  drinking,  but  if  drank  to 
excess,  it  is  said,  they  cause  the  teeth  to  fall  out.  There  are  many  hundred  hot 
springs  at  Brûssa,  which  being  neglected  in  the  time  of  the  Infidels,  were  not 
covered.  The  hot-bath  of  old  Kaplijeh,  built  by  Murad  I.  has  a  great  cupola 
covering  a  large  basin  ten  feet  square,  on  the  four  sides  of  which  are  washing- 
tubs,  with  two  retired  cabinets  (Khalveti),  upon  entering  these  the  flesh  feels 
soft  as  an  ear-lap  and  all  uncleanliness  is  boiled  as  it  were  from  the  body.  To 
drink  the  water  is  a  good  remedy  for  palpitation  and  throbbing  of  the  heart ;  but 
a  certain  method  is  prescribed  to  those  using  the  baths,  which  if  neglected  brings 
on  pleurisy. 

The  following  are  the  rules  to  be  observed:  —  First,  take  a  common  ablution 
at  the  edge  of  the  basin,  then  wash  the  head  with  warm  water,  throwing  some 
over  the  body  preparatory  to  walking  into  the  bath,  till  the  whole  body  is 
covered,  do  not  remain  too  long,  and  dress  quickly  upon  coming  out,  in  order 
to  avoid  catching  cold ;  this  precaution  is  necessary,  and  if  neglected  causes  many 
ailments.  The  most  powerful  of  all  the  hot-baths  of  Brûssa  is  that  of  Murad  I. 
the  dressing-place  being  built  in  the  old  style  is  not  cold. 

Description  of  the  hot  spring  of  Chekirgeh  Sultan. 
The  building  is  small,  but  its  water  is  very  useful  in  leprosy ;  lepers  who  have 
been  afflicted  for  forty  years,  are  cured  if  they  drink  and  bathe  here  forty  days. 
Persons  affected  with  this  disease  lose  their  eyebrows  and  eyelashes,  and  their 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  H 

breath  becomes  infectious.  God  avert  it  from  us !  There  are  for  this  reason 
separate  quarters  for  the  leprous  (Meşkin)  in  all  towns  in  Rum. 

Description  of  the  sulphurous  hot  spring  (Gogurdli  Kaplijeh.) 

It  is  a  small  building,  the  spring  is  very  hot  and  sulphurous ;  it  is  principally 
used  as  a  remedy  for  itch  and  scab,  and  the  waiters  (Dellak)  know  how  to  treat 
people  so  affected.  Those  who  can  bear  to  be  rubbed  by  them  in  the  private 
cabinets  for  half  an  hour,  will  see  within  twenty-four  hours  a  miraculous 
alteration  ;  the  skin  peels  off  in  black  scales,  and  the  body  appears  white  as 
silver.  In  short,  the  suburb  of  old  Kaplijeh,  where  the  above  springs  exist,  con- 
sists of  three  hundred  houses  with  gardens  and  hot  springs,  some  for  men,  some 
for  women,  some  for  children,  and  some  for  old  men.  The  inhabitants  of  Briissa, 
who  are  acquainted  with  their  qualities,  come  here  to  stay  a  fortnight  with  their 
relations,  and  use  the  baths. 

Description  of  New  Kaplijeh. 

It  stands  near  the  town  on  a  rocky  place,  and  all  the  buildings  arC'  covered 
with  lead,  like  those  of  old  Kaplijeh.  It  was  formerly  a  small  building,  but 
Sultân  Suleiman  having  been  cured  of  the  gout  here,  he  ordered  his  Vezir,  Sârî 
Rostem  PâshiC,  to  build  a  large  bath.  The  travellers  of  Multctn,  Balkh  and 
Bokhara,  say,  that  they  have  no  where  seen  a  bath  so  magnificent  as  this.  Its 
dressing-room  is  a  vast  place  covered  with  cupolas,  capable  of  holding  a  thousand 
men  ;  on  its  walls  is  written  in  Ta'lik  letters,  a  Turkish  verse,  saying ; 

"  In  life  on  your  apparel  lay  no  stress 
As  every  body  must  his  body  here  undress." 

In  the  centre  of  this  dressing-room  is  a  basin,  and  in  the  middle  of  the  basin  a 
fountain.  There  are  more  than  a  hundred  inspectors  walking  round  in  high 
pattens,  besides  clean  waiters  (Dellak).  The  interior  basin  (the  bath  itself) 
has  a  cupola  which  some  say  is  one  hundred  cubits  high,  it  is  covered  with  lead, 
and  pierced  with  six  hundred  glass  windows  ;  the  basin  is  like  a  sea  into  which  you 
descend  by  six  marble  steps  ;  at  its  four  corners  are  figures  of  lions  and  dragons, 
which  spout  the  water  from  their  mouths.  In  the  cooling  place  (Sukhk)  is  a 
fountain  (jet  d'eau)  which  reaches  to  the  top  of  the  house.  On  the  side  of  the 
basin  are  eight  large  vaults,  underneath  each  of  them  is  a  bathing  trough  of  stone, 
where  those  who  perform  their  ablutions  can  see  those  who  swim  in  the  basin. 
The  floor  of  the  whole  bath  is  paved  with  variegated  marble,  as  though 
enamelled  by  goldsmiths.     It  has  two  private  cabinets  (Khalveti),  in  that  on  the 


j2  THETRAVELSOF 

rio-lit  is  a  small  basin,  the  water  of  which  is  extremely  warm,  but  when  mixed 
with  that  of  a  cold  spring  which  is  adjacent,  a  proper  temperature  is  obtained. 
Though  this  hotbath  is  not  in  such  good  repute  as  the  former,  yet  it  is  a  pleasant 
place,  where  lovers  delight  with  their  beloved,  especially  in  the  long  winter  nights  ; 
when  these  baths  are  lighted  with  candles,  a  thousand  tricks  are  played  by  the 
bathers,  some  diving,  some  swimming,  some  wrestling  in  the  water,  some  swelling 
their  aprons  into  sails,  others  spouting  water  from  their  mouths,  some  lying  dead 
fiat  on  the  water,  others  joining  hands  and  imitating  the  cries  of  boatmen, 
"  Tira  Mola,"  drive  the  water  round  like  a  whirlpool,  which  forces  all  those  who 
are  in  the  water  to  follow  the  quick  rotation  of  it. 

There  is  also  a  private  hotbath,  called  Kaindrjeh,  which,  with  many  others,  I  did 
not  see,  because  I  was  a  stranger,  and  only  setting  out  on  my  travels. 

Description  of  the  Market  of  Bn'issa. 

There  are  nine  thousand  shops.  The  Bezestan  is  a  large  building  with  four 
iron  gates  secured  with  iron  chains  ;  its  cupola  is  supported  by  strong  columns. 
It  contains  three  hundred  shops  (dolâb)  in  each  of  which  merchants  reside,  who 
are  as  rich  as  the  kings  of  Egypt.  The  market  of  the  goldsmiths  is  outside  the 
bezestan,  and  separate  from  it ;  the  shops  are  all  of  stone.  There  are  also  the 
markets  of  the  tailors,  cotton-beaters,  capmakers,  thread  merchants,  drapers,  linen 
merchants,  cable  merchants,  and  that  called  the  market  of  the  bride,  where  essence 
of  roses,  musk,  ambergris,  &c.  are  sold.  The  brains  of  the  passers  by  are  refreshed 
with  the  most  delicious  odours,  and  nobody  is  willing  to  leave  it  on  account  of  the 
fragrance  of  the  perfumes  and  the  politeness  of  its  merchants.  These  markets 
are  established  around  the  Bezestan,  and  the  shops  are  arranged  in  rows.  In  each 
corner  is  a  fountain  supplying  water  out  of  two  pipes.  In  the  summer  months  the 
servants  sprinkle  the  ground  with  water,  so  that  the  whole  market  resen)bles  a 
serdâb  or  cooling  place  of  Baghdad.  The  principal  men  of  Brussasit  here  during 
the  hottest  hours  of  the  day.  According  to  the  descriptions  of  travellers  there  is 
no  where  to  be  found  so  pleasant  a  market  place.  The  market  of  Haleb  and  of  Alî 
Pasha  at  Adrianople  are  famous,  but  neither  they,  nor  even  those  of  Constantino- 
ple, are  to  be  compared  with  the  markets  of  Brussa.  The  saddlers,  and  the  long 
market  are  the  most  crowded  ;  and  the  one  occupied  by  the  sellers  of  roast  meat 
near  the  rice  khan  is  very  elegant.  None  of  the  provisions  at  Brussa  are  sold  by 
Infidels  but  all  by  true  Moslims.  The  shops  of  the  Sherbet-merchants  are 
adorned  with  all  sorts  of  cups,  and  in  the  summer-time  they  put  flowers  into  the 
sherbet  and  also  mix  rosewater  with  it,  which  is  not  the  custom  any  where  else. 
The  fruit  merchants  ornament  their  shops  with  branches  bearing  fruit.     There 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  13 

are  seventy-five  coffee-houses  each  capable  of  holding  a  thousand  persons,  which 
are  frequented  by  the  most  elegant  and  learned  of  the  inhabitants ;  and  three 
times  a  day  singers  and  dancers  execute  a  musical  concert  in  them  like  those  of 
Hossein  Bikara.  Their  poets  are  so  many  Hassciiis,  and  their  story-tellers 
(Meddah)  so  many  Abül-ma'âlî.  The  one  most  famous  for  relating  stories  from 
the  Hamzeh-ndmeh  is  Kûrbanî  Ali,  and  Sherif  Chelebî  enchanted  his  hearers  by 
those  he  told  from  the  Shdh-nameh.  Other  story-tellers  (Kissah  Khîın)  were 
famous  for  reciting  the  tales  of  Abu  Moslem  the  hatchet-bearer,  which  may  be 
compared  to  the  memoirs  (Seir)  of  Weissi.  All  coffee-houses,  and  particularly 
those  near  the  great  mosque,  abound  with  men  skilled  in  a  thousand  arts 
(Hezar-fenn)  dancing  and  pleasure  continue  the  whole  night,  and  in  the  morning 
every  body  goes  to  the  mosque.  These  coffee-houses  became  famous  only  since 
those  of  Constantinople  were  closed  by  the  express  command  of  Sultân  Murâd 
IV.  There  are  are  also  no  less  than  ninety-seven  Buza-houses,  which  are  not  to 
be  equalled  in  the  world;  they  are  wainscoted  with  fayence,  painted,  each 
capable  of  accommodating  one  thousand  men.  In  summer  the  Buza  is  cooled  in 
ice,  like  sherbet ;  the  principal  men  of  the  town  are  not  ashamed  to  enter  these 
Buza-houses,  although  abundance  of  youths,  dancers  and  singers,  girt  with  Brussa 
girdles,  here  entice,  their  lovers  to  ruin.  The  roads  are  paved  with  large  flint-stones, 
a  kind  of  paving  not  met  with  elsewhere  ;  these  stones  are  not  the  least  worn  by 
age,  but  they  are  dangerous  for  horses,  who  stumble  on  them  because  they  are  so 
hard  and  bright. 

Description  of  the  bridge  of  Erghdndi. 

A  market  for  weavers  is  established  on  both  sides  of  the  bridge  of  Erghândî  at 
Gokdereh  (the  valley  of  Olympus)  the  small  windows  of  each  shop  look  on  to  the 
torrent  of  Gokdereh,  which  flows  beneath.  The  shops  are  covered  with  lead,  and 
the  bridge  is  shut  in  on  two  sides  by  iron  gates  pierced  with  loopholes.  A  part  of 
the  bridge  is  reserved  for  the  use  of  strangers  to  fasten  up  their  horses.  There  is 
no  covered  bridge  like  this,  either  in  Arabia,  Persia  or  Turkey.  The  name  of  this 
bridge,  Erghândî,  is  derived  from  the  word  Erghalândî,  which  signifies,  "  it  has 
been  shaken,"  and  to  which  the  following  tradition  is  attached :  — 

In  the  time  of  Sultân  Orkhân,  a  warrior,  going  early  to  the  bath  here,  heard  a 
voice,  saying,  "  Shall  I  come  out  or  not  ? "  The  soldier  being  a  brave  fellow,  called 
out,  "  Come  out,"  adding  a  curse  or  two  ;  when  out  broke  from  the  place  whence 
the  sound  came,  a  rich  treasure,  with  great  shaking  and  trembhng  of  the  earth 
(Erghalandi).  The  soldier,  upon  seeing  such  a  quantity  of  gold  coins,  went  and 
related  the  story  to  Orkhân,  who  advised  him  to  spend  in  pious  works,  what 


14  THETRAVELSOF 

Heaven  had  thus  granted  him.  He  took  the  treasure  to  his  home,  paid  a  tenth 
of  it  to  the  revenue,  and  then  built  this  bridge,  which  took  its  name  from  the  circum- 
stance. There  are  forty-eight  large  and  small  bridges  in  and  about  Brûssa.  The 
streets  and  some  of  the  markets  are  adorned  with  festoons  of  grapes,  which  grow 
here  in  great  plenty,  and  others  with  tall  plane-trees  and  willows.  Brûssa  is  truly  a 
garden-town  ;  the  number  of  gardens  is  said  to  be  forty-seven  thousand,  all 
abundantly  supphed  with  water. 


Description  of  the  Walks  and  pleasure-places  of  Brûssa. 

Of  these  there  are  no  less  than  three  hundred  and  sixty-five,  so  that  there  is  one 
for  every  day  in  the  year.  The  finest  is  that  of  Bûnâr-bâshî,  where  if  you  eat 
roast  meat  and  drink  of  the  water,  you  feel  hungry  again  immediately ;  of  such 
digestive  power  is  the  water  :  a  mosque  adorns  this  famous  walk.  The  walk  of 
the  Mevlevî-khâneh,  or  convent  of  Dervishes,  built  by  Orkhân,  where  twice  a 
week  the  Mevlevis  assemble  for  their  religious  dances  (sima'â),  and  afterwards 
take  their  pleasure  in  the  fields.  The  walk  of  Abddl  Murâd  Sultân  is  situate  in  a 
valley  high  up  on  Mount  Olympus,  whence  the  finest  view  of  Brûssa  is  obtained. 
The  verdure  is  so  luxuriant,  that  the  earth  seems  covered  with  green  velvet. 
There  are  plane-trees,  willows,  cypresses  and  box-trees,  of  an  immense  height, 
under  the  shade  of  which  ten  thousand  men  may  procure  shelter.  Swings  are 
fastened  with  ropes  to  some  of  these  trees,  where  lovers  and  their  beloved  swing 
each  other.  There  are  benches  for  company  and  benches  for  prayer ;  it  is  a  most 
delightful  place,  and  extends  as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach.  The  walk  of  Fissdîklî  is 
adorned  with  pine-trees,  and  is  a  secluded  but  very  pleasant  corner.  The  walk  of 
Karanfilli,  on  the  way  to  Kaplijah,  is  a  resting-place.  The  walk  of  Kaplı  Kiaya  is 
a  fine  spot  without  any  buildings,  and  surrounded  by  woods,  and  that  of  Abd-ul- 
mûmen  is  above  all  praise.  Outside  of  the  town,  to  the  east,  in  a  chesnut-wood, 
half  an  hour's  distance  from  the  foot  of  Mount  Olympus,  stands  the  fountain  of 
A'ssa,  which  is  said  to  have  rushed  forth  by  a  miracle,  when  the  great  Saint  Emir 
Sultân  struck  his  staff  (a'ssa)  into  the  ground  on  this  spot.  The  chesnuts  are 
grafted  trees,  each  not  weighing  above  forty  drachms.  The  walk  of  Sobran  is 
also  adorned  with  chesnut-trees.  The  place  of  Ulumest  is  a  convent  for  the 
accommodation  of  strangers.  The  pleasure-place  of  Kazî-yailâ  (the  judge's  Alp) 
is  situate  half-way  up  Mount  Olympus,  and  is  ascended  from  below  in  five  hours. 
The  Okmeidan,  or  archery-ground,  is  so  pleasant  a  place,  that  it  is  beyond  all 
description.  The  walk  of  the  Monks'  mountain  (Olympus)  obtained  jts  name 
from  its  having  been  the  retreat  of  Greek  Monks. 


evliya  efendi.  15 

A  Dissertation  on  Mountains, 

God  created  one  hundred  and  forty-eight  mountains,  as  locks  of  the  earth, 
which  is  held  together  by  them  when  shaken  by  earthquakes  ;  this  is  hinted  in  the 
verses  of  the  Koran,  "  His  (God's)  are  the  keys  of  the    earth  and  Heaven  ;" 
and  again,  "  and  the  mountains  as  pales."    According  to  geographers  there  are  in 
the  first  climate,  nineteen  ;  in  the  second,  twenty -seven  ;  in  the  third,  thirty-one ; 
in    the  fourth,  twenty-four;   in  the  fifth,  twenty -nine ;   in  the  sixth,  thirty-six; 
and  in  the  seventh,  thirty-seven  great  mountains.     The  root  of  all  mountains 
is  mount  Kâf,  thus  designated  by  the  verse  of  the  Koran,  "  Kâf  and  the  glorious 
Koran  ;"  it  surrounds  the  earth  and  is  reached  by  the  Kalmuks  beyond  the  ice- 
sea;   they  call  it  in  their  language  Yaldarak  Tak.     If  it  pleases   God,  I  shall 
describe  it  when  I  undertake  that  journey.     Since  the  time  of  Alexander  none  but 
the  Kalmuks  have  seen  Mount  Kâf,  they  assemble  every  forty  or  fifty  years  to 
the  number  of  seventy,  or  eighty  thousand,  in  order  to  visit  it.     The  Caucasus 
(Kuh-al-burz)  faces  the  desert  of  Tartary  called  Heihât,  the  great  mountain  of 
Germany  (Riesengeburg),  and  the  mountain  of  the  moon  twenty  farsangs  beyond 
the  equator,  where  the  Nile  originates.     Mount  Olympus  was  the  first  of  these 
mountains  which  I  ascended  with  a  goodly  company ;  we  took  Utters,  tents  and 
all    necessary   preparations  with  us,  and   set   out  from  Bûnâr-bâshî  ascending 
during  five  hours.     The  first  height,  Ghâzî  Yailâ,  is  so  called  because  the  Moslim 
victors  (Ghâzî)  had  a  station  here  during  the  siege  of  Brûssa,  which  lasted  a 
whole  year.     It  is  a  pleasant  spot  with  meadows  and  chesimt-trees,  a  small  rivulet 
running  through  it  is  full  of  trout.     From  this  place  a  full  view  of  the  town  of 
Brûssa  is   obtained.       Five   hours   further  on  is  the   table-land   called   Sobrân 
Yailâssî,  a  large  plain  with  chesnut-woods ;  trout  are  also  found  in  the  lakes  of 
it ;  we  took  a  great  many  of  them,  and  ate  them  fried  with  fresh  butter ;  each 
fish  seemed  like  one  of  the  dishes   Jesus  multiplied  amongst  the   people  (six 
thousand  men).     Some  hundred  thousand  sheep  graze  here,  descended  from  the 
forty  thousand  sheep  of  Sultân  Osman :  the  shepherds  are  Turks,  they  brought 
us  some  sheep  as  a  present,  which  we  immediately  roasted,  and  passed  the  night 
in  the  open  air.     Next  day  we  mounted  again  in  a  south-east  direction  (Kiblâh) 
the  road  fined  with  hyacinths,  roses,  basihcon,  and  other  flowers,  the  scent  of  which 
perfumed  our  brains.     We  refreshed  ourselves  with  water  from  the  living  spring, 
and  came  after  three  hour's  travelling  to  the  place  called  Menzil  Bakajak,  where 
we  halted  three  days  and  three  nights  in  the  woods,  delighting  in  fresh  fish  and 
roasted  sheep.     This  place  is  called  Bakajak,  or  look-out,  because  from  hence  on 
the  nights  previous  to  Ramazân  they  watch  for  the  new  moon,  and,  as  soon  as 
they  see  it,  light  a  fire  to  give  notice  to  the  town,  where  the  guns  are  fired  to 


]g  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

announce  the  commencement  of  the  fast.  This  look-out  is  on  the  top  of  an 
isolated  rock,  which  stretches  towards  the  town  like  an  elephant's  proboscis  and 
hanfs  over  so  deep  a  precipice  that  nobody  dares  look  down.  From  it  the  plain 
Filehdar,  with  all  its  villages,  fields,  and  cultivated  grounds  appear,  like  a  picture 
on  paper.  It  is  so  steep  and  prominent  that  the  great  mosque,  the  castle  and 
bezestan  of  Brûssa  seem  as  it  were  sinking  into  the  base  of  the  mountain,  and 
from  the  summit  cannot  be  seen  at  all.  Rocks  towering  to  the  sky  take  the 
appearance  here  of  many  strange  shapes,  such  as  dragons,  elephants  and  eagles. 
We  mounted  still  further  in  the  direction  of  the  Kiblah  through  flowery  meadows, 
where  no  tall  trees  were  to  be  seen,  and  after  five  hours  came  to  the  station  of 
Sultân  Suleiman's  fountain-head.  A  delightful  spot  with  a  spring  of  water  so 
cold  that  a  man  cannot  take  out  of  it  three  stones  in  succession.  There  is  here  a 
large  mass  of  rock  the  size  of  the  cupola  of  a  bath,  which  vibrates  on  being 
touched,  and  also  many  rivulets  containing  trout  of  one  or  two  becas  each. 
These  rivulets  and  brooks  being  frozen  in  the  winter,  the  head  ice-man,  (Kârjî- 
bâshî)  sends  two  or  three  hundred  persons  to  cut  the  ice,  which,  transparent  as 
crystal  and  brilliant  as  diamonds,  is  used  in  summer  to  cool  their  sherbet  by  the 
inhabitants  of  Constantinople  and  Brussa.  Some  hundred  ass-loads  are  every  day 
embarked  at  Modania  for  the  use  of  the  coffee-houses.  Imperial  kitchens,  and  the 
Imperial  Harım ;  for  the  Vezirs,  the  Kâzî-askers,  and  the  Muftis. 

Description  of  the  Ice-worm. 

This  is  a  worm,  which  is  found  in  the  midst  of  ice  and  snow  as  old  as  the 
creation,  but  is  difficult  to  find  ;  it  has  forty  feet,  and  forty  black  spots  on  its  back, 
with  two  eyes  as  red  as  rubies,  all  ice,  without  a  tongue,  and  its  interior  filled 
with  an  icy  fluid  ;  it  shines  like  a  diamond  but  melts  quickly  away,  because  it  is  all 
ice.  In  size,  it  is  like  those  cucumbers  which  are  sold  for  seed  at  Lângabestân, 
sometimes  larger,  sometimes  smaller.  The  ice-worm  I  brought  to  Sultân  Ibrahim 
was  smaller  than  a  cucumber.  It  is  an  aphrodisiac,  sharpens  the  sight,  and 
makes  a  man  as  healthy  and  vigorous  as  a  new-born  child.  It  is  rarely  found,  and 
falls  but  to  the  lot  of  kings !  It  is  said  that  on  the  Caucasus  they  are  of  the  size 
of  dogs,  with  four  feet,  living  and  walking  among  the  ice  and  snow.  Faith  be 
upon  the  teller !    I  have  not  seen  them. 

Above  the  station  of  Svileimân  vegetation  ceases  and  the  mountain  is  barren. 
KuUei  Jehân,  the  tower  of  the  world,  is  on  the  topmost  peak  of  the  monk's  moun- 
tain (Olympus)  whence  beneath  your  feet  the  clouds  may  be  seen  passing  over 
the  town.  It  is  a  journey  of  two  days  from  Brussa  to  the  top ;  being  so  very 
high  it  is  entirely  barren;    the  mountains  of  Cütahîa  are  seen  from  the  south 


evliya  efendi.  17 

side ;  the  mountains  of  Sogıkl  from  tlıe  East,  and  from  the  west  side  the  moun- 
tains of  GahpoUs,  beyond  the  White  Sea.  The  summits  of  the  Seven  Towers  and 
of  the  Minarehs  of  Sultfin  Ahmed,  may  be  discerned  from  hence  when  the  sun 
shines  on  Constantinople.  From  its  height,  it  is  so  much  exposed  to  the  wind, 
that  if  men  did  not  chng  to,  or  shelter  themselves  behind,  the  rocks,  the  wind 
would  blow  them  away  like  cotton.  On  the  highest  spot  is  a  burying  place,  the 
four  sides  composed  of  immense  stones;  it  is  the  tomb  of  Sa'dan  the  son  of 
Landha,  who  is  said  to  have  taken  refuge  here  from  fear  of  Hamzah.  Near  it  is 
a  deep  dark  cave  which  leads  to  seventy  or  eighty  small  cells,  where  Monks 
resided  in  the  time  of  the  Byzantine  Empire ;  on  some  of  them  are  inscriptions  in 
Greek  and  Latin,  two  thousand  years  old.  People  who  come  to  the  top  also 
write  their  names  in  this  place.  We  again  mounted  our  horses  and  came  after 
ten  hours  ride,  ascending  and  descending,  to  the  Victor's  height,  Ghazi  Yaila, 
from  whence,  after  another  ride  of  ten  hours,  we  arrived  at  Brussa. 

Language,  Dress,  and  Manufactures  of  the  Inhabitants  of  Brussa. 
There  are  many  thousand  rich  merchants  and  learned  divines  who  dress  in 
sable  pelisses.  Being  in  Asia,  the  language  is  related  to  the  Turkish,  hence 
they  say  Ahmed  Chepu  instead  of  Ahmed  Chelebf;  Memet  Chepu  instead  of 
Mohammed  Chelebi;  Assmîl  instead  of  Ismail;  Jafar  instead  of  Ja'fer,  besides 
some  words  and  expressions  entirely  unknown ;  young  men  of  the  town  however 
speak  with  great  purity.  Their  principal  occupation  is  the  cultivation  of  silk,  the 
manufacture  of  velvets  and  other  stuffs  of  Bnissa  called  Sereng  and  Chatma,  it 
is  also  famed  for  the  manufacture  of  cushions  for  sofas. 

The  Climate  of  Brussa. 
The  longest  day  is  fifteen  hours :  the  inhabitants  are  fresh-coloured  on  account 
of  the  healthy  air,  but  as  Mount  Olympus  intercepts  the  southerly  winds,  the 
air  is  dull  and  heavy  when  they  blow.  The  youth  are  numerous  and  have 
been  celebrated  in  many  a  town-revolt  (Shehrengiz).  The  women  are  exquisite 
beauties,  with  well-arranged  teeth,  and  well-arranged  words;  their  hair  curled 
and  dressed  in  tresses  is  celebrated  in  the  poetical  expression  Kessüî  merghüleh. 
The  men  attain  a  very  old  age  ;  in  short  the  pleasant  advantages  which  this  town 
affords  are  not  to  be  met  with  elsewhere.  The  people  are  of  a  graceful  stature, 
silver  bodies,  cautious,  and  so  eloquent  that  when  they  speak  they  never  fail  to 
produce  the  greatest  effect  on  their  hearers. 

The  Eatables,  Beverages  and  Fruits  of  Brussa. 
The  first  is  white  bread  of  the  kind  called  Sumun,  which  is  as  good  as  the  best 

VOL.  II.  D 


18  THETRAVELSOF 

of  Constantinople ;  then  that  sort  of  bread  called  Cliakil,  like  white  roses ;  the 
Gozlemeh,  the  Kerdeh,  a  kind  of  roast  mutton  dressed  over  a  stove  (Tennur).  The 
sheep  which  are  very  fat  come  from  Mount  Olympus.  The  white  Halva  of 
Brdssa  is  also  celebrated. 

The  beverages  are  the  delicious  water  of  the  head  fountain  Bünar-bdshî  and 
seventeen  other  principal  springs ;  excellent  coffee  from  Yemen,  very  good  bîiza, 
the  sherbet  Khanediin-beg  (smiling  Prince),  that  of  Tîrelî-oghlî,  Karan-fillî  and 
Shujâb. 

The  fruits  are  forty-day  pears,  exquisite  grapes,  apricots,  cherries,  and  chesnuts 
famous  all  over  the  world.  These  chesnuts,  weighing  forty  drachms  each,  are 
put  on  spits  with  the  meat,  the  juice  of  which  penetrates  them ;  they  grow  so 
succulent  that  it  is  almost  impossible  to  leave  off  eating  them  till  one  dies.  The 
seven  day  mulberries  are  also  famous.  The  plain  of  Filehdar  is  laid  out  in  mul- 
berry plantations,  because  the  chief  product  of  Brvissa  is  silk,  which  is  said  not  to 
be  equalled  by  the  Persian  silk  of  Shirwan. 

The  manufactures  are  those  of  rubj-coloured  velvet,  like  that  made  at  Genoa, 
Brussa  linen  of  different  colours,  aprons  called  Kirk-kalem,  purses  of  silk,  silken 
nets,  and  finally  cushions  of  cut  velvet  called  Chdtma  munakkash  katifeh. 

Visit  to  the  Monuments  and  Tombs  of  the  first  Ottoman  Sultans. 

The  Seljuk  family  arrived  in  the  country  of  Rum  (the  Asiatic  provinces  of  the 
Roman  Empire)  in  the  year  476  (1083).  They  first  allied  themselves  wdth  the 
Danishmend  family,  and  occupied  with  them  the  districts  of  Malatia,  Csesarea, 
Alayeh,  and  Konia.  The  Seljukians  took  up  their  residence  in  the  latter  town, 
while  the  Danishmend  family  resided  in  those  of  Sivas  and  Erzerum.  Melek 
Ghâzî  died  at  Nigissar  and  is  buried  there ;  Ala-ud-din  the  prince  of  the  Seljuk 
family,  called  Toghriil-beg,  the  ancestor  of  the  Ottoman  family  from  Mahân  was 
a  relation  of  his,  and  created  him  a  Beg ;  he  made  some  inroads  from  Konia  on 
Nicsea,  Brussa  and  Nicomedia.  Ertoghrul-beg,  who  was  invested  with  drum  and 
banner,  had  not  yet  the  right  of  striking  coins  and  of  the  Friday  prayer,  he  was 
buried  at  Sogudjek  near  Nicsea.  His  son  Osman-beg  was  the  first  absolute 
monarch  of  the  Ottoman  family  whose  name  was  struck  on  the  coin,  and  prayer 
said  by  Türsün  Fakîh,  699  (1299).  He  married  the  daughter  of  Sheikh  Edebali 
who  became  the  mother  of  Orkhan,  and  through  whom  the  Ottoman  Sultans  are 
related  to  the  prophet.  Until  the  time  of  Mohammed  H.  these  princes  were 
called  Beg.  Mohammed  H.  was  the  first  called  Sultân  by  Akshems-ud-di'n  and 
whose  name  was  struck  upon  coins.  Selim  I.  was  then  proclaimed  servant  of 
Mecca  and  Medina  by  Keraâl-pashâ-zadeh,  and  Ebüsûd  Efendi  the  famous  Mufti 


evliya  efendi.  19 

added  to  the  title  of  Sultdn  Suleiman,  that  of  Sultfin  of  two  lands,  and  Khakân  of 
two  seas,  because  he  had  conquered  Baghdad  and  Rodos,  but  if  he  lost  either  of 
them  he  was  to  lose  the  title  also. 

Short  account  of  the  Conquests  of  Osmdn  Khdn. 

He  conquered  the  castles  of  Bilejik,  Ainegol,  Kara-hissar,  Inogi,  Iznik,  Kopru- 
hissar,  Elibad  hissar,  Castel,  Kitah,  Bigha,  &c.  Osmân-beg  reigned  twenty-one  years 
after  the  death  of  Sultân  Ala-ud-dîn,  and  died  at  the  age  of  sixty-nine,  after  having 
reigned  twenty-six  years,  at  the  moment  Brussa  fell  into  the  hands  of  his  son. 

Conquests  of  Sultan  Orkhân. 
The  Castles  of  Yazı,  Kogreh,  and  in  Rumeli,  Yanbolî,  Galibolî,  Moderni,  Kojâ 
Elî,  Iznikmid,  Belakabâd,  Brüssa,  Taraklı,  Goinek,  Karassî,  Balikersi,  Bergama, 
Adremyt,  Ashlüna,  Rodosto,  and  Bülair ;  the  last  was  conquered  by  Sûleimân-pâsha, 
Orkhan's  son,  who  lies  buried  there. 

Visit  to  Sultân  Orkhan's  Tomb. 

Sultân  Orkhân  died  in  the  year  771  (1369),  he  is  buried  with  his  father  Osman 
beneath  a  cupola  in  the  mosque  of  the  inner  castle ;  he  died,  after  a  reign  of 
forty-one  years,  at  the  age  of  sixty -four ;  he  was  a  mild  monarch,  a  father  to  the 
poor,  and  a  warrior  in  the  ways  of  God.  The  divines  of  his  time  were  David 
Kaissari  of  Caramania,  he  was  named  Kaissari  because  he  was  brought  up  at 
Caesarea,  he  commented  on  the  text  of  Mohay-ud-din  Arabi  and  was  a  second 
Taftazani  in  mystic  science.  He  was  the  first  Professor  (Müderris)  of  the  College 
which  Sultân  Orkhân  built  at  Nicaea.  Mola  Ala-ud-dîn  commonly  called  Esvved 
Khojâ  (the  black  master)  who  commented  doctrinally  on  the  work  Mof'hni-ul- 
lebîb  and  also  on  the  book,  Wikayit.  Mola  Jendereli  Kara  Khalil,  who  was  first 
created  Kâzî-asker  of  Anatolia  by  Orkhân.  Mola  Hassan  Kaissarî,  one  of  the 
greatest  Jurisconsults ;  he  wrote  a  good  commentary  on  Andalusian  prosody,  he 
was  a  disciple  of  Mohay-ud-din,  and  completed  his  education  at  Damascus. 

Notice  of  Hcjji  Begtdsh,  the  great  Saint. 

When  young  he  never  mixed  with  other  boys  but  sought  retirement  and  scorned 
all  worldly  pursuits.  He  refused  to  accept  the  dignity  of  Sultân  which  was  offered 
him  by  his  father,  who  died  a  Prince  in  Khorassân.  Forty  years  long  he  did 
nothing  but  pray  and  fast,  and  arrived  at  such  a  degree  of  perfection,  that  in  the 
night,  during  his  sleep,  his  soul  migrated  from  his  body  into  the  world  of  spirits, 
and  he  became  filled  with  the  mystic  science  of  spirits,  and  divine  knowledge. 


20  THETRAVELSOF 

One  clay  the  men  of  Kliorassan  asked  him  to  perform  a  miracle  as  a  proof  of  his 
sanctity ;  he  then  performed  many  miracles,  and  was  acknowledged  by  all  the 
great  men  of  Khorassan  to  be  their  superior.  My  ancestor,  the  pole  of  poles,  the 
Sultân  of  learning,  the  fountain  head  of  science,  the  chief  of  the  Sheikhs  of 
Türkistan,  Khoja  Ahmed  Yessüî  Ibn  Mohammed  Hanefî,  was  his  disciple,  and 
hinted  that  he  had  received  from  him  even  the  gift  of  direction  to  bliss  (Irshdd), 
and  of  true  Dervishship,  which  Gabriel  brought  from  Paradise,  with  its  symbols,  the 
crown,  the  habit,  the  carpet,  the  lamp,  the  table,  and  the  banner,  to  Mohammed 
the  true  fountain-head  of  all  Dervishship.  The  prophet  delivered  the  direction 
to  Imam  All,  from  whom  it  came  to  his  son  Hossein,  who  bequeathed  it  to  Imam 
Zein-ul-âbedîn,  who  left  it  to  Ibrahim  Almokerrem,  who  when  in  the  prison  of 
Mervan  handed  over  to  Abu  Moslim,  the  crown  and  gown,  carpet  and  table,  lamp 
and  banner,  the  symbols  of  Dervishship.  From  him  they  came  to  the  Imam 
Mohammed  Baker,  then  to  his  son  Imam  Ja'fer,  and  to  his  son  Mxissa  Kazîm, 
and  from  him  to  Ahmed  Yessui  the  head  of  the  Sheikhs  of  Türkistan,  who 
being  asked  by  his  disciples  to  leave  to  them  the  aforesaid  symbols,  never 
consented  till  Hâjî  Begtâsh  made  his  appearance,  who  became  by  the  possession 
of  it,  the  pole  of  the  poles  (Kutbal-atkab). 

Hâjî  Begtâsh  of  Khorassân  was  the  son  of  the  Seyyid  Ibrahim  Mokerrem, 
who  died  in  the  prison  of  Mervan,  as  it  has  been  just  said,  and  there  is  no  doubt 
of  his  descent  in  direct  lineage  from  the  Prophet ;  the  history  of  Ain  Alî  gives, 
however,  the  following  genealogy :  Seyyid  Mohammed  Hâjî  Begtâsh,  the  son 
of  Seyyid  Mûsâ  Nishabüı  î,  son  of  Seyyid  Ishak  Essakin,  son  of  Seyyid  Ibrahîm 
Mokerrem  El-askeri,  son  of  Seyyid  Miissa  Ebî  Sebha,  son  of  Seyyid  Ibrahîm 
Elmurteza,  son  of  Imam  Müsâ  Alkâzim,  who  had  thirty-seven  children.  Hâjî 
Begtâsh's  father  left  Khorassân  after  his  father's  death  and  established  himself  at 
Nishabur,  where  he  married  Khatmeh  the  daughter  of  Sheikh  Ahmed  and  by  her 
had  Hâjî  Begtâsh.  While  yet  a  boy  he  was  distinguished  for  his  devotion,  and 
was  entrusted  to  the  care  of  Lokman,  one  of  the  disciples  of  Ahmed  Yessûî,  from 
whom  he  learned  the  exoteric  and  esoteric  sciences.  Lokman  had  been  in- 
vested with  the  religious  habit  of  Imam  Ja'fer  by  the  hand  of  Bâyazîd  Bostâmî. 
With  this  habit  Lokman  invested  Hâjî  Begtâsh.  This  is  the  crown  or  turban 
which  has  twelve  folds  in  remembrance  of  the  twelve  Imams,  and  the  white 
abbâ  with  sleeves  like  a  jubbeh,  which  is  worn  by  the  Dervishes  of  the  order  of 
Begtâsh.  By  order  of  Ahmed  Yessûî  he  accompanied  Mohammed  Bokhara 
Sâltik  with  seven  hundred  men,  Shems-ud-din  Tebrîzî,  Mohay-ud-dîn  Al-arebî, 
Kârî  Ahmed  Sultân,  and  other  pious  men  and  Saints  into  Rum,  where  the 
Ottoman  dynasty  took  its  rise. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  21 

Hajî  Begtiish  instituted  the  new  militia  called  Yenîcherî,  and  having  established 
his  seven  hundred  disciples  in  the  towns  conquered  by  Sultân  Orkhân,  he  sent 
Mohammed  Bokhara  Sârî  Sâltik  into  Dobrûja,  Wallachia,  Moldavia,  Poland  and 
Russia.  The  seven  hundred  convents  of  Dervishes,  Begtâshî,  which  actually 
exist  in  Turkey,  are  derived  from  the  seven  hundred  disciples  of  Hâjf  Begtâsh. 
Hâjî  Begtâsh  died  in  Sultân  Orkhân's  reign,  and  was  buried  in  his  presence 
in  the  capital  of  Crimea,  where  a  Tatar  princess  raised  a  monument  over  his 
tomb.  This  monument  having  fallen  into  decay  Sheitân  Murâd,  a  Beg  of 
Csesarea  of  Sultân  Suleiman's  time,  restored  and  covered  it  with  lead.  If  it  please 
God  we  shall  describe  it  in  its  proper  place.  Sheikh  Seyyid  Ahmed  Ruffa'f, 
buried  at  Ladika  near  Amasia.  Sheikh  Hassan  Rufa'i,  buried  at  Tokat  near 
Sunbulli,  was  the  nephew  of  the  former.  Sheikh  Geigli  Bahâ  was  a  Dervish 
of  the  Begtâshfs.  Sheikh  Kâra  Ahmed  Sultân  a  Persian  prince,  who  when  on 
his  travels  came  to  Sultân  Orkhân,  was  initiated  by  Haji  Begtâsh,  and  is  buried 
at  Ak-hissâr.  Sheikh  Abdal  Müssa  Sultân,  and  Sheikh  Abdal  Murâd,  both  of 
Sultân  Orkhân's  time. 

Short  account  of  Sultan  Murdd  I. 

He  gave  caps  (U'skufa)  to  the  janissaries,  embroidered  with  gold ;  built  a 
mosque  at  Bilejk,  another  mosque  at  Briissa  and  a  convent  for  Postin  Push  Bâbâ. 
He  was  assassinated  in  the  year  791,  after  the  battle  of  Khassova,  by  Milosh 
Kublaki.  A  cupola  is  erected  over  the  spot,  which  was  renewed  by  my  gracious 
Lord  Melek  Ahmed  Pâshâ. 

Tomh  of  Sultdn  Murdd  I.  Khodavendkidr. 
He  is  buried  on  the  west  side  of  Bnissa  near  old  Kaplijah,  beneath  a  large 
cupola.     His  arrow,  bow  and  quiver  are  suspended  over  his  tomb,  with  the  bloody 
garment  in  which  he  was  killed,  which  fills  with  awe  all  who  enter  this  monument. 
He  was  seventy  years  of  age  at  his  death,  and  had  reigned  thirty. 

Short  account  of  liderim  Bdyazid. 

Besides  numerous  conquests  in  Anatolia,  he  passed  seven  times  in  one  year 
from  AnatoHa  into  Wallachia,  and  from  the  rapidity  of  his  movements  obtained 
the  name  of  liderim  (lightning).  He  besieged  Constantinople,  and  established  a 
judge  there  and  seven  hundred  Mussulman  houses,  from  the  Flour-hall  (U'n-kapan,) 
to  the  Rose  mosque,  also  the  tribunal  of  Sirkeji-tekkieh.  In  the  year  805, 
following  bad  advice,  he  waged  war  against  Timur,  and  was  taken  prisoner  by  the 
Tatars  after  a  long  struggle  on  foot,  his  horse  having  been  thrown  down.  Brought 
into  Timur's  presence,  he  was  well  received,  but  Timur  asking  what  he  would 


22  THETRAVELSOF 

liave  done  to  him  had  he  been  taken  prisoner ;  Bdyazid  answered,  that  he  would 
have  put  him  into  an  iron  cage  and  carried  him  to  Brfissa;  Timiir  being  enraged, 
ordered  Bayazid  to  be  put  into  an  iron  cage,  intending  to  carry  him  into  Persia, 
but  he  died  on  the  third  day  of  a  violent  fever. 

His  son,  Mohammed  Chelebi  pursued  Timiir's  army  towards  Amasia,  and  had 
tents  made  of  the  skins  of  the  slain  Tatars,  beneath  which  he  sheltered  himself 
from  the  sun.  The  field  of  the  above  defeat  is  called  to  this  day,  in  derision, 
Tâshak-ovâ-sî.  He  took  his  father's  corpse  from  the  enemy,  and  buried  it 
in  the  mosque  he  had  built  at  Briissa.  Sultân  Murâd  IV.  when  he  visited  this 
tomb  gave  it  a  kick  with  his  foot,  saying :  "What,  do  you  lie  here  like  a  monarch, — 
you,  who  have  destroyed  the  Ottoman  honour,  and  have  been  made  prisoner  by 
the  Tatars?"  At  the  moment  he  kicked  the  coffin,  he  cried,  "  Oh!  my  foot!" 
and  from  that  day  was  attacked  by  the  gout,  which  carried  him  off.  He  lived 
sixty-seven  years,  and  reigned  fourteen ;  he  was  a  great  Emperor,  but  could  not 
war  against  fate. 

The  Divines  of  his  time  were  Sheikh  Shehâb-ud-dîn  Sivâssî,  who  composed  a 
valuable  commentary,  and  is  buried  at  Aya  Soluk  (Ephesus) ;  Khosb-ud-dîn  of 
Nicfea,  who  contended  much  with  Timiir ;  Simânezadeh  Sheikh  Bedr-ud-din  Ben 
Mahmud  Ben  Abd-ul-aziz ;  the  Mevlenâ  Fakhr-ud-dîn  the  Persian,  buried  at 
Adrianople ;  Sheikh  Abd-ur-rahira  Ben  Emir  Aziz  Merzifünî,  and  the  Sheikh  Pîr 
Eli'as,  who  is  buried  at  Amasia. 

Short  account  of  Sultân  Mohammed  I. 

He  first  shared  the  Empire  with  his  brethren  Suleiman,  Miissa,  and  Issa 
Chelebi,  whom  he  subdued  in  one  year  and  became  absolute  monarch. 
He  built  Yerkoi  (Gimgera)  on  the  banks  of  the  Danube.  He  died  in  824,  and 
lies  buried  beneath  a  painted  cupola  before  his  mosque  called  the  green  building, 
(Yeshil  imaret),  he  was  forty-seven  years  old,  and  had  reigned  seven  years.  He 
was  the  first  who  sent  a  Surreh,  or  present  of  money,  by  the  caravan  of  pilgrims,  to 
the  poor  of  Mecca  and  Medina.  He  finished  the  old  mosque  at  Adrianople,  the 
foundations  of  which  had  been  laid  by  his  brother  Mussa,  and  built  a  cupola  near 
Philippolis  over  the  tomb  of  Ghazi  Mohammed  Beg,  at  the  place  called  Kunis. 

The  divines  and  learned  men  of  his  time  were  Kara   Shems-ud-din  Semavî, 

famed  for  his  works  and  travels,  who  was  exiled  from  Brussa  to  Zaghrah  in  Rumeli, 

where   he  is  buried.      Sheikh  Abd-ul-latif  Mokadessi  Ben  Abd-ur-rahman  Ben 

All  Ben  Ghanem. 

Shoi^t  account  of  the  Reign  of  Murdd  II. 

The  soldiers  having  revolted,  dethroned  him  under  the  pretext  that  he  had 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  23 

grown  too  old,  and  put  his  son  Mohammed  II.,  who  was  only  thirteen  years  of 

age  in  his  place  ;  but  being  found  incapable  to  hold  the  reins,  the  janissaries  again 

displaced  Mohammed  II.  sending  him  to  Magnesia,  and  recalled  old  Murad  to  the 

throne.     Afterward  in  the  year  855  they  deposed  Murad  II.  for  the  second  time, 

and  Mahomed  II.,  then  twenty-one  years  old,  obtained  absolute  sway,  and  took 

up  his  residence  at  Constantinople.  His  father  died  the  next  year  (85 G)  at  Adrian- 

ople,  but  was  buried  at  Briissa.     He  lies  in  more  magnificent  state  than  any  of  the 

Sultans  buried  at  Brussa,  his  tomb  being  covered  with  a  golden  stuff.     He  was 

thirty -nine  years  old  when  he  died,  and  had  reigned  twenty -eight  years.     He  built 

the  mosque  Ujsherfeli  at  Adrianople,    two  other  mosques,  a  Dar-ul-hadfth,  a 

Bezestan,  and  the  bridge  of  Erkeneh  with  a  mosque.     He  was  the  first  who 

assigned  a  salary  to  the  Seyyids  or  Sherifs. 

The  Divines  and  Sheikhs  of  his  time  were  Zekeriah  Khalveti,  the  disciple  of  Pır 

Elîas,  who  is  buried  near  him,  and  Sheikh  Abd-ur-rahmiin  Ben  Hassam-ud-din, 

commonly  called  Gumishlî-zâdeh ;  he  was  the  son-in-law  of  Pır  Elîas,  and  having 

had  the  honour  of  kissing  the  hands  of  the  three  sons  of  Murad  II.,  he  foretold  to 

Mohammed  II.  that  he  would  conquer  Constantinople,  and  establish  the  true  faith 

there. 

Tombs  of  Ottoman  Princes. 

Ala-ud-dîn  Pâshâ,  son  of  Osman,  who  died  in  804,  lies  near  his  brother  Orkhan  ; 
Shehinshah,  son  of  Bâyazîd,  Governor  of  Briissa ;  Mohammed,  son  of  Bayazid, 
and  eight  princes,  brethren  of  Sultân  Selim  I.  whom  he  killed  when  going  to  war 
against  Prince  Ahmed,  are  all  buried  near  Orkhan ;  also  their  brother  Ahmed,  who 
was  strangled  by  Sultân  Selim,  and  sent  hither.  Ahmed's  son  Murad  fled  into 
Persia  to  Shah  Ismail,  where,  at  the  end  of  three  years,  he  died,  and  was  buried  at 
Erdebü  near  Shah  Safı.  Two  of  his  brothers,  who  had  been  spared  at  the  inter- 
cession of  the  Ulemas,  died  soon  after  at  Constantinople  of  the  plague,  and  are 
also  buried  here.  Korkud,  who,  persecuted  by  Selim  I.,  was  taken  at  Tekkah  in 
a  cavern  with  his  governor  Piâleh  and  killed  (909),  is  buried  beneath  a  private 
cupola  near  Murad  II.  Prince  Hassan,  the  son  of  the  latter  and  brother  of 
Mohammed  II.,  and  who  was  strangled  soon  after  his  brother  had  ascended  the 
throne,  also  Hes  buried  here  near  his  father ;  so  also  does  the  unfortunate  Jem, 
brother  of  Bâyazîd  II.  He  left  a  cup,  which,  on  being  emptied,  filled  itself  again, 
an  ape  who  played  at  chess,  and  a  white  parrot,  which  was  dyed  black  by  Sa'dî  the 
poet  of  Jem,  and  presented  to  the  Sultân,  saying  the  words,  "  We  belong  to  God, 
and  return  to  him."  In  the  year  1074  (1663)  at  the  time  I,  poor  Evliya,  was  on 
my  journey  to  Vienna,  Prague  and  Liinjat  (?),  I  conversed  with  many  monks  and 
patriarchs,  who  all  agreed  that  Jem  was  the  son  of  a  French  princess,  who  being  taken 


24  THETRAVEI.  SOF 

by  Mohammed  II.  at  the  point  of  the  Seragho,  became  the  mother  of  Bdyazid  and 
Jem.  The  three  brethren  of  Mohammed  I.,  Issa,  Mussa  and  Suleiman  are  buried 
beside  their  father  Bâyazîd  at  his  mosque.  There  are  many  hundred  princes  and 
princesses  buried  at  the  mosque  of  Sultân  Murîid  II.  at  Bn'issa.  Chelebî  Sultan 
Mustafa,  the  son  of  Suleiman  I.,  who,  on  the  invidious  report  of  his  enemies,  was 
stran  gled  by  his  father,  also  lies  buried  in  the  tomb  of  Sultân  Murâd  II.,  though 
some  pretend  that  he  is  interred  on  the  east  side  of  the  courtyard  gate  of  Eyyiib, 
but  that  is  another  Mustafa,  who  was  killed  by  his  father  Suleiman,  he  having  had 
two  sons  of  that  name.  The  first  six  Ottoman  emperors  are  also  interred  at 
Adrianople,  at  the  heads  of  their  coffins  a  particular  kind  of  turban  is  placed,  with 
folds  and  farthingales,  after  the  fashion  of  Mahân,  the  town  of  Khorassan.  The  art 
of  folding  them  has  descended  from  father  to  son  in  one  family,  from  the  time  of 
the  Seljiikians.  Mahommed  II.  wore  the  Urf  (a  kind  of  round  turban),  and 
the  conqueror  of  Egypt  wore  the  Selîmî ;  may  it  last  for  ever  ! 

Visit  to  the  Tombs  of  Saints  at  Briissa. 

Sheikh  Geiklî  Bâbâ  Sultân  was  one  of  the  followers  of  Ahmed  Yessin,  and  came 
from  Azerbeijân.  He  used  to  ride  on  wild  roes  in  the  woods,  and  load  gazelles 
with  his  baggage  after  he  had  harnessed  them.  He  planted  a  tree  near  the  Serai 
in  the  castle  at  Briissa,  which  has  now  arrived  at  a  great  height.  His  tomb  at 
Briissa  in  the  great  convent  was  built  by  Orkhân. 

Abdal  Mûssa,  also  a  disciple  of  Ahmed  Yessuf,  came  from  Khorassan  with  Hâjî 
Begtâsh  to  Rûm.  He  was  a  companion  of  Geiklî  Bâbâ,  and  was  present  with  him 
at  the  conquest  of  Brussa,  where  he  was  buried  in  a  convent. 

Abdal  Murâd  Sultân,  one  of  the  Saints  lost  in  abstraction  (Santons),  who  was 
present  at  the  conquest  of  Brussa.  He  is  buried  in  a  convent  facing  the  town  on 
the  South  side,  in  a  pleasant  place,  which  is  at  the  same  time  a  pleasure  garden 
for  the  inhabitants  of  Briissa.  A  sword,  three  cubits  long  is  shown  here  from 
which  Sultân  Ahmed  I.  cut  off  one  cubit's  length,  which  he  placed  in  his  treasury. 

Mola  Shems-ud-dîn  Mohammed  Ben  Mohammed  Ben  Hamza  Ben  Mohammed 
Fanari,  the  sun  of  hidden  things,  and  the  moon  of  life,  one  of  the  first  divines  of 
Sultân  liderim,  has  left  works  on  seventy  different  scientific  subjects,  but  by 
God's  will  became  blind  at  last.  It  is  related  that  having  opened  the  grave  of 
his  master  Kara  Ala-ud-dîn,  a  voice  was  heard  saying :  "  Art  thou  there  ?  God 
deprive  thee  of  sight ! "  and  a  whirlwind  rising  at  the  same  moment  blew  all  the 
dust  of  the  grave  into  his  eyes,  by  which  he  became  blind.  He  was  one  of  the 
divines  who  denied  the  verse  ;  "  The  earth  does  not  eat  the  flesh  of  the  Ulema." 
Aûz-pâshâ,  Sultân  Orkhân's  Vezir,  having  a  spite  against  Fanârî,  said,  "  May  I  see 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  25 

the  day  on  which  I  shall  perform  the  prayer  for  the  dead  over  this  blind  Mollâ's 
grave."  This  being  told  to  the  Molla,  he  said  "  God  Almighty  can  yet  take  away 
the  sight  of  the  Pasha,  and  give  me  back  mine  to  perform  prayer  on  his  grave  ;  " 
and  it  so  happened  that  Aûz-pâshd  having  had  his  eyes  put  out  by  command  of 
Sultân  Orkhan  for  a  badly  executed  commission,  Fanari  had  his  sight  restored  to 
him  the  same  night,  and  performed  the  prayer  of  death  on  the  Pasha.  He  died  in 
the  year  833,  and  reposes  at  Brûssa  near  his  college. 

Shems-ud-din  Mahommed  Ben  Alî,  called  Emir  Sultân,  born  at  Bokhara,  came 
first  to  Mecca,  and  then  to  Medina,  where  the  Sherîfs  refused  to  give  him  the 
portion  allotted  to  the  Sherîfs,  though  he  was  entitled  to  it  by  his  descent  from 
the  prophet  through  Hossein.  The  Saint  appealed  to  the  decision  of  the  prophet 
himself,  and  went  to  his  tomb  accompanied  by  his  adversaries,  where,  having  saluted 
the  grave,  a  voice  was  heard,  saying :  "  Health  to  you  my  child,  Mohammed  Ben 
Ali,  go  to  Riirn  with  the  lamp  ;  "  upon  hearing  which  the  Sherîfs  instantly  threw 
themselves  at  his  feet,  and  Emîr  Sultân  undertook  the  journey  to  Rum,  where- 
upon a  lamp  suspended  in  heaven  became  his  guide  to  show  him  the  way,  and  was 
only  extinguished  when  he  entered  the  town  of  Briissa.  He  took  this  as  an 
evident  sign  that  he  was  to  fix  his  residence  there,  where  he  had  four  hundred 
thousand  disciples.  The  inhabitants  of  Brussa  had  seen  the  lamp  for  three  days, 
and  knew  by  that  miracle  that  he  was  a  great  saint.  They  all  became  Dervishes 
under  his  direction.  Bâyazîd  liderim  not  only  walked  on  foot  by  the  side  of  his 
stirrup,  but  also  gave  him  his  daughter  Nilüfer  Khânum  in  marriage.  Ilderîm 
having  built  the  great  mosque  U'lûjâmf  at  Brussa,  and  having  asked  Emîr 
Sultân  whether  it  was  not  a  perfect  mosque,  the  Saint  answered  ;  "  Yes,  it  is  a 
very  elegant  mosque,  but  some  cups  of  wine  for  the  refreshment  of  the  pious  are 
wanting  in  the  middle."  The  Sultân  replied  with  surprise  ;  "  How,  would  it  be 
possible  to  stain  God's  house  with  the  liquor  forbidden  by  the  law."  "  Well," 
said  the  Saint,  "  thou  hast  built  a  mosque,  Bâyazîd,  and,  find  it  strange  to  put 
cups  of  wine  therein  ;  and  thou  whose  body  is  God's  house,  more  excellent 
than  a  talisman  composed  of  the  divine  names,  or  the  throne  of  God,  how  is  it 
thou  art  not  afraid  of  staining  the  purity  of  this  godlike  house  with  wine  day 
and  night."  From  that  moment  Bâyazîd,  repenting,  left  off  drinking  wine. 
When  Timiir  marched  against  Brussa  the  inhabitants  being  alarmed,  inquired 
of  Emîr  Sultân  what  was  now  to  become  of  the  town.  The  Saint  said,  "  the 
commander  of  the  town  having  recommended  it  to  the  care  of  Eskejî  Kojâ  and 
Khizr,  they  must  be  informed  of  it."  Ilderîm  being  defeated,  Emîr  Sultân  wrote  a 
note  which  he  sent  by  one  of  his  Dervishes  into  the  camp  of  Timiir,  with  an  order 
to  deliver  it  to  Eskeji  Koja,  that  is  to  the  chief  of  the  tailors  who  mend  old  clothes. 

VOL.  II.  E 


26  THETRAVELSOF 

Having  read  the  Saint's  note,  he  said,  "  Emir  Sultfin  shall  be  instantly  obeyed  ; " 
he  stuck  his  needle  in  his  turban,  and  before  he  could  put  up  his  things  in  his 
bag,  all  the  tents  of  the  camp  were  broke  up  by  the  power  of  his  command, 
because  this  old  tailor  happened  also  to  be  a  pole  of  poles,  or  great  Saint.  Emir 
Sultcin  died  in  the  year  833  (1429),  and  is  buried  outside  of  Briissa  to  the 
East,  beneath  a  high  cupola ;  the  gates  are  inlaid  with  silver,  so  also  is  the 
entrance,  by  which  you  descend  six  steps.  The  walls  are  covered  with  variegated 
china  (Chînî).  The  four  windows  looking  westward  to  the  field  of  Brûssa  are 
brass  ;  four  others  look  towards  the  Kiblah  into  the  yard  of  the  mosque.  The 
great  number  of  suspended  ornaments  which  adorn  the  interior  of  the  mosque  are 
equalled  only  by  those  of  Medina  ;  the  silk  carpets  are  richer  than  are  found 
elsewhere.  The  tomb  is  encircled  by  gold  and  silver  lamps,  candlesticks,  cande- 
labras,  and  vases  for  perfumes  and  rosewater.  On  the  coffin  lay  Korans  by  the 
hands  of  Yakut  Mostea'-assemî,  Sheikh  Bekri,  Abd-allah  Krimi  Khâledı,  Timûrjî 
Kûlı,  Zehebî,  Ibn  Sheikh-dedeh  Mohammed,  Kara  Hissâri,  Hassan  Chelebî,  &c. 
The  coffin  is  covered  with  silk  embroidered  with  gold,  and  at  the  head  a  large 
turban  reposes  majestically.  Those  who  enter  are  struck  with  such  awe,  that 
many  do  not  dare  attempt  it,  but  only  look  into  it  by  the  window  at  the  head,  and 
recite  a  Fatihah.  On  the  south  side  of  the  tomb  is  a  very  elegant  mosque,  the 
four  sides  of  which  are  laid  out  in  cells  for  the  poor,  who  dine  here  at  the  imaret. 
When  Sultân  Selim  I.,  after  the  death  of  his  brother  Ahmed,  visited  the  tomb  of 
Emir  Sultân,  a  voice  was  heard,  saying :  "  Enter  Egypt  in  security,"  which  was 
interpreted  as  news  of  the  conquest  of  Egypt,  which  Emir  Sultân  promised  to 
Selim  I.,  and  on  that  intimation  Kemâl-pâshâ-zâdeh  instantly  said  a  Fatihah. 

The  Mufti  of  divine  secrets,  the  champion  of  mystic  illlumination,  Sheikh  Abd- 
ur-rahman  Ben  Alî  Ben  Ahmed  Al-bostâmî,  a  great  lawyer,  who  was  also  a  good 
poet,  is  buried  at  Briissa.  Sheikh  Abd-ul-latif  Mokadessi  Ibn  Abd-ur-rahman 
Ibn  All  Ibn  G hanem  Al-anssarî,  having  visited  the  tomb  of  Sadr-ud-dm  at  Konia, 
the  dead  saint  stretched  out  his  hand  from  the  tomb,  drew  the  Sheikh  to  him  on 
the  grave,  and  ordered  him  to  read  the  Sıirâ  Yass.  He  then  built  the  convent 
Zeiniler,  where  he  is  buried.  There  hved  not  a  greater  Saint  than  him  in  the 
time  of  Sultân  Mohammed  I. 

Mevlana  Mohammed  Shah  Ibn  Molla  Yegân,  one  of  the  U'lemas  of  Murad  I., 
buried  at  Zeiniler.  Mevlana  Yussiif  Bali  Ibn  Yegân,  who  wrote  notes  on  the 
Telvih.  Mevlana  Seyyid  Ahmed  Ibn  Abd-allah  who  also  wrote  notes  on  the 
Telvih.  Mevlana  Elias  Ben  Ibrahim,  who  wrote  an  abridgement  of  the  Kodiiri 
Sheik  Ak  Bi'ik  Sultân  of  the  Dervishes  Bairâmi.  Sheikh  Uzun  Mosslah-ud-din, 
who  died  at  Tâj-ud-din's  tomb  at  Brûssa,  after  having  read  the  Koran  for  the 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  27 

space  of  forty  days.  The  pole  of  the  spiritiuil  world,  the  mine  of  divine  science, 
Fanârî,  a  great  divine  of  the  time  of  Murad  and  Mohammed  II.,  died  834.  The 
Santon  (Mejzub)  Abdal  Mohammed  on  the  great  road.  Sheikh  Sultân  Ramazân 
Bâbâ,  buried  in  a  pleasant  meadow  at  Briissa  in  a  convent  of  Begtâshîs. 

Sheikh  Abu  Ishak  Kazımı,  his  name  was  Ibrahim,  his  surname  Abu  Ishak.  His 
mother,  Shehriâr,  was  an  Armenian  princess  and  married  to  one  of  the  princes  of 
the  white  sheep  (Baianduri.)  He  was  born  in  the  year  352,  in  the  month  of  Ramazân, 
and  was  the  pole  of  poles  in  his  day ;  he  is  buried  at  Erzerilm,  inside  the  gate  of 
Tebriz,  beneath  the  same  cupola  with  Murteza  Pâshâ,  who  gave  up  Erivan  to  the 
Persians.  When  I  visited  this  place  the  keeper  was  an  old  woman  with  a  white 
beard,  whose  story  is  as  follows.  At  the  time  of  the  rebellion  of  Abaza  Pâshâ 
some  of  his  Segbân  came  to  the  village  Kânkoî,  with  the  intention  of  ravishing  a 
beautiful  Armenian  girl,  she  being  aware  of  her  danger,  turned  her  face  to  heaven 
and  said,  "  O  Abu  Ishak  deliver  me  from  these  rioters,  and  I  for  the  remainder  of 
my  life  will  watch  thy  tomb."  At  that  moment  a  white  beard  grew  from  her 
chin,  and  she  thus  escaped  the  pursuit  of  the  Segbân.  I  have  myself  seen  her 
three  times.  The  chapel  in  memory  of  Kazımı,  which  exists  at  Briissa,  was 
built  by  liderim  ;  it  is  opposite  to  the  burying  place  of  the  Camel-drivers. 

Chekirkeh  Sultân  at  Eski  Kaplîjah,  before  the  monument  of  Murad  I.  Shâdî 
Sultân  near  Emir  Sultân.  Abd-allah  Efendi.  Sheikh  Emir  Alî  Efendi  of  the 
order  of  Khalvetis.  Karaja  Mejid-ud-din.  Karan fiUi-dedeh  at  Hassan  Pasha's 
gate.  Sunbulli-dedeh  at  the  Tatars'  gate.  Sheikh  Ali  Mest  in  the  same  place. 
Molla  Arab  Jebbâri  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain.  Molla  Ashji-dedeh,  Hassâm-ud- 
din  Chelebi,  Khâliss-dedeh,  &c.  Molla  Khosreu  Ibn  Khizr,  the  author  of  the  cele- 
brated canonical  work,  "Dm-er-u-gurer;"  he  is  buried  near  Zein-ud-din  Hafi.  There 
is  a  small  dark  cell,  wherein  he  composed  this  precious  work,  which  I  did  not 
leave  until  I  had  finished  the  lecture  of  the  whole  Koran  in  it,  as  an  offering  to 
the  blessed  spirit  of  Molla  Khosreu.  Sheikh  Abd-ul-latif  Mokadessi  the  Imam  of 
liderim  Khân.  Sâurimssakjî-zadeh  Suleiman  Efendi  buried  near  the  old  Kaplijah, 
he  is  the  author  of  the  "  Mevlûd-nâmeh,"  or  hymns  on  the  Prophet's  birth  sung  on 
his  birth-day.  Molla  Bagdâdi-zadeh  Hassan  Chelebi  Ibn  Yiissuf  Albagdâdî  is 
buried  at  the  convent  of  Zeiniler,  where  he  lived  and  died.  Molla  Hassâm-ud- 
dîn  Hossein  Ben  Mohammed,  known  by  the  name  of  Kara  Chelebi-zadeh,  buried 
before  the  mosque  of  Emir  Sultân.  Sheikh  Mohammed  Uftâdeh  Efendi  of  the 
order  of  Jelvetis,  buried  in  the  mosque  of  the  inner  castle,  with  a  large  convent 
near  it.  Molla  Kemâl-ud-dîn  known  by  the  name  of  Karadedeh,  born  at  the  village 
Siivinsa  near  Amasia;  he  was  a  tanner,  and  did  not  begin  to  study  until  he 
was  sixty  years  old,  seven  years  afterwards  he  became  Professor  of  the  college 


23  THETRAVELSOF 

of  Murâd  at  Brussa ;  he  lived  many  years  after  this,  and  wrote  a  great  number 
of  books;  the  work  "  Dedeh-jûngî"  is  of  his  composition.  He  is  buried  near  Emir 
Sultân.  The  Mufti  Azîz  Efendi  who  was  Sheikh-ul-Islâm  in  Sultân  Suleiman's  time, 
and  being  exiled  to  Brussa  died  there.  Molla  Alî  Ben  Sâleh  celebrated  by  the 
name  of  Vassi  Alı,  the  author  of  the  "  Hıımaiûn-nâmeh"  (the  Turkish  translation 
of  Pilpay's  Fables).  Sheikh  Nur-allah  Ben  Ak-Shems-ud-din,  who  having  fled 
from  his  father  to  Brussa,  accidentally  killed  himself  with  his  pen -knife,  and  is 
buried  near  Zeiniler.  Mevlana  Abd-ul-ghani  Emir  Shah,  his  birth-place  was 
Boll  and  he  is  buried  at  Zeiniler. 

There  are  besides,  some  hundred  thousand  great  and  holy  men  buried  at  Brussa. 
Many  of  their  tombs  I  visited  and  said  a  Fâtihah  in  remembrance  of  their  noble 
spirits,  but  I  do  not  know  their  names.  In  remembrance  of  those  whom  I  have 
named,  I  said  the  Siira  Yass,  and  recommended  myself  to  their  favour  and 
assistance.  I  began  my  travels  with  visits  to  many  great  Saints,  and  said  a 
Fâtihah  on  behalf  of  all  the  Faithful.  Health  to  you,  and  God's  mercy  upon  them 
all !  During  forty  days  and  nights  I  enjoyed  all  kinds  of  pleasure  at  Brussa,  and 
with  my  companions  took  leave  of  our  friends  on  the  20th  of  Safer  1050;  Okji- 
zadeh  Aghâ  accompanied  us  as  far  as  the  bridge  of  Nilüfer,  from  whence  we  reached 
Modania  in  four  hours.  Here  we  sent  back  our  horses,  embarked  in  a  light  boat, 
were  tossed  about  by  a  stormy  sea,  and  at  last  reached  Bozboriin  with  the  greatest 
difficulty  at  the  end  of  twenty-four  hours.  It  was  formerly  a  good  harbour  but 
was  neglected  because  it  did  not  afford  sufficient  shelter.  There  is  a  khan  and 
a  small  mosque,  some  bakers  and  buza  seller's  shops,  and  no  other  trace  of  good 
buildings,  but  it  is  surrounded  with  fine  gardens.  The  walls  of  the  mosque  are 
covered  with  inscriptions  by  passengers  complaining  of  this  wretched  place,  there 
is  no  possibility  of  saying  a  word  for  it,  because  all  who  reach  this  point  storm- 
beaten,  have  the  same  cause  of  complaint.  The  inscriptions  are  in  different 
languages,  all  lamenting  or  cursing  this  place  of  Bozborun.  One  cannot  refrain 
from  laughing  at  some  of  these  odd  inscriptions,  which  are  both  in  prose  and 
verse.  I  was  obliged  to  wait  here  two  days,  which  I  spent  with  ten  or  fifteen 
gay  companions  walking  amongst  the  gardens  and  vineyards,  which  lie  to  the 
East,  and  eating  pears.  We  walked  about  three  thousand  paces  into  the 
district  of  Armiidli  belonging  to  Brussa,  from  whence  a  Sûbâshî  is  established 
here.  It  derives  its  name  from  the  quantity  of  pears  (Armud)  which  grow  on 
all  the  hills,  in  the  valleys,  gardens  and  vineyards.  It  is  a  village  of  three 
hundred  neat  houses,  faced  with  brick,  a  mosque,  a  bath,  three  mesjids,  a  khân 
and  ten  shops,  the  air  is  very  pleasant.  We  spent  a  night  here,  and  in  the 
morning  the  boatmen  advised  us  to  make  haste  because  the  wind  was  favourable. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  29 

which,  God  be  praised,  carried  us  out  of  this  sad  whirlpool  of  Bozboriin.  At  cape 
Bâbâ-bonm  at  the  foot  of  Kâtirlî-tâgh  we  said  a  Fâtihah  in  honour  of  Bâbâ 
Sultân,  and  beat  up  towards  Constantinople.  We  arrived  at  last  at  Agios 
Stephanos  (St.  Stefano)  which  is  ruled  by  a  Sııbâshî,  under  the  Bostânjî-bâshı  of 
Constantinople,  and  by  a  guard  of  janissaries  (Yassakji  Kûllüghf),  it  is  in  the 
district  belonging  to  the  Molla  of  Eyyiib.  In  the  time  of  the  Infidels  it  was  a 
large  town,  which  was  ruined  at  the  siege  of  the  Arabs  by  Omar  Ibn-ul-aziz  in 
the  Khalifat  of  Suleiman  Ibn  Abd-allah.  It  is  now  a  large  Greek  village  of 
five  hundred  houses  faced  with  brick.  It  has  a  convent,  some  small  streets  and 
two  churches.  We  disembarked  here  and  passed  the  night,  walking  next  day 
along  the  sea  shore  for  three  hours  to  the  garden  of  Iskander  Chelebi,  which 
belonged  to  the  Defterdar  of  Sultân  Selim  II.,  who  having  died  without  children, 
the  garden  became  an  Imperial  one.  There  is  an  Usta  or  master  with  two 
hundred  Bostânjî.  The  Mufti  Hossein  Efendf,  who  had  been  accused  by  his 
enemies  of  ambitious  and  dangerous  schemes  was  first  exiled  to  this  place  by 
Sultân  Murâd  IV.  and  was  afterwards  seized  by  the  Bostânji-bâshî,  strangled  and 
buried  here.  He  is  the  first  Mufti  in  the  Ottoman  history,  who  hke  the  martyrs 
of  Kerbela  died  a  violent  death  ;  he  could  repeat  forty  thousand  Fetwas  by  heart. 
We  took  horse  here  and  rode  along  the  shore  in  sight  of  our  ship  advancing  by 
the  aid  of  oars,  with  our  baggage. 

Thus  returned  I,  poor  Evhya,  on  the  25th  Safer  of  the  year  1050,  to  Constan- 
tinople, went  the  same  day  to  my  paternal  house,  and  kissed  the  hands  of  my 
father  and  my  mother.  My  father  crossing  his  hands  said  :  "  Welcome,  welcome, 
traveller  of  Brussa !"  I  was  astonished  to  hear  this  as  I  had  not  told  anybody 
where  I  was  going  to,  but  my  father  said: — "  In  the  night  of  A'shüra  the  10th 
of  Moharrem,  when  I  was  anxious  about  thy  being  lost,  I  performed  many 
efficacious  prayers,  and  read  the  Suna  (Ena  Atainak)  a  thousand  times.  The 
same  night  I  saw  in  my  dream  that  thou  wast  gone  to  Brussa  to  implore  Emir 
Sultan's  assistance  in  thy  travels.  That  same  night  I  gave  thee  leave  to  go  this 
journey,  which  may  God  bless !  but  now,  my  son,  sit  thee  down,  touch  my  left 
ear  with  thy  right  hand,  and  hear  my  paternal  advice."  I  did  so,  and  he  gave  me 
many  moral  maxims,  and  much  good  advice  on  the  manner  of  my  travels, 
enjoining  me  to  compose  a  faithful  and  detailed  account  of  them ;  when  he  had 
finished  he  gave  me  me  a  strong  box  on  the  ear,  concluding  his  lesson  with  a 
Fâtihah.  I  kissed  my  father's  hand,  who  then  gave  me  twelve  valuable  books 
and  two  hundred  well-coined  ducats  to  provide  for  my  travels,  and  gave  me  leave 
to  set  out  for  whatever  place  I  liked.  I  then  also  kissed  the  hands  of  twelve 
great  Sheikhs,  and  to  my  unspeakable  joy  obtained  their  blessings  on  my  under- 


30  THETRAVELSOF 

taking.  This  gave  me  great  satisfaction,  and  the  same  week  in  the  first  days 
of  Rebf-ul-evvel,  I  agreed  with  one  of  my  relations  Kül  Oghlî  Mohammed  Reis 
for  a  voyage  to  Ismid  (Nicomedia). 


JOURNEY    TO    NICOMEDIA. 

"  May  God  bless  and  make  easy  the  voyage.  Amen  1"  On  Friday  at  Yemish- 
iskeleh,  after  having  performed  the  Friday  prayer  in  the  mosque  of  Akhi  Chelebi, 
where  I  remembered  the  vision  I  had  had  there  of  the  Prophet,  whose  hand 
I  kissed,  saying,  "  Siyahat  (travels)"  instead  of  "  Shifaat  (intercession)  O 
prophet  of  God !"  and  having  given  thanks  and  prayed  for  health  and  faith,  we 
embarked  on  om-  voyage,  saying  "  In  God's  name !"  (Bis  millah).  With  a 
fresh  breeze  we  weathered  the  point  of  the  Seraglio,  passed  Chalcedonia,  the 
point  of  Tener-baghjeh  and  ran  straight  before  the  wind  to  Darija,  a  square 
castle  on  a  chalk  cliff  eighty  miles  from  Constantinople.  This  castle  is  built  of 
stone,  has  one  gate,  which  looks  on  the  harbour,  thirty  houses  faced  with  brick, 
one  mosque,  but  no  market  or  bath,  and  neither  commander  nor  gamson. 
It  is  said  to  have  derived  its  name  from  the  children  of  Darius,  who  were  im- 
prisoned here  in  a  cave ;  it  was  conquered  by  Mahommed  I.  in  the  year  827 
(1423),  is  ruled  by  a  Sûbashî  and  belongs  to  the  district  of  Gebîzeh.  Below  the 
castle  there  are  three  hundred  neat  houses  faced  with  brick,  a  mosque,  a  khân,  a 
bath,  and  small  streets ;  its  harbour  is  the  port  of  Gebîzeh.  At  an  hour's 
distance  from  here  the  road  to  Erzeriim  and  Baghdad  passes  through  mountains. 
The  wind  not  being  favourable  we  rowed  to  the  passage  where  travellers  to  Konia, 
Haleb,  Damascus  and  Mecca  embark  in  flat-bottom  boats  to  pass  over  to  Hersek- 
dili  on  the  opposite  shore,  in  order  to  save  the  going  round  the  gulf  which  is 
eighty  miles  long,  and  at  the  end  of  which  is  situated  Nicomedia.  In  the  harbour 
of  Gebîzeh -dill  (the  passage  on  this  side)  are  tv/o  old  khans,  two  bakers-shops, 
a  biiza-shop,  two  grocers-shops  and  a  fountain,  erected  by  Mustafa  Aghâ  the 
Bostânjî-bâshî  of  Sultân  Murâd  IV.  1048  (1638).  Here  we  again  embarked  and 
after  rowing  three  hours  arrived  at  the  mineral  spring  (Ichmesu),  where  we 
disembarked  with  all  our  friends,  pitched  our  tents  on  the  shore,  and  gave  our- 
selves up  to  quiet  and  pleasure. 

Qiialitles  of  a  Mineral  Spring. 
In  the  month  of  July  annually,  many  thousand  men  from  Constantinople 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  31 

assemble  here,  and  live  merrily  under  tents  during  the  space  of  forty  days  and 
nights,  amusing  themselves  with  firing  muskets  and  guns.     Sick  persons  drink  of 
the  water  from  the  well  for  three  days,  which  causes  vomiting,  and  relieves  the 
stomach  of  a  quantity  of  offensive  bile,  while  the  lower  evacuations  cleanse  the 
intestines  of  worms  and  similar  matters.     It  is  a  white,  clear  water,  with  a  slight 
bitter  taste,  and  issues  from  a  chalk  cliff.     The  regulations  prescribed  for  its  use 
enjoin  a  three  days   fast  as  a  preliminary,  no  meat  or  any  thing  salt  must  be 
eaten ;  on  the  fourth  day  the  patient  drinks  a  cup  of  water  morning  and  evening, 
taking  care  to  keep  himself  warm  :  he  continues  to  drink  the  water  for  the  next  three 
days,  taking  for  food  chicken-broth  without  salt.   When  the  water  has  had  its  effect 
fifteen  times,  further  operation  is  stopped,  by  drinking  soup  seasoned  with  lemon- 
juice.     After  this  regimen  the  patients  embark  and  go  to  the  hot-bath  of  Yalova 
directly  opposite,  where  they  rest  themselves,  washing  and  cleansing  their  bodies. 
We  then  re-embarked,  and  after  half  an  hour's  rowing  arrived  at  the  village 
of  Ainehâjî  on  the  sea-coast,  a  Turkish  village  with  a  mosque  and  sixty  houses. 
Eight   hours  further  rowing  brought  us  to  the  village  of  Zeitûn-burnî  (Olive 
Cape)   a  port  of  Nicomedia,  where   the  ships  belonging    to  the   Aghâ  of  the 
Janissaries  take  in  their  cargoes ;  we  were  pleased  with  the  cultivated  appearance 
of  the  country  on  either  side  the  gulf,  and  at  the  end  of  eight  hours  more  came 
to  the  large  town  of  Nicomedia.     It  was  formerly  a  strong  built  and  populous 
place,  the  ruins  of  which  still  remain  ;  and  is  said  to  have  been  built  by  Alexander, 
to  whom  the  foundation  of  Scutari  is  also  ascribed ;   and  the  canal  which  was 
cut  from  the  lake  of  Sabanja  to  the  gulf  on  one  side,  and  from  the  river  Sakaria 
to  the  Black  Sea  on  the  other,  causing  Koja  Ilı  and  Nicomedia  to  be  completely 
insulated ;  but  that  communication  was  choked  up  by  Constantine,  and  Nicomedia 
ceased  to  be  an  island.     It  would  be  an  easy  thing  to  re-establish  this  canal,  by 
which  means  wood  might  be  procured  at  a  very  low  price.     Nicomedia  was  con- 
quered by  Sultân  Orkhân  in  the  year  731  (1330)  and  destroyed,  in  order  that  it 
should  never  again  afford  shelter  to  the  Infidels.     A  large  square  tower  of  that 
period  is  still  standing  on  the  sea-coast,  garrisoned  by  seamen,  which  is  now  a 
repository  for  wood  and  timber.     When  Orkhân   besieged   this  town  he  gave 
the  first  command  of  his  troops  to  Koja  Bai,  to  whom  he  said,  "  Isnim  var  git," 
(You  have  my  leave,  go,)  which  became  the  name  of  the  town,  by  contraction 
of  Isnim-git  into  Ismit.     After  the   conquest  of  Nicomedia,  and   Kojâ-Baî  had 
subdued  the  adjacent  country,  it  was  called  after  his  name  Koja  Ilı  and  Nicomedia 
was  made  the  capital  of  it ;  but  by  the  order  of  Sultân  Mohammed  II.,  Nicomedia 
was  added  to  Anatoli,  and  many  times  since  has  been  given  as  Arpalik  to  Vezh-s 
of  three  tails.     The  imperial  Khass  amounts  to  twenty-six  thousand,  five  hundred 


32  THETRAVELSOF 

and  twenty-six  aspers,  twenty-five  ziâmets,  one  hundred  and  eighty-seven  timârs. 
Tlie  judge  is  appointed  with  three  hundred  aspers  a  day,  but  his  annual  revenue 
may  be  reckoned  at  five  thousand,  and  that  of  the  Pâshâ  at  twenty  thousand 
piastres.      The  port  is  much  frequented  by  great  merchants;  its  pubhc  officers 
are,  a  commander  of  the  janissaries  and  Sipahîs,  a  Mufti  and  Nakîb-ul-ishrâf.     The 
merchants,  most  of  wliom  trade  in  wool,  are  richly  dressed ;  the  invalids  of  the 
janissaries  (Oturak)  and  Kûrijî  are  wealthy.     The  town  contains  three  thousand 
five  hundred  elegant  houses  with  gardens.     The  largest  is  the  Serai  of  Sultân 
Murfid  IV.  which  is  appropriated  to  the  Emperors,  and  guarded  by  two  hundred 
Bostdnjis ;  the  next  is  the  Serai  of  the  Pashci.     There  are  altogether  twenty-three 
quarters,  three  of  which  are  occupied  by  Infidels,  and  one  by  Jews  ;  and  twenty-three 
mosques.     At  the  old  market  is  the  mosque  of  the  tribunal  with  one  minareh  ;  the 
mosque  of  Pertev-Pasha,  with  a  leaden  cupola  and  one  minareh,  stands  on  the 
sea-shore,  it  was  erected  by  order  of  Pertev-Pdshâ  who  was  governor  here  for 
seven  years  in  the  time  of  Sultân  Suleiman.     It  is  an  elegant,  bright  mosque  built 
by  Kojâ  Sinan.     There  is  no  establishment  for  reading  the  Koran  or  tradition. 
The  best  bath  is  also  that  of  Pertev-Pâshâ,  it  is  a  fine  building,  there  is  good  air 
and  water,  and  attentive  waiters.     The  bath  of  Rostem-Pâshâ,  like  the  former,  is 
Sinân's  work.     The  best  khân  is  that  of  Pertev-Pâshâ  with  seventy  fire-places. 
Besides  the  khans,  two  hundred  magazines  for  wood  and  other  materials  are  in 
the  port,  one  thousand  one  hundred  shops  of  handicraftsmen,  and  forty  coffee- 
houses, the  most  brilliant  of  which  is  that  of  the  Serdâr,  famous  for  its  waiters. 
This  town  has  no  stone-built  Bezestdn,  but  many  valuable  things  are  notwith- 
standing to   be   met  with  in   the  khans   and   shops.      Near  the  palace  of  the 
Emperor  is  the  Imperial  arsenal.     The  houses  of  the  town  are  all  on  the  side 
of  the  mountain,  with  the  windows  looking  towards  the  sea.     The  streets  are  all 
paved  with  white  stone.     At  the  back  of  the  houses  the  mountain  is  laid  out  in 
gardens.     The  inhabitants  are  healthy,  the  air  and  water  being  very  good ;  their 
complexion  is  white.     The  woody  mountains  East  of  the  town  are  called  Aghâ 
Danesî  (sea  of  trees),  an  immense  forest  in  which  it  is  very  easy  to  lose  one's 
way  ;   here  are  trees  towering  into  the  skies,  under  which  ten  thousand  sheep  find 
shelter  in  their  shade,  which  the  sun's  rays  cannot  pierce.     In  these  thick  forests 
are  many  sawmills  and  works  which  must  be  seen,  for  they  cannot  be  described; 
they  cut  trees  of  one  hundred  cubits  length,  and  the  trees  of  Yalova  are  famous 
all  over  the  world.     At  the  end  of  the  gulf  are  salt-marshes  which  afford  pure 
salt,  and  are  under  the  direction  of  a  salt-inspector.     The  white  cherries  and 
red  apples  of  Nicomedia  are  famous. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  33 

Pilgrimages  of  Nicomedia. 

On  the  west  side  of  the  town  is  the  tomb  of  Sheikh-zadeh  Mohammed  Efendf,  a 
great  Sheikh  of  the  order  of  Khalvetis,  and  a  great  alchemist.  He  distributed  food 
and  clothes  amongst  the  brethren  of  his  order,  though  he  never  liad  any  fixed 
revenue.  I  was  entertained  for  ten  days  in  the  house  of  my  relation  Kiil-oghl' 
Mohammed  Chelebi  in  this  town ;  then  embarked  and  went  to  the  opposite  shore 
only  three  miles  distance,  whence  after  a  journey  of  thirty  miles,  we  reached  the 
port  of  Deal,  the  further  side  of  which  is  called  Gebizeh's  Deal,  while  this  side  is 
called  Hersek's  Deal  or  tongue.  The  origin  of  this  tongue  of  land  is  ascribed  to  a 
Dervish,  who  having  been  refused  a  passage  by  the  ferryman,  took  up  earth  in  his 
apron,  and  threw  it  into  the  water,  where  it  grew  out  immediately  into  a  point, 
on  which  he  walked  to  the  length  of  twelve  thousand  paces,  to  the  great  fright  of 
the  ferrymen,  who  saw  that  he  was  going  to  unite  the  two  shores  and  stop  their 
living.  They  ran  after  him,  and  did  not  desist  from  entreating  him,  till  he  left  the 
remainder  of  the  sea  open,  and  entered  their  boat.  He  is  buried  at  the  Deal  of 
Gebizeh,  on  the  spot  called  Deal-baba.  At  Hersek  Deal  is  a  large  Khan  for  travellers 
who  wait  there  for  a  passage  ;  Hersek-oghli  Ahmed  Pâshâ  was  Vezir  to  Moham- 
med II.,  and  this  Khan,  built  by  him,  bears  his  name.  We  set  sail,  and  at  the 
end  of  fifty  miles  reached  the  castle  of  Kara  Yalavaj,  built  by  a  Greek  princess, 
and  named  Kara  Yalavâj-oghlı,  who  conquered  it  in  the  time  of  Osman.  The 
castle  was  destroyed  at  the  siege,  which  was  difficult  and  prolonged,  the  ruins 
still  remain  ;  in  the  time  of  liderim  this  castle  was  said  to  belong  to  the 
sanjak  of  Briîssa.  The  judge  is  appointed  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers. 
There  is  a  commanding  officer  of  the  janissaries  and  a  Subashi,  the  town  has 
seven-hundred  houses,  faced  with  brick,  and  seven  mihrabs.  In  the  Market-place 
is  a  mosque  with  a  minareh  capable  of  holding  a  great  number  of  people,  one  bath, 
three  khans  and  from  forty  to  fifty  shops,  but  the  air  being  very  heavy,  agues 
frequently  prevail.  Its  yoghiird  and  fruits  are  excellent.  Having  visited  all 
that  was  worth  seeing  here,  we  entered  our  chariots  (araba)  took  a  south  east 
direction,  and  at  the  end  of  five  hours  arrived  at  Germab  Jihan-namah,  a  pleasure 
spot  in  the  midst  of  thick  forests,  where  we  found  a  couple  of  hundred  tents.  We 
pitched  ours  and  entered  into  conversation  with  the  guests,  who  come  here  after 
taking  a  course  of  the  purgative  waters  at  Deal,  to  cleanse  themselves  in  the 
hotbath,  which  was  built  in  the  time  of  Yanko  Ben  Madian.  Helena,  the 
daughter  of  Yanko,  being  leprous  and  exiled  to  these  mountains,  discovered  by 
accident  the  marvellous  quality  of  these  waters ;  by  bathing  in  them,  she  became 
cured  of  her  leprosy  in  forty  days,  which  was  the  cause  of  this  building  being 

VOL.  II.  F 


34  TIIETRAVELSOF 

erected.  Her  father  built  six  cupolas,  of  which  two  are  yet  existing,  with  a  large 
basin  beneath,  the  water  of  which  is  extremely  hot,  but  is  pleasant  when  mixed 
with  cold.  These  baths  are  frequented  by  a  great  many  people  in  the  cherry 
season.  We  remained  here  a  whole  week,  after  which  we  again  started,  and  at 
the  end  of  a  five  hours  journey,  came  to  the  castle  of  Samanlı,  which  was  con- 
quered in  Sultan  Osman's  time  by  Samdnlî-oghlî  from  whom  it  took  its  name. 
Its  castle  is  in  ruins,  and  there  are  but  an  hundred  and  fifty  houses  with  gardens, 
a  mosque  and  three  mesjids,  belonging  to  the  district  of  Yalova.  The  air  is  heavy. 
We  embarked  for  the  island  of  Heibeli,  distant  twenty  miles,  which  is  nine  miles  in 
circumference,  and  which  we  have  already  mentioned  in  our  journey  to  Brussa. 
Six  miles  further  on  is  the  island  Tâshanlî,  which  derives  its  name  (Hare  island) 
from  the  infinite  number  of  hares,  found  there ;  it  is  only  one  mile  in  circumfe- 
rence, and  is  uncultivated.  The  tree  Rakita  (?)  grows  on  this  island.  After 
rowing  eight  miles  we  came  to  the  island  of  Bûrghazlî  with  a  strong  but  small 
castle,  situate  on  the  chalk  cliffs  by  the  sea-shore.  The  island  is  eleven  miles  in 
circumference,  and  is  called  Burghaz  from  its  castle  (rup-yoç)  it  has  three  hundred 
houses  with  fine  gardens  and  good  wells,  and  is  ruled  by  a  Sûbashî  and  Yassakji, 
the  inhabitants  are  all  Greeks,  and  are  rich  masters  of  boats.  The  island  abounds 
in  goats  and  hares.  Their  wealth  is  ascribed  by  the  author  of  the  Tarîkhî  Yalovân, 
to  the  loss  of  a  richly  laden  Spanish  fleet  which  was  wrecked  among  the  Prince's 
Islands  in  the  time  of  the  Greek  Emperors,  the  cargo  of  which  being  thrown  on 
shore  or  fished  up  by  divers,  enriched  the  inhabitants  of  Kizilata  (Prince's  Island), 
Heibeli  (Khalki),  Borghazli  (Antigone),  Tashânlî  (Platys  or  Oxia),  and  Kanalı 
(Proti).  The  latter  island  is  eight  miles  in  circumference,  has  a  convent  and  a 
village  of  one  hundred  houses.  Ten  miles  distant  from  it  is  Kizilata  (the  Prince's 
Island),  a  cultivated  island  of  twenty  miles  in  circumference,  with  a  village  of  two 
hundred  Greek  houses.  It  is  called  Kizilata  or  the  red  island,  from  the  appear- 
ance of  its  mountains,  and  is  near  Scutari.  On  its  four  sides  Dalians  (look-outs 
for  catching  fish)  are  established.  These  islands  are  seven  altogether,  ruled  by 
the  Bostanjî-bâshî,  and  form  part  of  the  Captain  Pasha's  province,  who  appoints 
the  Sübashî  and  a  Yassakji.  These  seven  islands  are  eighteen  miles  distance  from 
Constantinople,  in  a  line  between  Constantinople  and  Yelova.  I  passed  seven  days 
visiting  these  isles,  the  weather  being  unfavourable.  At  last  the  wind  became 
fair,  and  I  entered  Constantinople  on  the  first  of  Rebi-ul-akhir,  after  a  month's 
absence,  landing  at  Wood-gate.  I  kissed  the  hands  of  my  father  and  mother, 
presented  them  with  some  gifts  from  Nicomedia,  and  received  their  benediction. 
Ketânjî  Omer  Pasha,  an  old  and  particular  friend  of  my  father  having  been 
named  governor  of  Trebisonde,  he  appointed  my  father  as  his  Kapii  Kiaya  or  agent 
at  Constantinople,  and  I  accompanied  him  on  the  journey  to  his  government. 


E  V  L  I  Y  A    E  F  E  N  D  I.  35 


JOURNEY    TO    BATUM    AND    TREBISONDE. 

In  the  beginning  of  Jemazi-ul-akhir,  1050,  after  having  taken  leave  of  my 
friends,  I  embarked  at  the  Flour-hall  in  the  ship  called  Kara-mursal  of  Fcrtîl-oghlî 
of  Trebisonde,  and  in  three  hours  time  arrived  at  Yenikoi  on  the  Bosphorus, 
which  has  been  already  described  in  the  first  volume.  We  there  took  in  five 
hundred  quintals  of  biscuit,  and  ten  boat-loads  of  ballast.  In  seven  hours  more  we 
reached  the  castle  of  Kavak,  which  was  built  by  Sultân  Murâd  IV.  as  stated  in 
the  first  volume.  Here  we  read  a  Fâtihah  for  a  prosperous  voyage  through 
the  mouth  of  the  Bosphorus,  and,  trusting  in  God,  we  sailed  along  the  Asiatic 
rocks,  and  arrived  at  the  harbour  of  Irva  on  the  frontiers  of  Koja-Ilî,  a  district 
with  a  Subashi,  a  mosque,  a  khan,  from  forty  to  fifty  magazines,  and  one  hundred 
houses  faced  with  brick  and  surrounded  with  gardens.  The  south  and  south- 
east sides  are  all  gardens.  We  took  in  water,  and  advanced  by  rowing,  along  the 
Asiatic  shore.  At  the  end  of  thirty-six  miles  we  came  to  Shila,  a  jurisdiction  of 
Kojâ-Ilî,  here  are  six  hundred  houses  faced  with  brick,  with  a  garden  to  each, 
and  a  mosque  at  the  head  of  the  harbour.  The  small  town  of  Kefken  has  a 
bath,  some  shops  and  a  khan.  One  hundred  miles  further  on  we  arrived  at 
the  island  of  Kerpe,  which  is  twenty  miles  in  circumference,  but  is  uninhabited ; 
it  is  but  a  mile  distant  from  the  continent  of  Koja-lli.  The  small  town  of 
Kandria,  with  gardens,  mosque,  khan  and  bath,  is  in  tiie  mountains  of  Kândrî 
at  four  hours  distance  from  the  island.  The  river  Sakaria  here  disembosrues 
into  the  Black  Sea ;  it  rises  from  the  mountains  of  Cutahia,  goes  to  Kiva,  a 
place  belonging  to  the  district  of  Nicomedia,  and  falls  into  the  Black  Sea  near 
Kerpe.  There  being  no  wind  we  rowed  ten  miles  further  on,  and  came  to 
Akcheshar,  a  Voivode's  residence  in  Koja-Ilî,  here  is  a  judge  with  an  income  of 
one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers.  It  was  formerly  a  fine  town,  but  burnt  by  the 
accursed  Cossacks  in  the  reign  of  Ahmed  I.  There  are  now  only  six  hundred 
Turkish  houses,  some  faced  with  brick,  and  others  of  wood ;  on  the  market-place 
stands  a  brick-built  mosque,  forty  shops  but  no  Bezestân,  a  bath  and  three  khans, 
one  of  which  was  formerly  covered  with  lead.  The  cultivation  of  the  place  is  now 
in  a  very  low  state.  It  is  the  harbour  of  Boli ;  on  the  shore  are  seventy  maga- 
zines full  of  wood  and  timber.  Mountain  on  mountain  rises  on  the  east  side  of 
the  town,  and  gardens  appear  one  above  the  other ;  the  people  are  healthy  on 
account  of  the  purity  of  the  air.  We  passed  Eregli  (Heraclea)  and  the  tower  of 
the  shepherds  (Chobân  Kûlessi)  a  small  castle  on  a  lime  cliff,  but  not  garrisoned. 


36  THETRAVELSOF 

Near  it  is  the  statue  of  the  builder,  very  hke  life.  We  passed  the  rivers  TufadJir 
and  Bârten,  the  last  of  which  is  a  great  river,  where  Egyptian  ships  enter  to  be 
loaded.  The  Castle  of  Bdrten  was  built  by  the  Genoese  ;  and  is  situated  at  the  end 
of  a  gulf  eighteen  miles  in  depth.  We  went  from  hence  eighteen  miles  further 
north,  and  arrived  at  Amassra  (Amastris)  built  by  the  Greek  Emperors,  the  seat  of 
a  Voivode  belonging  to  the  sanjak  of  Boli.  The  castle  is  a  strong  square  building 
on  a  high  hill,  it  was  attacked  at  different  times  by  the  Russians,  who  were  always 
compelled  to  retreat.  It  has  no  Dizdar,  but  a  judge  with  an  income  of  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  aspers,  and  a  commanding  officer  of  the  janissaries.  In  the  castle  is 
a  mosque  and  some  niesjids,  but  no  dining  or  reading  establishment.  Amassra  is 
situated  on  the  east  of  Sinope,  distant  five  days  journey  by  land,  and  one  hun- 
dred miles  by  sea.  It  is  also  on  the  east  side  of  Heraclea,  at  a  distance  of  four 
days  journey  by  land,  and  fifty  miles  by  sea.  The  climate  and  fruits  of  this  place 
are  much  praised.  On  the  east  and  west  side  are  two  excellent  ports,  the  safest 
refuge  in  the  world  ;  at  the  eastern  harbour  is  a  bath,  and  good  magazines.  The 
river  Kayvi  forms  the  frontier  between  the  sanjak  of  Boli  and  Kastemûnî.  It  is 
forty  miles  from  here  to  the  harbour  of  Kadoz  ;  at  the  distance  of  seventy  miles  is 
reached  the  point  of  Kerenbe,  a  cape  like  that  of  Sinope  ;  on  the  rocks  are  some 
remarkable  inscriptions. 

The  castle  of  AineboH  was  built  by  the  Genoese,  and  is  now  the  seat  of  a 
Siibashi,  subordinate  to  Kastemûnî ;  the  judge  is  appointed  with  one  hundred  and 
fifty  aspers.  There  is  a  commanding  officer  of  the  janissaries,  a  Dizdar  and  gar- 
rison. The  castle  is  a  strong  pentagon  on  the  seashore  ;  its  gate  looks  to  the  east, 
the  houses  are  all  faced  with  brick,  in  the  market-place  are  mosques  and 
mesjids,  a  bath  and  shops,  it  is  the  landing-place  of  Kastemûnî,  but  has 
no  good  harbour.  We  rowed  from  hence  till  we  came  in  sight  of  the  cape  of 
Sinope,  and  anchored  before  Shâtir-koî,  a  pleasant  village,  where  all  the  pas- 
sengers went  on  shore.  The  high  mountains  (Balkan)  are  covered  with  tall  trees, 
which  afford  excellent  timber  for  the  large  ships  that  are  built  here.  The  inha- 
bitants  are  all  ship-builders.  Sixty  miles  to  the  north,  along  the  seashore,  lies  the 
village  of  Istefan  belonging  to  Kastemûnî ;  the  houses  are  faced  with  brick,  and 
seven  miles  beyond  is  the  town  of  Sinope. 

Description  of  the  Ancient  Town  of  Sinoj)e. 

Omer  Ben  Abd-ul-assiz,  the  nephew  of  Suleiman  Ben  Abd-ullah  of  the  Om- 

miades,  having  laid   siege  to  Constantinople   without  effect,  also   besieged  this 

castle,  but  retreated  without  taking  it.     It  was  conquered  by  U'lu-Beg  the  Lord 

of  Kastemûnî,  and  again  in  the  year  796  by  liderim.     As  it  is  an  extremely  strong 


evliya  efendi.  37 

fortress,  it  was  with  difficulty  taken  after  the  third  siege.  It  is  a  free  fief  entirely 
separated  from  Kastemuni ;  a  Dizdar,  Serdar,  a  judge,  Mufti,  and  Nâkib-ul-ishrdf, 
are  the  authorities  of  the  place. 

The  inhabitants  are  a  commercial  people,  being  mechanics  and  merchants,  with 
some  Sheikhs  and  Ulemas.  They  commonly  wear  ferrâjîs  of  cloth  and  caftans 
of  Bogassin.  The  mountains  on  the  east  and  Kiblah  side  of  the  town  are  laid  out 
in  gardens.  The  town  of  Kastemuni  is  three  journies  distant  on  the  east  side. 
Sinope  is  situated  on  a  cape  of  the  Black  sea,  which  bears  the  same  name. 
Opposite  to  it  on  the  European  shore  of  the  Black  sea  are  the  rocks  of  Kilghra 
Sultân,  and  the  Black  sea  appears  between  them  like  a  straight,  wbich  widens 
towards  Constantinople  and  Trebisonde.  Sinope  is  five  hundred  miles  distant 
from  Constantinople,  and  lies  on  the  west  side  of  Samsun  at  four  journies  distance. 
The  castle  stands  on  a  high  hill  with  triple  walls  of  Shedad  (gigantic  or  Cyclo- 
pean) and  was  built  by  the  Greeks.  It  is  seven  thousand  paces  in  circumference, 
and  has  six  thousand  six  hundred  battlements,  and  eight  gates,  viz.  the  sand- 
gate,  the  place  gate,  the  arsenal-gate,  the  new-gate,  the  hospital-gate,  the  gate 
of  the  inner  castle,  (Lonja),  the  Oghran  gate,  and  the  gate  of  the  inner  castle 
towards  the  sea.  All  these  gates  are  of  iron  and  double.  The  lower  part  of  the 
castle  on  the  seashore  is  washed  by  the  waves  on  the  two  sides,  its  form  is  an 
oblong  square ;  viewed  from  the  top  of  Mount  Biizdepeh  it  appears  like  a  ship's 
deck  divided  into  three  parts.  The  commander  is  a  constant  prisoner,  for  the 
inhabitants  are  empowered  by  an  Imperial  rescript  to  kill  him  if  he  goes  further 
from  the  castle  than  the  distance  of  a  cannon's  shot.  The  garrison  consists  of 
six  hundred  brave  warlike  men.  In  the  time  of  Sultân  Ahmed,  on  a  dark  night, 
the  Cossacks  took  the  town  by  escalade,  and  the  great  Vizfr  Nassif  Pâshâ,  was 
put  to  death  for  having  concealed  it  from  the  Sultân.  It  was  retaken  from  the 
Infidels  and  garrisoned  with  fifty  additional  men,  and  provided  with  one  thousand 
quintals  of  powder,  a  great  number  of  large  and  small  guns,  and  other  arms. 
From  that  period  the  watch  has  been  kept  nightly  by  two  hundred  officers  and 
Chauches,  and  after  the  music  of  sunset  the  guards,  cry  their  "  all's  well,"  (Yeg  dir 
Allah).  The  Infidels  tried  several  times  to  retake  it,  but  were  routed  and  driven 
back  in  great  confusion,  and  God  be  thanked !  they  have  made  no  new  attempt 
since  the  reign  of  Sultân  Murâd  IV.  The  town  is  divided  into  twenty-four 
quarters,  those  of  the  Infidels  are  on  the  sea-beach  ;  one  thousand  one  hundred 
Infidels  pay  the  tribute  (Khar.ij)  and  one  hundred  are  exempted  because  they  are 
employed  in  renewing  the  fortifications  ;  there  are  five  thousand  and  sixty  ancient 
houses  of  stone,  with  slated  roofs,  facing  the  sea  to  the  west.  The  oldest  mosque 
is  that  in  the  castle  of  Ala-ud-din  which  has  a  lead-covered  cupola,  and  a  minareh 


38  THETRAVELSOF 

one  hundred  paces  long,  in  a  fair  proportion,  with  three  gates.  The  mihrâb 
and  the  place  of  the  Muezzins  are  of  exquisite  workmanship,  but  the  minber  is 
so  elegant  that  angels  alone  could  adequately  describe  it ;  I  will  make  the  attempt, 
but  it  will  be  like  a  drop  in  the  ocean  or  a  mote  in  the  sun.  It  was  composed  by 
ancient  masters  of  six  different  kinds  of  marble,  which  are  so  well  put  together 
that  even  the  cleverest  artists,  such  as  Jemshîd  would  be  unable  to  discover  the 
joints.  All  the  flowers  and  blossoms  of  the  earth  are  here  skilfully  engraved  and 
carved,  so  that  in  all  Islam  there  is  no  minber  to  be  compared  with  this,  unless 
it  be  that  of  the  great  mosque  at  Brussa,  which,  nevertheless,  cannot  compete  with 
it  in  the  abundance  of  floral  ornament ;  in  short,  all  travellers  and  artists  who 
behold  this  minber,  place  the  finger  of  astonishment  on  their  mouths,  for  it 
seems  more  like  a  supernatural  than  a  human  work.  Being  situated  in  the 
suburb  of  the  Castle,  it  is  always  crowded  with  people  whose  prayers  are  put  up  to 
Heaven.  The  remaining  mosques  are  the  Süleimânie  in  the  inner  castle  with 
one  minâreh ;  the  new  mosque  near  the  gate  of  the  Meidân  (Almeida) ;  the  Ayâ 
Sofiâh,  an  old  mosque  faced  with  brick,  the  mosque  Kefeli  outside  of  the  gate 
of  the  Meidân,  and  that  of  Mohammed  Aghâ  with  a  well  proportioned  minareh. 

The  Baths  are  as  follows : — The  bath  in  the  upper  part  of  the  market  is  a 
double  one,  that  of  the  lower  is  a  single  one  like  that  on  the  sea-shore,  Yalli,  the 
building,  the  air  and  the  water  are  equally  pleasant  and  agreeable.  There  is  the 
college  of  Sultân  Ala-ud-di'n  and  sixty  abecedarian  schools.  When  I  visited  this 
town,  the  inhabitants  boasted,  that  there  were  two  thousand  boys  and  girls  who 
had  learned  reading  and  knew  the  Koran  by  heart.  There  is  an  imaret,  a  house 
for  lectures  on  Tradition,  and  three  for  reading  the  Koran,  and  one  thousand 
shops,  full  of  valuable  goods ;  provisions,  the  white  bread  especially,  and  beverages 
are  good.  The  harbour  is  excellent,  affording  shelter  for  ships  against  all 
quarters  of  the  wind ;  there  is  no  better  port  in  the  Black  sea  unless  it  be 
that  of  Bâliklava ;  the  best  water  is  found  here,  and  the  beautiful  symmetry 
of  the  Turkish  youth  of  both  sexes  is  to  be  attributed  to  the  mildness  of  the 
climate. 

I  visited  the  tombs  of  Sîdî  Belâl  Sultan,  Sübhan  Khojâ,  that  of  Jujî  Sultân,  in 
the  green  monument  within  the  Castle ;  that  of  Kâzî-Beg  Sultân  in  the  college 
of  Ala-ud-din,  that  of  Bekir  Khojâ  below  it,  that  of  Imrza  Efendi  at  the  Sand- 
gate,  and  those  of  Hamza  and  Emir  Efendi  near  it. 

South  of  the  town  is  the  high  mountain  called,  Buzdepeh  (ice  peak)  opposite 
to  which  the  rocks  of  Kilghra  are  seen  on  the  European  shore ;  foxes,  jackals  and 
bears  abound  on  this  mountain.  We  spent  three  days  in  this  town,  then  re- 
embarked  and  at  the  end  of  three  miles  came  to  Findîjâk-âghzî,  whose  inhabitants 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  39 

are  all  boatmen  and  ship-builders.  The  river  Kizil  Irmdk  here  enters  the  sea, 
it  rises  from  a  mountain  in  the  sanjak  of  Angora,  passes  under  the  bridge  of 
Chcishnegvi'r  to  the  castle  of  Osmânjîk,  and  to  Hâjî  Haraza  near  Tüsia,  it  derives 
the  name  red  river  from  its  reddish  colour.  Higher  up  the  river  in  the  mountains 
are  found  cornelians  large  enough  for  handles  of  knives  and  daggers ;  no  village 
in  the  neighbourhood  is  cultivated  through  fear  of  the  Cossacks;  forty  miles 
further  on  we  came  to  Bafra,  the  seat  of  a  Sûbashî  subordinate  to  the  sanjak 
of  Janik,  The  judge  is  appointed  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers  a  day ; 
there  is  a  separate  Serdâr  (officer  of  the  janissaries).  The  distance  from  Samsun 
is  a  day's  journey.  Bafra  lies  south-west  of  Samsun  and  at  two  farsangs  distance 
from  the  Black  sea.  The  Kizıl-Irraâk,  which  comes  from  the  district  of  Gunâ- 
nabâd  flows  on  the  west  side  of  Bafra,  and  near  this  place  it  is  crossed  by  a  bridge 
of  fir-trees,  which  forms  a  wooden  arch  from  one  side  of  the  shore  to  the  other ; 
it  is  well  worth  seeing.  There  are  two  mosques  and  two  baths  at  Bafra,  and  the 
houses  are  all  built  of  fir. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Samsi'in. 
It  was  first  taken  from  the  Greeks,  who  built  it,  by  Ala-ud-din  a  prince  of  the 
Seljiik  family,  and  afterwards  by  Sultân  liderim ;  it  is  the  seat  of  a  voivode  sub- 
ordinate to  the  sanjak  of  Janik.  The  judge's  provision  is  fixed  at  one  hundred 
and  fifty  aspers.  Order  is  kept  by  a  commanding  officer  of  the  janissaries 
(Serdâr  Kiayayerî),  and  the  commander  of  the  castle.  Dizdar,  but  there  is  neither 
Mufti  nor  Nakîb-ul-ishrâf.  The  inhabitants  are  all  packers  and  boatmen,  no 
great  rich  men  (Awan)  but  a  number  of  Ulemâs.  Every  body  dresses  according 
to  his  means.  The  distance  between  Sinope  and  Samsun  is  by  sea  one  hundred 
and  fifty  miles,  and  five  days  journey  by  land.  Sinope  lies  to  the  south  of 
Samsun,  which  is  a  strong  fortress  on  the  seashore.  In  the  time  of  Mohammed 
III.  the  conqueror  of  Erla,  the  Cossacks  took  this  castle  and  destroyed  the 
fortifications  in  some  places,  which,  after  they  were  driven  away,  were  repaired, 
and  the  garrison  strengthened,  with  great  store  of  ammunition ;  it  is  now  five 
thousand  paces  in  circumference,  has  seventy  towers,  two  thousand  battlements 
and  four  gates.  The  river  of  Chârshenbe-Bazârî,  which  passes  before  Amasia, 
disembogues  in  the  Black  Sea  on  the  east  side  of  Samsun.  It  is  a  large  river, 
not  fordable,  rises  in  the  sanjak  of  Boli,  goes  to  Tokat,  and  then  passes  before 
Amasia;  hence  originates  the  proverb  coarsely  applied  by  the  inhabitants  of 
Tokat  to  those  of  Amasia;  "  you  drink  what  we  have  defiled."  The  water 
of  Samsun  is  called  bad,  it  is  however  clear  and  transparent.  The  houses  are 
faced  with  brick  and  surrounded  with  gardens,  it  has  a  mosque  and  khans,  but 


40  THETRAVELSOF 

no  college  or  reading  establishment,  seven  abecedarian  schools,  a  bath,  and  a 
market,  but  no  port.  It  is  an  open  place  but  the  anchoring  ground  good.  The 
grapes  and  pears  of  Samsun  are  pickled  (tûrshî)  and  sent  in  casks  to  Con- 
stantinople ;  its  cables,  ropes  and  resin  are  famous.  The  town  is  situated  on  the 
edge  of  a  gulf.  We  visited  all  that  was  to  be  seen  at  this  place  and  then  re- 
embarked  with  our  companions. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Onia. 

It  was  built  by  one  of  the  Emperors  of  Trebisonde,  was  first  conquered  by 
Keikiibad  of  the  Seljuk  family,  and  afterwards  by  Orkhân.  It  is  the  seat  of  a 
Voivode  subordinate  to  the  sanjak  of  Jânîk.  The  judge  is  appointed  with  one 
hundred  and  fifty  aspers :  a  Serdâr  and  Dizdar  are  in  possession  of  the  military 
power,  but  there  is  no  Mufti  nor  Nakib-ul-ishrcif.  The  castle  is  a  square  stone 
building  on  the  seashore ;  the  houses  well  inhabited,  the  mosques  light,  and  the 
markets  populous.  Having  seen  all  this  we  re-embarked,  and  proceeding  a  few 
miles  with  a  favourable  wind,  came  to  Fatsha  on  the  seashore,  consisting  of  three 
hundred  houses,  a  mosque,  a  khân  and  a  bath.  It  is  a  ziamet  belonging  to 
Janik ;  the  inhabitants  are  for  the  most  part  Greeks.  The  cape  of  Stephan  is  a 
sharp  point  advancing  ten  miles  into  the  sea.  The  mountains  are  interspersed 
with  well  cultivated  Greek  villages.  We  passed  it  and  came  more  northward 
to  the  castle  of  Wiina,  built  by  the  Genoese,  and  conquered  by  U'zun  Hassan 
the  lord  of  Azerbeijan,  who  took  this  castle  together  with  those  of  Gumish 
Khânf,  Baiburd  and  Jankha,  at  a  later  period  it  was  taken  by  Mohammed  II.  It 
is  the  seat  of  a  Sübashî  from  the  sanjak  of  Janik.  The  castle  is  of  a  round 
shape,  and  stands  on  a  hill  by  the  seashore,  but  it  is  not  strongly  garrisoned ; 
the  gate  looks  to  the  east.  It  is  ruled  by  a  Serdâr,  and  a  judge  with  an  income 
of  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers.  It  has  mosques,  khans  and  baths.  The 
inhabitants  are  known  by  the  name  of  Wiina  Greeks  and  Turks.  It  is  a  good 
port,  where  the  largest  ships  can  anchor  at  any  time.  We  went  from  hence, 
straight  before  the  wind,  one  hundred  miles  to  the  castle  of  Giressin  built  by 
Constantine  the  founder  of  Constantinople.  It  fell  into  the  hands  of  U'zun 
Hassan,  was  afterwards  taken  by  the  Genoese,  and  lastly  by  Mohammed  II.,  who 
ordered  his  general  Mahmvid  Pasha  to  enter  the  castle  in  the  night,  the  name 
of  the  castle  is  said  to  have  originated  from  this  order,  "  giressin"  (thou  shalt 
enter).  It  is  on  the  frontier  of  the  Pashalik  of  Trebisonde,  to  the  Khass  of  which 
it  belongs;  its  public  officers  are,  a  judge  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  a 
Serdâr  of  the  janissaries,  a  Dizdar  of  the  castle,  an  inspector  of  the  custom- 
house, a  Muftf  and  Nakîb-ul-ishrâf.      It  is  situated   on  the   seashore  between 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  41 

Janîk  and  Trebisonde,  to  the  east  of  the  latter.  By  the  appearance  of  the  ruins, 
it  was  a  large  town  when  in  the  possession  of  the  Genoese,  but  it  is  now  only  a 
small  one,  with  mosques  and  khans,  a  bath  and  a  market ;  the  gardens  yield  fruit 
plentifully.  Though  the  anchorage  is  excellent,  yet  the  harbour  affords  no  shelter 
against  contrary  winds.  On  the  west  side  of  it  is  a  small  island,  where  the 
Cossacks  concealed  themselves  when  they  burnt  and  plundered  this  town,  which 
is  not  defended  by  the  Castle.  As  it  belongs  to  the  government  of  Trebisonde, 
some  hundred  men  of  Omer-Pcishâ's  suite  took  horse  here  and  continued  their 
journey  to  Trebisonde  by  land.  We  then  steered  our  boat  to  the  north,  and 
arrived  at  the  castle  of  Purpolum,  which  is  a  small  square  castle,  situated  on  a 
hill  by  the  sea-shore,  with  a  commander  (Dizdar)  and  a  garrison  ;  the  inhabitants 
are  Greeks.  We  weathered  the  Cape  of  Zemreh,  where  villages  are  to  be  seen 
in  the  mountains.  The  castle  of  Küreli  is  a  district  belonging  to  Trebizonde. 
The  castle  is  situated  on  a  hill  by  the  seashore.  Further  on  we  came  to  the 
station  of  Popoli  on  a  great  gulf,  where  traces  of  ruined  castles  are  to  be  seen  in 
many  places.  Further  to  the  north  is  the  castle  of  Kelpe,  a  district  belonging 
to  Trebisonde.  The  castle  stands  on  a  high  hill  by  the  seashore,  and  was  built 
by  the  Genoese.  The  castle  of  Bozıır-bürnî  is  a  small  square  castle  on  a  rocky 
cape,  called  the  point  of  Bozur,  which  was  the  name  of  a  monk  who  built  it. 
The  castle  of  Akche-abâd,  a  large  district  belonging  to  Trebisonde.  The  castle 
is  a  strong  pentagon  on  the  seashore,  also  built  by  the  Greeks.  Pulta  Bazari  is 
the  seat  of  a  Siibaslu  and  Naib  subordinate  to  Trebisonde.  A  fair  is  held  here 
every  week  which  is  visited  by  many  thousand  inhabitants  from  the  neighbouring 
villages ;  it  belongs  as  Wakf  to  the  foundations  of  Khatiinieh  the  mother  of 
Selim  I.,  the  Sûbashî  is  at  the  same  time  the  Mütevelli  or  administrator  of  the 
Wakf.  The  port  is  one  of  the  most  celebrated  in  the  Black  sea  on  account  of  its 
safety.  The  torrent  of  Kalatîmâna,  which  rises  in  the  mountains  of  Trebisonde, 
enters  the  Black  sea  near  the  harbour  of  Pulta.  The  valley  of  Seredere  is 
enlivened  by  cultivated  villages,  whose  inhabitants  go  in  boats  to  the  market  of 
Trebisonde,  to  the  south  of  which  these  places  are  situated. 

Description  of  the  Town  and  ancient  Fortress  of  Trebisonde,  the  Capital  of  the 
Lezgians ;   God  guard  it  from  all  mischief! 

It  was  built  by  the  Greeks  and  was  conquered  by  U'zun  Hassan,  the  Prince  of 
Azerbeijan,  but  retaken  by  the  Greek  Emperors  at  the  time  of  Timiir's  invasion, 
until,  in  the  year  878  (1473),  it  fell  into  the  power  of  Mohammed  II.  He  brought 
forward  an  immense  army  by  way  of  Jankha,  and  gave  battle  to  U'zun  Hassan 
in  the  field  of  Terjidn,  where  forty  thousand  of  U'zun  Hassan's  men  were  slain, 

VOL.  II.  G 


42  THETRAVELSOF 

and  he  himself  fled  to  the  Castle  of  Azerbaijan.  Since  the  victory  at  Kossova  of 
Sultan  Murad  I.  no  greater  victory  had  been  gained.  Mohammed  II.  conquered 
the  town  of  Trebisonde  thirteen  years  before  ;  its  name  was  spelt  Tarbefzün  (joy 
increasing).  Mohammed  II.  fixed  his  residence  here,  coined  money,  had  public 
prayer  performed  in  his  name,  and  remained  here  three  years.  He  subjected  the 
northern  provinces  of  Georgia,  Mingrelia,  and  Abaza,  established  his  son  Bâyazîd 
here  as  commander,  and  went  himself  to  his  third  residence,  Constantinople. 
Bâyazîd  II.  having  ascended  the  throne  in  his  father's  place,  gave  the  government 
of  Trebisonde  to  his  son  Selim  I.  who  twice  passed  over  to  the  Crimea,  and 
heading  the  Tatars  led  them  against  his  father.  Being  defeated  in  battle,  once  at 
Varna,  and  once  at  Adrianople,  he  left  his  son  Suleiman  his  Lieutenant  at  Tre- 
bisonde, and  retired  in  disguise  into  Persia,  where  he  played  at  chess  with  Shah 
Ismail,  then  travelled  over  Baghdad,  Meshhed,  Mecca  and  Medina  to  Egypt,  con- 
versed there  with  Ebii  Sa'iid  Jârehî,  and  Mezruk  Kafâkî,  who  said  "  O  Selfm  go 
into  Rum  and  Persia,  and  then  come  to  Egypt."  After  three  years  travel  he  returned 
to  Trebisonde,  from  whence,  keeping  up  secret  intellligence  with  the  janissaries 
and  with  Mengli  Gerai  Khdn,  he  led  a  Tatar  army  against  his  father,  whom  he 
vanquished  at  Chorli,  and  banished  to  Dimitoka,  where  he  died  at  the  village  of 
Hawsa.  Sultân  Selim  remained  absolute  monarch,  and  immortahsed  himself  by 
the  victories  of  Chaldir  and  Egypt. 

Siileimfin  was  brought  up  at  Trebisonde,  which  has  been  the  seat  of  four 
Ottoman  Emperors.  In  remembrance  of  his  youth  spent  here,  he  sent  his  mother 
to  this  place  and  raised  it  to  a  separate  province,  with  the  addition  of  the  sanjak 
of  Batiim.  It  is  a  Beglerbeglik  of  two  tails,  but  was  given  more  than  once  to 
Vezirs  of  three  tails  as  arpalik,  in  the  reign  of  Murad  IV.  and  Ibrahîm.  The 
Khass  of  the  Pâshâ  consists  according  to  the  Kanun  (law)  of  forty  thousand 
aspers.  Two  Sübashî  are  attached  to  this  place,  and  the  Pâshâ  may  get,  in  a 
fair  way,  every  year,  nineteen  thousand  piastres,  but  if  he  is  severe,  even  thirty 
thousand  piastres.  There  are  five  sanjaks,  viz.  Jânkha,  Batiim,  Zır,  Gonia,  and 
Trebisonde,  which  is  the  chief  place.  The  feudal  officers  are  a  Defterdar  of  the 
Timars,  a  Kiayâ  of  the  Defter,  an  Inspector  of  the  rolls  (Defter-emini),  and  a 
Kiayâ  of  the  Chaushes ;  an  inspector  of  the  Chaushes  is  also  appointed  here. 
There  are  forty-three  ziâraets,  two  hundred  and  twenty-six  timars  in  the  sanjak 
of  Trebisonde,  and  thirteen  ziâmets  with  seventy-two  timars  in  the  sanjak 
of  Batum,  altogether  one  thousand  eight  hundred  well-armed  men,  besides  a 
thousand  Jebelis  of  the  Pâshâ,  so  that  the  whole  including  the  officers  amounts 
to  three  thousand  men.  They  hold  villages  and  land  on  condition  that  they 
should  go  to  war  under  the  command  of  the  Pâshâ,  which  if  they  do  not  they 
forfeit  their  leases. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  43 

Begs  of  Abaza  Tribes. 

The  tribe  of  Jajlar,  of  Erlan,  of  Chândalar,  of  great  Chândalar,  of  Kechilar,  of 
A'rtlar,  of  Kamishlar,  of  Sujelar,  of  Boziinik,  of  Kûnassî,  of  Ashufli,  of  Yokarûlî, 
of  Jembeh,  and  of  Suntija.  There  are  seventy  Abaza  tribes,  who  have  made 
obeisance  since  the  time  of  Sultân  Suleiman,  and  who  every  year  in  token  thereof, 
send  in  a  tribute  consisting  of  boys  and  girls,  camphor,  candles,  pelisses,  and  a 
thousand  pieces  of  coarse  linen  for  towels  for  the  Imperial  kitchen,  to  the  Pâshd 
of  Trebisonde,  who  then  renews  the  treaty  of  protection  with  tliem.  Envoys 
come  every  year  from  Mingrelia  with  this  tribute  to  Trebisonde,  according  to  the 
constitution  of  Sultân  Suleiman.  The  Judge,  a  Molla  with  five  hundred  aspers, 
extends  his  jurisdiction  to  forty-one  districts,  and  makes  annually  a  revenue  of 
eight  thousand  piastres. 

The  Commanding  Officers  and  Magistrates  of  Trebisonde. 

These  are  the  Pâshâ,  Mufti,  Nakib,  and  instead  of  the  Serdâr  of  the  janissaries 
a  Chaush  of  high  authority,  a  Kiaya-yeri  of  the  Sipâhîs,  a  Subashi,  an  Ayak  Nâîb, 
a  Mohtessib,  an  inspector  of  the  Custom-house  and.  of  the  fish-market,  a  Shah 
Bender  or  chief  of  the  merchants,  an  inspector  of  the  dyers,  of  the  wine,  and 
wax,  in  short  seventeen  public  magistrates  appointed  by  an  Imperial  rescript. 
The  inhabitants  also  possess  an  Imperial  privilege  which  allows  them  to  kill  the 
Jews  who  enter  the  town,  the  reason  of  their  being  thus  empowered  shall,  if  it 
pleases  God !  be  detailed  in  another  place.  The  town  is  situate  on  the  eastern 
side  of  the  Black  sea  and  is  surrounded  by  delightful  gardens.  The  distance  from 
Constantinople  is  exactly  a  thousand  miles.  The  mountains  of  the  Lezgis  are 
towards  the  south  and  the  east ;  the  name  Lezgi  has  been  corrupted  into  Laz. 
Mohammed  II.  having  conquered  this  town,  colonized  it  from  all  quarters  and 
rendered  it  a  populous  place ;  the  inhabitants  are  Lezgis  and  Janissaries,  who 
inherit  this  right  from  father  to  son.  Their  names  are,  Alî,  Well,  Khodaverdî, 
Ja'fer,  Peshir,  Fesli,  Memf,  Meizer,  Fakhzâd,  and  Memet,  with  the  word  bâshâ 
added  to  the  end,  which  is  pronounced  here  pâshâ.  The  surnames  are,  son 
of  Fertul,  Fodiil,  Fazar,  Kashûmbûr,  Katraz,  Kalafat,  Kosdûd,  Jûndah,  Aliali, 
Sürmeneli,  Pîpolî,  Kashîd-bârî,  Siâmî,  Jorkâjî,  Khângî-chîchû,  Kotûzmeslî,  A'âli, 
Gûnelî;  the  names  of  the  women,  Onıkhân,  Esma  Khân,  Râbieh,  Assieh,  Hânifeh, 
Afıfa,  Saikha,  Fâtima,  Khûftî,  Tûnti,  Gulshâkhî,  Mihrmâh,  Khiva,  Khüma,  Zâkhila, 
and  A'nifah ;  the  names  of  the  slaves,  U'ssuf,  Paivân,  Kananan,  Allah -kûlî,  Rostem, 
Apârtî,  &c.  These  names  were  originally  pure  Arabic  names,  but  are  spelt  in 
such   a  way  by  the  Lezgians,  that   they  appear  quite  strange.     Many  of  the 


44  THETRAVELSOF 

inhabitants  of  the  order  of  the  Dervishes  Gulsheni  wear  necklaces  of  coral,  jasper 
and  turquoise.  Both  Prose  and  Poetry  are  cultivated  to  a  high  degree,  and  there 
are  in  our  age  no  less  than  eleven  poets,  every  one  of  whom  is  the  author  of  a 
Divân  or  alphabetical  collection  of  Ghazels  (Odes). 

Praise  of  the  Poets  of  Trebisonde. 

Ghanayf  Efendi  was  Secretary  to  Tayem-Pashâ,  and  afterwards  to  Melek  Ahmed 
Pasha.  He  knew  the  dictionaries  of  Kamiis  and  Shemii  by  heart,  as  well  as  the 
discourses  of  Urfi  and  Tuzûlî.  Ghanayî  went  with  Melek  Ahmed  Pasha  to  his 
government  of  Rumeli,  and  is  buried  at  Sofia  in  the  mosque  of  Dervish  Mohammed 
Paslm  1021  (1612).  Alî-jânî  succeeded  to  his  father's  office.  He  left  three 
volumes  in  vei'se  and  prose,  in  comparison  with  which  Weissi  himself  is  but  a 
stammering  child. 

Form  and  Size  of  the  Town,  and  Description  of  its  Monuments. 

It  consists  of  two  great  castles  between  the  edge  of  Mount  Bozdepeh  and  the 

shore  of  the  Black  sea,  and  is  divided  into  three  parts ;   the  first  is  the  lower 

castle.,  the  second  the  middle  castle,  and  the  innermost  or  tower  castle,  it  is 

extremely  strong  being  protected  by  mount  Bozdepeh.     The  ditch  is  very  deep, 

and  seventy  paces  broad,  all  cut  in  lime-stone ;  inside  this  castle  is  a  mosque, 

barracks   for  the  garrison,  magazines  and  storehouses.      On   the   north  side  a 

gate  leads  to  the  middle  castle,  which  is  the  only  open  gate ;  a  second  secret  gate 

(Oghrun  Kapii)  I's  always  kept  closed.     The  middle  castle  is  an  oblong  square 

enclosed  by  walls.     The  gate  on  the  east  side  which  leads  from  the  tower   or 

innermost  castle  is  called  the  New  Friday's  gate,  the  second  gate  is  also  at  the 

end  of  the  same  wall.     The  tanneries  are  outside  of  it,  and  it  is  therefore  called 

the  tanner's  gate.     In  front  of  it  flows  a  rivulet  which  rises  in  the  mountains 

of  Bodzepeh  and  the  Lezgian  mountains  on   the  east,  and  passes  through  the 

tanneries  into  the  sea ;  it  sometimes  swells  into  a  furious  torrent.     In  the  centre 

of  the  tanner's  market  is  a  large  bridge  built  of  stone  by  U'zun  Hassan  the  lord  of 

the  castle,  it  Hes  to  the  east  of  Erzerum.     The  third  gate  of  the  middle  castle  is 

on  the  western  wall  and  is  called  the  prison  gate,  where  the  malefactors  and 

debtors  are  confined.     From  this  gate  you  pass  over  a  stone  bridge  to  the  gate 

Za'anus.     The  fourth  gate  is  on  the  northern  side  of  the  wall,  and  leads  to  the 

lower  castle,  or  third  division  of  the  town,  and  is   therefore  called  the   lower 

castle  gate. 

Description  of  the  Lower  Castle. 

The   north  wall  abuts  on  the  sea,  the  castle   is  of  a  square   form,  nineteen 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  45 

thousand  paces  in  circumference.  It  has  also  four  gates,  viz. —  the  gate  of  Za'anus 
next  the  prison  gate  close  to  the  walls,  leading  to  a  long  bridge ;  the  gate  of 
Sûtkhîîneh  leading  to  the  quarters  of  the  Christians ;  the  gate  of  Mevluz  which 
signifies  in  Greek  (?)  a  small  stone,  from  the  abundance  of  pebbles  that  lie  on  the 
shore.  In  the  language  of  the  Lazes,  Mevluz  is  the  name  of  spurs  or  piers  which 
are  raised  to  support  ruined  walls.  The  walls  of  the  lower  castle  extend  on  both 
sides  to  the  sea,  so  that  the  town  is  closed  against  hostile  invasion,  by  a  wall 
running  along  the  seashore.  The  fourth  gate  is  that  of  Mum  Khâneh  or  the 
wax  fabric,  because  all  the  candles,  of  which  a  great  number  are  made  at 
Trebisonde  are  manufactured  outside  of  this  gate.  Three  quarters  of  the  town 
are  inhabited  by  Moshms  and  Christians,  but  by  no  Jews.  The  houses  rising  one 
above  the  other  are  all  faced  with  brick  and  look  to  the  north  or  west. 

Description  of  the  Mosques. 

In  the  centre  of  the  castle  was  an  old  Christian  church,  Mohammed  II.  having 
conquered  the  town  in  the  year  865,  turned  the  mihrab  from  the  east  towards 
the  Kiblah.  Its  mihrab  and  minber  are  of  ancient  workmanship,  and  on  the  east 
side  is  an  oratory  (mahfil)  of  most  elegant  carving.  The  wood  is  cypress,  nut, 
and  box ;  it  is  always  closed,  and  reserved  entirely  for  the  Emperor's  use.  There 
are  besides  three  other  mahfils  or  oratories  supported  by  pillars  in  this  mosque, 
where  people  are  also  allowed  to  pray  when  there  is  a  great  crowd.  It  has  two  gates, 
an  elegant  minareh,  and  cells  for  students  in  the  courtyard  outside ;  it  is  covered 
with  lead.  In  the  west  suburb  are  also  four  mosques,  and  two  in  the  eastern ; 
the  mosque  of  the  tower  castle  is  a  beautiful  structure  with  a  minareh  much 
ornamented.  The  mosque  of  Khatiinieh  was  built  by  the  mother  of  Selim  I.  who 
was  born  here,  it  is  extremely  well  endowed,  the  market  called  Piilta-bazari 
belongs  to  its  foundation,  with  many  cultivated  villages.  The  cupola  is  illuminated 
by  candles  every  night,  its  elegant  minareh  pierces  the  sky.  The  gate  and  walls 
of  this  mosque  are  built  of  black  polished  stone,  and  white  marble,  in  alternate 
rows ;  it  was  built  in  the  year  920.  The  mosque  of  Suleiman  Beg  on  the  west 
of  the  mosque  of  Khatunieh,  but  at  a  mile  distance  from  it  on  the  place  of  Kawak, 
has  one  minareh  covered  with  lead. 

The  mosque  of  Aya  Sofiyâh  is  on  the  seashore  on  the  west  side,  it  was  built 
in  the  time  of  the  Infidels.  Kurd  Ali-beg  took  it  out  of  the  hands  of  the 
Christians,  in  the  year  951  (1573),  and  adorned  it  with  a  fine  minber  and  mahfil ; 
it  is  beautified  with  many  marble  and  granite  columns,  which  cannot  be  described 
with  sufficient  praise.  The  mihrab  and  minber  are  in  the  ancient  style,  and  it  is 
surrounded  by  vineyards  and  plantations  of  olives. 


46  THETRAVELSOF 

The  mosque  of  Wardogdi-Beg  stands  half  a  mile  distance  south  of  the  mosque 
of  Khatiinieh  in  the  quarter  of  Tekfur -serai,  it  was  raised  from  a  mesjfd  into  a 
mosque  by  Torghiid-beg  in  985  (1577).  It  has  a  well  proportioned  gate  and 
mincCreh.  The  new  mosque  was  formerly  a  church,  and  stands  in  a  lofty 
situation.  The  mosque  of  iskender  Pâshâ,  known  by  the  name  of  Kâfir- 
Meidânî,  (the  Infidel's  place)  has  its  cupola  entirely  covered  with  lead,  with  a  well 
proportioned  minareh. 

Description  of  the  Scietitific  Colleges,  Baths,  Marhet-places,  8çc, 

Outside  of  the  courtyard  of  the  mosque  of  the  middle  castle  is  the  college  of 
Mohammed  II.  with  a  great  number  of  cells  and  students.  There  is  a  general 
lecture  (Dersî-a'âm),  the  lecturer  holds  the  degree  of  a  Molla  ;  it  is  a  mine  of  poets, 
and  meeting-place  of  wits.  The  college  of  Katunieh  is  adorned  with  cells  on  four 
sides  ;  the  students  receive  fixed  quantities  of  meat  and  wax  for  their  subsistence. 
The  college  of  iskender  Pâshâ  on  the  north  side  of  the  mosque,  that  bears  the 
same  name,  is  richly  endowed  with  stipends  for  the  students.  The  reading-houses 
of  Trebisonde  are  those  of  the  middle  castle,  at  the  mosque  of  Mohammed  II., 
where  reading  after  the  manner  of  Ibn  Kether  is  introduced  ;  that  of  Khatunieh, 
where  works  on  the  Koran  are  read  after  the  seven  established  methods  of  Jeserf 
and  Shâtebieh  ;  and  that  of  iskender  Pâshâ  close  to  its  mosque.  The  abecedarian 
schools  for  boys  are  that  of  Mohammed  II.  in  the  middle  custle  ;  the  school  of  the 
new  mosque,  a  school  so  blessed,  that  a  boy  who  has  been  taught  here  to  read  the 
Bismillah  (in  God's  name  !)  cannot  fail  to  be  a  learned  man  ;  the  elegant  school  of 
Khatunieh  on  the  west  side  of  the  mosque  is  built  of  stone,  with  a  cupola,  where 
orphans  are  supplied  with  mental  and  bodily  food,  with  dresses  on  great  festivals 
and  presents  besides ;  and  the  schools  of  iskender  Pâshâ ;  these  are  the  most 
celebrated. 

There  is  a  pleasant  double  bath  for  the  use  of  both  sexes,  in  the  middle  castle 
near  the  gate  which  leads  to  the  lower  castle. 

The  bath  of  the  tower  is  on  the  north  wall  of  the  innermost  or  tower  castle  ;  it 
is  a  single  one,  and  is  said  to  have  existed  in  the  time  of  the  Infidels.  The  bath  of 
the  imaret,  built  by  Khatunieh  mother  of  Selim  I.  The  bath  of  the  lower  castle  is 
a  single  one,  that  of  iskender  Pâshâ  is  double  ;  the  bath  of  the  Infidels  is  between 
the  New  Friday  quarter  and  the  Infidels'  place,  and  the  bath  of  Tektür-seraî. 
There  are  besides  at  Trebisonde  two  hundred  and  forty-five  private  baths,  and  a 
great  number  of  Khans.  Tlie  Khân  of  Khatunieh  has  a  stable  equal  to  that  of 
Antar,  which  will  accommodate  one  hundred  horses ;  besides  many  other  Khans 
for  merchants  and  single  persons. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  47 

Of  the  Market-places,  the  first  is  outside  of  the  gate  of  the  wax-manufactory. 
There  is  a  well-built  Bezestân  where  the  Arabian  and  Persian  merchants  reside, 
who  are  extremely  rich  and  wealthy.  In  the  middle  castle  the  market  called  the 
small  market,  is  furnished  with  every  thing ;  its  shops  amount  to  the  number  of 
eighty. 

The  Imdrets  are  those  of  Mohammed  II.  in  the  middle  castle,  accommodating 
both  rich  and  poor.  The  imaret  of  Khdtunieh,  close  to  the  mosque,  is  not  to  be 
equalled,  even  at  Trebisonde ;  passengers  and  boatmen  may  dine  here  at  their 
pleasure  ;  there  is  an  oven  for  baking  white  bread,  and  a  cellar  (kılar)  for  keeping 
the  provisions  of  the  imaret.  Near  the  kitchen  is  the  eating-place  for  the  poor, 
and  the  students  have  a  proper  dining-hall.  Every  day,  in  the  morning,  and  at 
noon  a  dish  of  soup  and  a  piece  of  bread  is  provided  for  each,  and  every  Friday  a 
Zerde  Pilaw,  and  Yakhni  (stewed  meat) ;  these  regulations  are  to  remain  in  force, 
as  long  as  it  pleases  God. 

Description  of  the  complexion  of  the  Inhabitants  of  Trebisonde. 

The  climate  and  the  air  being  extremely  favourable,  the  inhabitants  are  all  jolly 

merry  fellows,  who  think  of  nothing  but  eating  and  drinking,  of  amusement  and 

pleasure.     Being  all  idle  amorous  fellows,  their  colour  is  red,  and  the  women  are 

fair,  coming  from  Abaza,  Georgia  and  Circassia ;  every  one  a  moon  or  a  portion  of 

the  sun. 

Occupations,  Guilds,  8^c. 

The  inhabitants  are  divided  from  the  earliest  period  into  seven  classes.  The  first 
are  the  great  and  mighty  Princes  and  sons  of  Princes  (Beg  and  Beg-zadeh),  who 
are  dressed  in  magnificent  pelisses  of  sables.  The  second  are  the  Ulemas,  the 
sheikhs  and  pious  men,  who  dress  according  to  their  condition  and  live  on  endow- 
ments. The  third  are  the  merchants,  who  trade  by  sea  and  land  to  Ozakov,  into 
the  country  of  the  Cossacks,  into  Mingrelia,  Circassia,  Abaza  and  the  Crimea ; 
they  dress  in  ferrajfs  of  cloth  and  dolimans  called  kontosh.  The  fourth  are  the 
handicraftsmen,  who  dress  themselves  in  ferrajfs  of  cloth  and  bogâssîn.  The 
fifth  are  the  boatmen  of  the  Black  Sea ;  they  have  their  peculiar  dress,  with  iron 
buckles,  shalwars,  dolimans  of  cloth,  and  a  kind  of  lining  (astar)  wrapped  round 
the  head,  ready,  thus  accoutred,  to  trade  or  to  fight  at  sea.  The  sixth  class  are 
the  men  of  the  vineyards,  because  the  mountains  of  Bozdepeh  are  all  planted  with 
vines,  and  in  the  register  are  set  down  no  less  than  thirty-one  thousand  gardens 
and  vineyards,  so  that  if  only  one  man  is  reckoned  to  each  garden,  there  are 
thirty-one  thousand  gardeners,  but  in  some  there  are  two  and  three.  The  seventh 
class  are  the  fishermen,  a  calling  in  which  many  thousand  men  are  employed. 


48  THETRAVELSOF 

Description  of  the  principal  Arts  and  Handicrafts. 
The  goldsmiths  of  Trebisonde  are  the  first  in  the  world.  Selîm  I.  being  brought 
up  in  this  town  was  taught  the  art  of  a  goldsmith,  and  cut  dies  for  the  coin  of  his 
father  Bâyazîd,  so  skilfully,  that  they  appeared  as  if  engraved  in  marble  ;  I 
saw  some  of  this  coin  at  Trebisonde.  Suleiman  (the  great)  himself  was  the 
apprentice  of  a  Greek  called  Constantine,  who  was  the  foster  brother  of  Yahya 
Efendi,  who  is  buried  at  Beshik-tash.  From  this  time  the  goldsmiths  of  Trebi- 
sonde became  the  most  famous  in  the  world,  and  work  vases  for  rose-water  and 
incense,  swords,  daggers  and  knife-handles  in  most  wonderful  perfection.  The 
knives  of  Ghorghür-oghlî  are  the  most  famous  of  all ;  the  hatchets  of  Trebisonde 
are  a  new  and  clever  invention.  The  inlaid  work  of  pearl-shells,  with  which 
tables,  pulpits,  inkstands,  sand-boxes  and  chairs  are  ornamented  in  such  perfection, 
that  they  cannot  be  equalled  in  any  country,  except  it  be  by  the  pearl-shell  work 
of  India. 

Eatables  and  Beverases. 

The  water  of  Trebisonde  is  fresh  as  the  spring  of  life ;  the  must  of  the  raisins 
of  Bozdepeh  is  sweet,  and  gives  no  headache  to  those  who  drink  it ;  the  sherbets 
called  the  triple,  the  muscat,  and  the  clove  wine  are  the  best.  The  gardens 
produce  most  exquisite  fruit ;  fine  flavoured  giapes,  cherries  red  as  woman's  lips, 
pears  of  different  kinds,  apples  called  Sinope,  figs  called  Bâdinjîan-Injur,  which 
are  not  found  so  sweet  any  where  else,  different  kinds  of  lemons,  oranges  of  a  deep 
purple  colour,  pomegranates  and  olives,  of  which  alone  there  are  seven  sorts  to  be 
found  nowhere  else  except  at  Damascus  and  Jerusalem.  One  of  the  small  sorts 
is  eaten  before  it  is  quite  ripe  and  resembles  a  black  cherry;  this  is  also  an 
exclusive  production  of  Trebisonde.  Another  fruit,  which  is  called  the  date  of 
Trebisonde  is  roasted  on  stoves,  and  is  exported  to  many  places ;  it  is  a  sweet 
fruit,  and  has  two  or  three  kernels.  The  ruby-coloured  pink  which  grows  here,  is 
pecuhar  to  this  place,  each  blossom  is  like  a  red  rose,  and  perfumes  the  brain 
with  the  sweetest  scent,  and  weighs,  without  the  stalk,  from  five  to  six  drachms. 

The  fish  which  are  worthy  of  mention  are  Lorek-bâlighî,  Kefâl-bâlighî  (Cepha- 
lus),  the  Kalkân-balighî  (Rhombus),  which  if  eaten  by  women  renders  them  pro- 
lific ;  the  fish  called  Kiziljeh-tekerbalik,  with  a  red  head  and  delicious  to  taste ; 
the  gold  fish,  the  Sgombro  which  is  taken  in  the  season  Erbain  (forty  days). 
But  the  most  precious  of  all,  which  frequently  causes  bloody  strifes  and  quarrels 
in  the  Market-place,  is  the  Khamsî-bîîlighî  taken  in  the  season  of  Khamsan,  (the 
fifty  days  when  southerly  winds  blow) ;  these  fish  were  formerly  thrown  on  the 
shore  at  Trebisonde  by  virtue  of  a  talisman  erected,  as  is  said,  by  Alexander, 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  49 

before  the  gate  of  the  town,  representing  a  fish  of  this  kind  in  brass  on  a  column 

of  stone;  but  on  the  birth-night  of  the  prophet,  when  all  talismans  lost  their  power, 

the  same  happened  to  this  at  Trebisonde  ;  thus  the  fish  are  no  longer  thrown  on 

the  shore,  but  the  sea  abounds  with  them  during  the  said  fifty  days.    At  this  season 

boats  loaded  with  these  fish  arrive  in  the  harbour,  and  the  dealers  in  fish  cry  them 

in  a  peculiar  manner,  at  the  same  time  sounding  a  kind  of  horn  or  trumpet ;  as 

soon  as  this  sound  is  heard,  the  whole  town  is  in  an  uproar,  and  people  who  hear  it, 

even  when  at  prayer,  instantly  cease,  and  run  like  madmen  after  it.     It  is  a  shining 

white  fish  of  a  span's  length,  and  is  an  aphrodisiac  of  extraordinary  potency; 

strengthening  and  easy  of  digestion,  does  not  smell  like  fish,  creates  no   fever 

in  those   who    eat   it,  and    also   cures  sore   mouths.     If  the  head   of  this  fish, 

Khamsî-bâlighı,  pronounced  Khapsi-bâlighî,  is  burnt,  serpents  and  other  venomous 

reptiles  are  killed  by  the  smoke.     The  people  use  it  during  forty  days  in  all  their 

dishes,  to  which  it  gives  a  peculiar  flavour,  it  is  thus  used  with  yakhni',  roasts, 

pies,    and   baklava    (mixed    pies),   a    dish    called   pilegi   is  made  of  it   in   the 

following  manner,  the  fish  is  first  cleaned,  then  cut  into  slices  on  which  is  laid 

parsley  and  celery,  then  another  layer  of  fish,  the  best  oil  is  then  poured  on  it, 

and  it  is  cooked  over  the  fire  for  one  hour,  it  thus  becomes  quite  a  luminous  dish, 

which  may  be  said  to  illuminate  those  who  eat  it.     But  however  this  fish  may 

be  dressed  and  eaten,  it  is  extremely  useful  to  the  stomach  and  the  eyes,  and  is 

a  dish  of  friendship  and  love.     God  the  Almighty    has  blessed  this  town  with 

all  kinds  of  rare  trees,  including  box,  cypress,  and  Turkish  nut.     It  is  wonderful 

that  in  the  mountains  of  Erzerum,  situated  a  great  deal  further  to  the  south,  all  is 

winter  and  storm,  while  here  are  roses,  syringas,  lemons,  oranges,  and  other  sweet 

fruits.    The  winter  and  the  air  is  mild,  and  the  nature  of  the  people  partakes  of  this 

happy  equality  of  the  seasons  ;  they  are  kind  to  strangers,  but  the  Greeks  and  the 

Lezgians,  the  Chichu  and  Chifta  are  extremely  troublesome  people ;  the  language 

of  the  Lezgis  cannot  be  written  or  expressed  in  Turkish  orthography  ;  they  have  a 

peculiar  dialect,  which  even  the  inhabitants  of  Trebisonde    do  not  understand 

without  an  interpreter  ;  they  are  for  the  most  part  boatmen,  who  navigate  the 

river  Chorogh  to  Mingrelia,  carrying  boxwood  and  slaves,  with  which  they  trade 

to  the  harbour  of  Trebisonde,  one  of  the  best  of  anchoring  grounds  and  ports ; 

it  is  open  to  the  west,  and  looks  towards  the  harbour  of  KafFa  in  Crimea,  three 

hundred  miles  distance. 

IValhs  of  Trebisonde. 

On  the  place  of  Kawak  outside  of  the  gate  of  Za'anus,  the  Pashas  play  jerid 
with  their  troops  on  days  of  recreation.  Three  masts  are  erected  in  the  centre, 
one  of  them  having  a  golden  top  which  is  shot  at  by  arrows.     There  have  been  no 

VOL.  II.  H 


50  THETRAVELSOF 

Jews  at  Trebisonde  since  the  time  of  Sultân  Selîm,  who  was  governor  of  the  town, 
the  following  circumstance  was  the  cause ;  a  Dervish  discovered  on  a  piece 
of  leather  (saffian),  that  was  handed  about  for  sale,  an  inscription,  written  in 
a  way  not  to  be  observed  by  every  body,  which  implored  the  assistance  of  all 
righteous  Moslims,  to  deliver  two  innocent  Moslim  youths  tyrannically  shut  up  in 
the  Jewish  tanneries.  The  Dervish  having  explained  the  inscription  to  Prince 
Selfm,  a  general  search  of  all  the  Jewish  tanneries  took  place  by  an  armed 
force,  when  not  only  the  two  brothers,  lost  many  years  before,  but  many  other 
Moslim  boys  were  found,  on  whose  backs  the  Jewish  tanners  had  worked  in 
tanning  their  skins.  This  discovery  occasioned  a  general  slaughter  and  banish- 
ment of  the  Jews,  none  of  whom  have  since  dared  to  show  their  faces  at 
Trebisonde,  the  inhabitants  of  which  town  are  a  religious  and  devout  people. 

Praise  of  the  River  Khosh-oghldn. 

It  rises  in  the  province  of  Erzerum,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  District 
Kerkdeh,  from  the  mountain  called  Yailak-mesjidi,  and  after  supplying  water  to 
many  gardens,  passes  on  the  right  side  of  Trebisonde  into  the  sea.  On  the 
mountain  whence  it  issues,  stands  a  castle  built  by  one  Khosh-oglan  of  the 
Chobanian  family,  but  the  mountain  itself  is  called  Aghâj-bashtâghî  by  the 
inhabitants ;  it  is  passed  on  the  way  from  this  town  to  Baiburd  by  a  gate. 

f^isit  to  the  Monuments  of  Sultans  and  Saints. 

The  mother  of  Selîm  I.  is  buried  before  the  gate  of  Za'anus  beneath  a  high 
cupola,  ninety  men  are  appointed  there  to  be  monument-keepers  and  readers 
of  the  Koran,  which  is  I'ead  through  three  times  a  day.  She  was  a  pious  lady,  a 
second  Rabia  Aduyeh.  The  cupola  is  covered  with  lead  as  well  as  the  mosque 
near  the  monument.  God's  mercy  upon  her !  I  remained  three  months  at 
Erzerum  making  the  acquaintance  of  all  learned  and  distinguished  men,  and  then 
accompanied  Hossein-agha,  the  kiaya  of  Ketanji  Omer  Pasha,  who  set  out  with 
presents  on  an  embassy  to  Mingrelia. 


JOURNEY  TO  GEORGIA  AND  MINGRELIA. 

We  embarked  in  Lezgian  boats  with  an  escort  of  two  hundred  men,  and,  trusting 
in  the  Lord,  sailed  from  the  harbour  of  Trebisonde  to  the  north.  The  station 
of  Menzil  Degermen  Deressi  is  near  Trebisonde,  and  is  a  large  harbour.  From 
thence  we  sailed  northward  to  Shana  where  there  is  a  harbour  called   Rutha. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  5] 

The  forests  are  principally  hazel,  the  nuts  of  which  are  everywhere  famous.  At 
the  end  of  some  miles  from  this  place  we  arrived  at  the  castle  of  Siirmena,  built 
by  the  infidel  Greeks,  and  conquered  by  Mohammed  II.  from  whom  it  was  taken 
by  Hersek-oghlî ;  there  is  a  Sübashî,  a  judge  with  an  income  of  one  hundred  and 
fifty  aspers,  a  Dizdar  and  a  garrison ;  it  has  an  excellent  harbour  sheltered  against  the 
wind  from  all  quarters  except  the  north-west,  but  when  the  wind  blows  from  that 
quarter  three  or  four  anchors  are  required  to  enable  ships  to  ride  in  safety.  The 
district  of  Mahnuz  consists  of  sixty  villages  belonging  to  Trebisonde,  the  whole 
mountain  is  covered  with  box-trees,  the  wood  of  which  is  made  into  handles  for 
spoons.  There  is  the  large  village  Kalipravülî,  whose  inhabitants  are  all  Chichii, 
and  the  large  place  of  Khoban  on  the  seashore,  surrounded  with  gardens ;  the  in 
habitants  of  which  are  Lezgians.  The  strong  town  of  Konia  in  the  sanjak  Batum 
belonging  to  Trebisonde  has  thirteen  ziamets  and  seventy-two  timars,  the  militia 
is  ruled  by  a  Cherî-bashî  and  Ala'i-Beg,  who  in  war  time  commands  eight 
hundred  men,  three  hundred  are  the  Pasha's  private  troop ;  the  garrison  of  the 
fortresses  on  the  frontier  consist  of  a  Dizdar  and  five  hundred  men.  The  jud^e 
has  a  salary  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  but  his  revenues  are  in  partibus, 
because  the  inhabitants  are  all  Chıchû  Lezgîs,  who  can  only  be  controlled  at 
the  point  of  the  lance.  The  revenues  of  the  judge  may  amount  to  one  thousand, 
those  of  the  Beg  to  seven  thousand  piastres ;  the  castle  originally  built  by  the 
Infidels,  stands  on  a  high  square  hill,  it  was  conquered  by  Mohammed  II.  and  has 
been  many  times  plundered  by  the  Cossacks.  The  houses  are  faced  with  brick, 
as  are  also  the  mosque  and  khans.  It  lies  on  the  river  Jûrûgh,  the  spelhng  of 
this  word  is  corrupted  from  Jıiı-rûh,  which  rises  in  the  mountains  of  Jânkha- 
Kawih'-hissar  and  Shin-kara  on  the  west  side  of  Erzerum,  passes  through  Baiburd, 
waters  the  country  of  the  Lezgians,  and  enters  the  Black  Sea  near  the  castle 
of  Konia. 

It  has  neither  ferry  nor  bridge,  but  is  a  river  like  a  sea,  covered  with  many 
thousand  Lezgian  boats,  trading  on  this  river  to  Mingrelia  with  salt,  iron,  and 
different  sorts  of  linen,  and  bringing  box,  wax,  honey,  with  slaves  of  both  sexes, 
from  Mingrelia  and  Georgia  to  Trebisonde.  From  Konia  we  advanced  to  the 
north,  and  only  disembarked  at  the  place  Kemerler,  then  entered  the  river 
Jûrûgh,  and  sailed  eastward  for  one  day. 

Description  of  Mingrelia. 

The  sanjak  of  Konia  ends  at  Khaneda  the  frontier  of  the  tribe  Ada  Khosh 
of  Mingrelia.  The  mountains  are  covered  with  box,  and  the  gardens  are  planted 
with  box-trees.     We  slept  one  night  in  the  village  of  the  Beg,  who  did  every  thing 


52  THETRAVELSOF 

to  treat  us  kindly.  We  saw  more  than  seventy  Mingrelian  villages,  each  one  like 
a  town,  and  then  returned  to  Konia ;  our  companions  went  back  to  Trebisonde, 
but  I  was  commanded  to  go  with  the  company  of  the  Zenberekjı-bâshî  of  Konia  to 
the  siege  of  Assov. 


JOURNEY    TO    AZAK    (ASSOV)    1050. 

We  embarked  with  three  hundred  fusileers  of  the  janissaries,  and  five  rowing 
boys  of  my  own,  in  ten  Lezgian  barks  called  Munkesileh.  These  boats  are  made 
of  the  large  plane-trees  growing  on  the  river  Jûrûgh,  and  consist  of  three  planks, 
two  of  which  form  the  sides,  and  the  third  forms  the  bottom ;  the  sides  are  lined 
with  reed  twice  as  thick  as  a  man's  wrist ;  this  lining  of  reed  keeps  them  afloat 
in  the  storms  of  the  Black  Sea,  and  they  swim  like  sponges ;  they  have  neither 
stem  nor  forecastle,  but  are  equal  on  both  sides,  and  are  called  Munkesileh.  On 
these  boats  I  left  Konia  with  a  good  wind,  passed  the  river  Jiirugh  and  arrived 
at  the  harbour  Sofari  on  the  frontier  of  Mingrelia.  The  landing-place  (iskele) 
of  Khandra  has  uo  port  (liman).  The  landing-place  Siiri  has  an  old  ruined 
port.  The  landing-place  Yarissa  is  a  ruined  castle  where  goats  are  now  kept. 
The  landing-place  Raijeh  is  without  a  port,  but  has  an  old  ruined  castle.  These 
five  landing-places  are  all  on  the  frontiers  of  Mingrelia,  they  are  only  visited  in 
the  summer  time  by  the  merchants  who  carry  on  the  slave  trade.  The  mountains 
are  inhabited  by  forty  or  fifty  thousand  warlike  Mingrelians.  We  passed  the 
said  five  landing  places,  and  came  next  day,  at  a  hundred  miles  distance  from 
Konia,  to  the  great  river  Fashechai  (Phasus).  The  Fasha  (Phasus)  is  a  great 
river  like  the  Danube,  in  some  places  a  mile,  in  others  but  half  a  mile  broad,  and 
from  eight  to  ten  fathoms  deep,  fresh  as  the  spring  of  life ;  it  disembogues  in  a 
gulf  at  the  north  end  of  the  Black  Sea,  one  thousand  three  hundred  miles  from 
Constantinople.  It  rises  between  MingreHa,  Georgia,  Thâgistân,  Kabartaî,  and 
Circassia,  from  Mount  Caucasus  (Kuhal-burz),  Ubiir,  and  Sadasha,  and  passes 
between  Mingrelia  and  Abaza  into  the  Black  Sea.  On  the  east  side  are  the 
Mingrelian  villages,  on  the  west  the  Abaza ;  and  both  shores  being  covered  with 
thick  forests,  the  two  people  mutually  steal  their  children  of  both  sexes  and  sell 
them  as  slaves.  We  passed  the  Phasus,  marching  to  the  west,  and  for  a  whole 
day  went  along  the  shore  of  the  Black  Sea. 

Description  of  the  Land  of  the  Abdza. 
It  forms  the  northern  shore  of  the  Black  Sea,  begins  at  the  mouth  of  the 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  53 

Phasus,  and  ends  at  the  castle  of  Anapa  near  the  island  of  Taman.  The  following 
tradition  is  related  of  the  origin  of  Abfiza.  According  to  the  most  authentic 
historians  Adam  was  created  in  Paradise  in  the  true  Tiitar  form,  and  having  after 
his  exile  met  Eva  on  mount  A'arafât,  they  begat  forty  thousand  children  all  in 
the  form  of  Tatars.  Adam  having  spoken  Arabic  in  Paradise,  forgot  it  when 
on  earth,  and  began  to  speak  Hebrew,  Syrian,  Dehkili  (?)  and  Persian,  which 
languages  were  spoken  till  the  deluge,  after  which  mankind  divided  into  seventy-two 
nations  and  as  many  languages.  The  first  who  invented  new  languages  was  Edrîs 
(Enoch)  who  first  wrote  and  bound  books,  and  hid  them  in  the  pyramids,  whence 
they  were  taken  out  after  the  deluge  by  the  philosophers,  who  by  this  means  mul- 
tiplied the  languages  to  the  number  of  one  hundred  and  forty-seven.  Ismail  re- 
trieved the  Arabic  and  Persian  originally  spoken  in  Paradise,  and  Esau  brought 
forward  the  Turkish  as  the  language  of  Tatars  ;  the  people  belonging  to  them  are  :  — 
the  Hind,  Sind,  Moghânî,  Kurds,  Mûltâns,  Banians,  and  twelve  nations  of  fire 
worshippers,  with  as  many  languages ;  the  Noghai,  Heshdek,  Lipka,  Chagatai, 
Lezgi,  Georgians,  Mingrelians,  Shûrshâd,  Dadian,  Ajikbash,  Armenians,  Greeks, 
Turcomans,  Copts,  and  Israelites  or  Jews.  The  Franks  divided  into  Spaniards, 
French,  Genoese,  Portuguese,  Venetians,  Tuscans,  Servians,  Bulgarians,  Croats, 
Italians,  &c.  Four  children  of  Menuchehr,  the  old  Persian  king,  having  fled 
towards  Erla  (Agra),  and  being  asked  who  they  were,  answered,  "  we  are  four" 
(Men  char  is)  which  being  corrupted  remained  the  name  of  their  descendants, 
Majâr.  Of  the  Arabs  forty  tribes  first  settled  in  Egypt,  such  as  the  Mogrebi, 
Fess,  Merakesh,  Afenii,  Maibornu,  Jichel  Khan,  Aswan,  Sudani,  Fiinji,  Kara- 
manki,  Boghaski,  Miinji,  Berbers,  Nubians,  Zenji,  Habeshi,  Gulapshi,  Alewi, 
Rompi,  the  Arabs  of  Yemen,  Baghdad,  Mekka,  Medina,  Badiah,  and  Omman. 
All  the  Arabic  tribes  amount  to  three  thousand  and  sixty  ;  some  say  more.  The 
principal,  most  noble  and  eloquent  of  them,  is  the  tribe  Koreish  Hashemi  of  which 
the  Prophet  was  born,  for  whose  sake  God  created  time  and  space,  and  who  is 
entitled  the  Lord  of  Arabs  and  Persians. 

But  to  return  after  this  digression  to  the  origin  of  the  Abaza ;  it  is  related  by 
authentic  histories  that  in  the  year  25  of  the  Hejira,  in  the  Califat  of  Omar, 
there  was  an  Arab  called  Basha  Melek  who  then  ruled  Yathreb,  Batha,  Aden  and 
Saba,  and  had  five  sons ;  the  first  was  called  Jebel-ul-himmet ;  the  second  Arab ; 
the  third  Kisu  who  had  three  sons  named  Kais,  Mevâlî,  and  Tai ;  the  fourth 
Lazki ;  and  the  fifth  Abâzî.  After  the  father's  death,  the  principality  of  the  tribe 
devolved  on  the  eldest  son  Jebel-ul-himmet,  who,  having  by  accident,  knocked  out 
the  eye  of  an  Arab  was  sentenced  by  Omar  to  lose  one  of  his  own.  Jebel-ul- 
himmet  on  the  same  night  took  with  him  his  four  brethren,  and  sought  refuge  at 


54  THETRAVELSOF 

Antioclıia,  with  the  Emperor  Heraclius,  who  gave  him  the  mountains  of  Syrian 
Tripolis.  He  there  built  the  town  of  Jebelheh  which  still  bears  that  name. 
Having  undertaken  some  predatory  excursions  from  thence  towards  Damascus 
and  Medina,  Khaled  Ben  Welid  and  Eswed  Ben  Mokddd  overpowering  him  with 
their  forces,  obliged  him  to  fly.  He  embarked  and  went  to  Albania,  where  he 
took  up  his  residence  in  the  mountains  of  Avlonia,  the  inhabitants  of  which  are 
now  called  the  Koreishite  Albanians :  their  songs  have  Arabic  tunes,  and  they 
derive  their  origin  from  Jebel-ul-himmet,  who  is  buried  near  Ilbessdn.  His 
descendants  became  apostates,  and  dwell  in  the  mountains  of  Dukat  (Ducato) 
between  Avlonia  and  Delonia.  They  are  of  a  tawny  colour  like  the  Arabs,  and 
hairy.  So  far  of  Jebel-ul-himmet.  His  brother  Arab,  and  his  three  nephews 
Kais,  Taf,  and  Mevâlf  were  carried  by  Khaled  Ben  Welid  prisoners  to  Hedjaz, 
where  Kais  and  Tai  became  masters  of  the  tribes  that  bear  their  names.  Arab 
their  uncle  became  master  of  Oraman,  their  father  Kisu  and  his  two  brethren 
Lazkf  and  Abazi  fled  from  Khaled  Ben  Welid,  first  came  to  Konia  and  then 
to  Constantinople,  where  having  heard,  that  Moavia  the  son  of  Ebi  Sofiân  was 
approaching  Constantinople,  he  sought  shelter  at  Trebisonde.  Here  the  banks  of 
the  river  Jürügh  within  the  castle  of  Konia  was  assigned  to  the  Lazkis  (Lezgis) 
who  are  also  of  Arabic  descent.  To  the  brother  Kisii  was  assigned  the  Circassian 
mountains,  who,  therefore,  as  well  as  the  Lezgis  boast  of  being  Koreishites. 
Abazi  got  the  country  which  actually  bears  his  name,  and  thus  the  Circassians, 
Lezgis,  Abaza,  Albanians,  the  Arabic  tribes  of  Tai,  and  Kais  are  all  branches 
of  the  Koreish  family.  So  God  populated  the  earth,  God  does  what  he  likes, 
and  commands  what  he  pleases !  The  principal  tribe  in  Abaza  are  the  Chach, 
who  speak  Mingrelian,  which  is  spoken  on  the  opposite  shore  of  the  Phasus ;  they 
are  warlike  men,  in  number  about  ten  thousand,  who  follow  more  than  one 
rehgion,  and  are  an  unruly  set  of  people.  Their  mountains  are  very  fruitful, 
particularly  in  nuts,  hazel-nuts,  and  apricots ;  they  bear  the  same  arms  as  the 
Arabs,  arrows,  bows  and  lances,  have  few  horsemen,  but  valorous  footmen. 
Their  harbour  Lakia  lies  two  journies  to  the  west,  three  hundred  miles  from 
Trebisonde,  but,  on  account  of  the  heavy  southerly  and  easterly  gales,  no  ship 
can  pass  the  winter  there.  Further  to  the  west  on  the  seashore  is  the  village 
Khafal  the  frontier  of  the  tribe  Arlan,  consisting  of  ten  thousand  warlike  men  ; 
their  harbour  is  called  Lâchigha ;  we  remained  here  a  night ;  it  is  a  pleasant 
harbour  both  in  winter  and  summer.  We  travelled  two  journies  further  to  the 
west  to  the  frontier  of  the  tribe  Chanda,  fifteen  hundred  valiant  men,  true  Abazas, 
they  are  called  the  mountain  Chandas,  and  their  harbour  Kakur.  The  village 
Khâke,  near  it,  surrounded  with  gardens,  faces  the  sea.    Three  journies  beyond,  by 


evliya  efendi.  55 

the  seashore,  are  the  great  Chandas,  twenty-five  villages,  fifteeti  thousand  men ; 
their  harbour  is  called  Chandalar,  but  it  gives  no  shelter  in  winter.  Behind  these 
mountains  is  the  land  of  the  Mamshiikh  Circassians.  From  the  Chandas  we 
marched  a  day's  journey  towards  the  west,  by  the  seacoast,  and  came  to  the 
tribe  Kechilar ;  their  country  is  like  a  paradise ;  it  consists  of  seventy-five 
villages  which  furnish  two  thousand  marksmen  ;  its  waters  are  pleasant.  The  great 
river  Passu  flows  from  the  Caucasus,  and  goes  into  the  Black  Sea ;  it  is  a  fresh 
stream,  which  aflx)rds  no  ferry  in  summer,  but  is  a  safe  shelter  for  ships  in  winter. 
Both  shores  are  laid  out  in  gardens  by  the  people  of  Kechilar,  who  may  bring  ten 
thousand  men  into  the  field,  the  greater  part  horsemen.  They  are  a  very  rich 
and  rapacious  people.  We  remained  guests  in  the  village  Hâka  in  the  house  of  an 
Abaza,  called  Zeperaha,  the  janissaries  our  companions  made  an  entertainment  often 
sheep,  on  which  we  feasted,  and  then  proceeded  two  journies  westward  to  the  tribe 
of  A'rt,  who  are  more  numerous  than  the  Kechilar,  but  they  are  neither  so  brave 
nor  so  rapacious,  most  of  them  are  merchants  trading  in  fur.  They  feed  a  great 
number  of  swine.  They  know  neither  religious  book  nor  sect,  but  keep  their  word  ; 
their  number  amounts  to  thirty  thousand.  Their  Beg  accompanied  by  from  forty  to 
fifty  armed  Abaza  brought  us  twenty  sheep  and  three  roes,  as  a  present  to  welcome 
us ;  he  wore  a  coat  called  Kilchakli-gebe-chekmani,  carried  a  bow  and  arrows  in 
his  hand,  and  wore  a  sword ;  he  was  a  stout  young  fellow.  All  his  servants  wore 
long  hair  hke  himself.  The  landing-place  of  this  tribe  is  called  A'rtlar ;  we 
passed  a  night  there  as  guests ;  it  is  an  open  place,  ships  therefore  cannot  lie 
there  in  the  winter.  Another  landing-place  is  called  Liush,  where  ships  lie  for  six 
months. 

To  the  north,  in  the  midst  of  mountains,  is  Sadsha,  the  land  belonging  to 
Sidî  Ahmed  Pasha ;  the  inhabitants  speak  well  the  language  of  both  the  Abaza 
and  the  Circassians ;  to  the  latter  their  country  adjoins,  they  are  seven  thousand 
brave  stout  men.  The  Abaza  and  Circassians  are  continually  on  their  guard,  but 
keep  up  good  intelligence  by  trading  together  to  the  landing-place  at  A'rt  with 
slaves  and  wax.  The  Circassians  (^Takaku)  also  come  in  ships,  and  trade  in  safety. 
We  went  three  stations  further  to  the  west,  along  the  sea-coast,  through  a  woody 
tract,  with  high  mountains,  between  which  are  many  cultivated  villages,  to  the 
tribe  of  Kamish,  ten  thousand  brave  men  ;  they  defeated  the  tribe  of  A'rt  many 
times,  and  took  their  Begs  prisoners,  because  these  Abazas  steal  each  other's 
children,  and  a  man  who  does  not  steal  and  plunder  is  thought  to  be  bad 
company,  so  that  they  give  him  not  their  daughters  in  marriage.  In  these 
mountains  of  Kamish  swine  are  fed  to  the  size  of  asses ;  the  landing-place  is  not 
much  frequented  on  account  of  the  riotous  character  of  the  people.     Among  these 


56  THETRAVELSOF 

people  of  Kâmish  the  children  of  the  Abaza  are  sent  from  Constantinople  and 
Cairo ;  they  have  a  Mesjid,  the  air  is  pleasant,  the  villages  all  face  the  Kiblah  and 
the  south.  The  market  is  held  at  the  landing-place.  Three  stations  further  to 
the  west  we  came  to  the  tribe  of  Svljalar,  ten  thousand  brave  men ;  the  ground 
being  very  rocky  there  are  few  houses.  There  is  a  landing  place,  but  I  do  not 
know  its  name.  We  remained  as  guests  one  night  in  the  village  of  Hâdeka.  As 
there  happened  to  be  a  wedding,  they  feasted  us  with  a  great  many  dishes,  fine 
girls  and  boys  waited  on  us,  and  the  next  day  the  Aghâ  of  Konia,  our  companion, 
gave  to  the  master  of  the  house  a  turban,  which  was  valued  as  much  as  though  it 
had  been  a  crown,  because  having  neither  market,  nor  khân,  nor  bath,  nor  church, 
they  know  nothing  of  cultivated  manners.  Their  villages  of  from  forty  to  fifty 
houses  are  situated  in  the  mountains.  Ships  of  all  countries  bring  powder,  lead, 
muskets,  arrows,  bows,  swords,  shields,  lances  and  other  weapons,  old  shoes, 
borders  of  cloth,  linen,  bogassin,  kettles,  hooks,  salt,  soap  and  similar  articles,  and 
take  in  exchange,  without  using  money,  slaves,  butter,  wax  and  honey.  From  the 
Suchas  we  went  further  on  two  stations  to  the  west,  along  the  seashore,  to  the 
tribe  of  Dembe,  who  furnish  two  thousand  armed  men.  We  remained  three  days 
at  their  landing-place  and  exchanged  our  old  cloth  for  slave  girls  and  boys.  I 
myself  bought  an  Ab<Cza  boy.  The  fourth  day  we  marched  two  journies  to  the 
west  to  the  tribe  of  Bozdiik,  the  Beg  of  which  commands  seven  thousand  men. 
We  found  at  their  landing-place  ten  ships  from  Constantinople  and  many  of  our 
friends,  the  meeting  with  whom  was  a  great  treat  to  us.  Mengeli-geraf  Khân 
led  three  thousand  men  of  the  Bozduk  to  the  war  of  Astrachan,  which  being 
ended  he  gave  them  a  Yiird  (Camp)  in  the  Circassian  mountains  of  Obur  where 
they  remained.  They  are  a  brave  people  speaking  the  Abaza  and  Circassian 
language.  The  Bozdiik  of  Abaza  and  Circassia  are  separated  by  Mount  Obur ; 
the  distance  between  them  is  three  stations.  They  mutually  steal  each  others 
children  and  sell  them.  Two  journies  further  along  the  seacoast  is  the  old 
ruined  castle  of  Osowish,  where  we  passed  a  night  as  guests.  The  inhabitants 
make  bows  and  arrows;  the  Beg  has  three  thousand  men  in  his  service,  who 
carry  muskets ;  the  landing-place  of  the  castle  is  called  Girmen  Sowish.  Bears, 
swine,  foxes,  jackals,  and  woodcocks  are  found  in  great  numbers  in  the  moun- 
tains. These  Abaza  people  have  a  strange  mode  of  burying  their  Begs ;  they 
put  the  body  into  a  wooden  coffin,  \vhich  they  nail  on  to  the  branches  of  some 
high  tree  and  make  a  hole  in  the  coffin  near  the  head,  that  the  Beg,  as  they 
say,  may  look  up  to  Heaven :  bees  enter  the  coffin  and  make  honey,  entirely 
wrapping  the  body  up  in  it ;  when  the  season  comes  they  open  the  coffin,  take 
the  honey  and  sell  it,  much  caution,  therefore,  is  required  to  be  used  in  pur- 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  57 

chasing  the  honey  of  the  Abâzas.  We  here  bought  some  more  slave  boys,  and 
went  two  journies  towards  the  west  to  the  tribe  of  Ashagali,  whose  Begs  can 
bring  two  thousand  brave  men  into  the  field,  but  they  are  all  thieves,  and  dreaded 
by  the  Ab^zas  themselves.  There  is  also  a  ruined  castle  here,  the  landing-place 
of  which  is  called  Ashagali,  much  frequented  by  the  ships  of  KafFa  and  Taman, 
but  they  cannot  remain  here  in  the  winter.  One  journey  further  to  the  west,  is 
the  village  of  A'atima  belonging  to  the  Ashaghlis  ;  there  are  amongst  them  many 
Mussulmans  of  the  Abaza  of  Top-khanah.  From  hence  Circassia  is  distant  but  a 
day's  journey.  Two  journies  further  is  the  tribe  of  Sûksû,  their  Begs  command 
three  thousand  armed  men  ;  they  have  horses  of  high  breeding.  The  landing- 
place  is  Hârdena.  The  river  called  Suk  has  no  ferry,  it  issues  from  the  mountains 
of  Circassia  and  flows  into  the  Black  Sea  ;  there  are  some  wealthy  persons  amongst 
them.  Two  journies  further  on  is  the  tribe  of  Kûtassî,  whose  Begs  command  seven 
thousand  armed  men.  They  have  magazines  covered  with  mats.  In  the  port  a 
great  number  of  ships  from  KafFa  and  Taman  are  found.  We  met  some  acquain- 
tances here  from  the  Crimea,  the  horsemen  of  which  country  are  in  continual  inter- 
course with  Circassia.  On  account  of  the  facility  of  communication  the  people  are 
wealthy  ;  they  also  sow  corn,  the  rest  of  the  Abaza  sow  millet,  which  multiplies  a 
hundred  fold.  The  houses  of  the  Kûtassî  are  covered  with  reed ;  a  cluster  of  ten 
houses  is  called  a  Kabak,  the  four  sides  are  circumvallated  like  a  castle,  and  their 
dogs  watch  like  lions  around  it,  they  are  obliged  to  do  so,  as  all  their  dwellings  are 
in  the  woods,  and  each  village  is  afraid  of  the  other.  The  Kûtassî  are  bounded 
by  the  Shana  Circassians ;  they  are  only  separated  by  a  mountain,  which  is  a  day's 
journey  across  ;  they  speak  the  Circassian  language.  Thus  the  country  of  the 
Abâzas  extends  from  the  Phasus  along  the  seacoast  forty  days  journey  in  length, 
and  in  breadth  from  five  days  journey  down  to  one,  as  is  the  case  in  the  distance 
between  the  Kûtassî  Abaza  and  the  Shana  Circassians,  These  forty  days  journey 
are  marked  by  forty  large  rivers,  which  issue  from  the  mountains  situated  between 
the  Abaza  and  Circassians,  and  run  into  the  Black  Sea.  Altogether  seventy  high 
mountains,  with  two  thousand  villages,  of  which  I  know  nothing,  as  I  did  not  visit 
them.  Within  this  country  are  some  hundred  thousand  men,  without  law  or 
religion,  who,  however,  if  you  call  them  infidels  will  kill  you,  and  if  you  call  them 
Moslims  are  delighted,  but  if  they  become  real  IVIoslims,  they  are  very  good  ones. 
They  are  a  wild  roving  people  descending  from  the  Arabs,  Koreishites,  from 
Abaza, 

The  tribes  of  Abaza  in  the  mountains  are  the  Posûkhî,  seven  thousand  turbulent 
men ;  Akhchissî,  ten  thousand  men ;  Besleb,  seven  thousand  five  hundred  brave 
people  ;  Mukellebeh,  thirty  thousand  men ;  Waipigha,  one  thousand  men  ;  Jagh- 

VOL,  II,  I 


58  THETRAVELSOF 

ras,  eight  hundred  weak  men ;  Ala  Koreish,  five  hundred  men  ;  Chichakores, 
three  tliousand  men  ;  Macha,  two  thousand  men  ;  and  Panchâresh,  four  thousand 
men ;  these  ten  turbulent  tribes  never  mix  with  the  Abazas  of  the  coast.  The 
bravest  and  best  of  them  are  the  Sadasha.  On  the  coast  and  in  the  mountains 
there  are  altogether  twenty-five  tribes. 

Specimen  of  the  Ahdza  Language. 
One,  if;  two,  weba ;  three,  ikhha ;  four,  beslina  ;  five,  khoba  ;  s\x,fiba  ;  seven, 
bezba ;  eight,  aha ;  nine,  sheba ;  ten,  zoba ;  eleven,  akzuba ;  twelve,  webazoba. 
Come,  wai ;  go,  üchi ;  seat,  otûi ;  get  up,  okil ;  don't  go,  omchin ;  boy,  arish  ;  I 
go,  sichdb ;  wife,  abharesh  ;  I  don't  go,  sikijdn  ;  why,  ûzû. 

Specimen  of  the  Sadasha  Abdza. 

One,  weh  ;  two,  toka ;  three,  sitte  ;  four,  pali ;  five,  ashü ;  six,  korn ;  seven, 
ipli;  eight,  ogha  ;  nine,  ipfi ;  ten,  zû ;  eleven,  ivehzti ;  twelve,  tokazü.  Bread, 
sakha  ;  meat,  gha ;  water,  beri ;  cheese,  feh ;  curd,  chehwdh  ;  pear,  kha  ;  raisin, 
mosû ;  figs,  lakhmak ;  chesnuts,  akshii ;  salt,  laka;  seat,  otuz;  get  up,  odeto ; 
don't  go,  onike ;  I  go,  sikü  ;  where  do  you  go,  sioken  ;  I  am  busy,  I  go,  süwü 
shakagh  sikü  ;  bring  a  girl,  zinje  doko  ;  I  found  no  girl,  but  a  boy,  zinje  dokalmet 
zeni  okhad,  Sec. 

There  are  many  other  languages  and  dialects  besides,  but  I  have  quoted  only  some 
words  which  I  acquired  in  the  course  of  trading ;  I  have  written  them  as  I  could, 
but  there  is  a  great  difference  between  the  speaking  and  writing,  the  pronunci- 
ation being  extremely  difficult,  like  the  chirping  of  birds.  A  great  deal  of  judgment 
and  sagacity  is  required  to  converse  with  them,  but  a  traveller  who  knows  some- 
thing of  the  world,  and  of  God,  and  desires  to  travel  quietly,  must  have  a  sufficient 
idea  of  every  language  to  understand  whether  good  or  evil  is  intended  to  him, 
whether  they  are  going  to  offer  him  bread  or  a  box  of  the  ear ;  the  proverb  says, 
"  Men  speak  according  to  their  intellect,  and,  therefore,  it  is  very  prudent  to 
learn  some  languages  for  the  use  of  the  world  ;"  such  a  man  easily  makes  his  way 
through  strange  countries,  and  returns  safely  into  port. 

We  left  the  harbour  of  the  Kûtassî,  and  at  the  end  of  two  days  journey  along 
the  seacoast,  reached  the  castle  of  Anapa.  It  is  said  that  Alexander  the  Great, 
when  commanded  by  God  to  build  the  wall  of  Gog  and  Magog,  arrived  at  this  place, 
he  was  so  much  pleased  with  its  air  and  situation,  that  he  built  here  a  pentagon 
castle  of  immense  stones  (Shedâdî,  Cyclopean) ;  the  room  of  the  divân  was  paved 
with  rubies,  emeralds,  turquoises  and  cornelians,  and  for  that  reason  was  called  the 
Castle  Kevherpai  Anapai.     It  afterwards  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Genoese,  and 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  59 

when  Timur  laid  waste  the  towns  of  Dadiân,  Ileshdek,  and  other  towns  amounting 
altogether  to  the  number  of  seven  hundred,  in  his  expedition  against  Tokhatmish 
the  Lord  of  Crimea,  he  also  wasted  the  suburbs  of  the  castle  of  Anapa,  but  the 
castle  itself  was  spared.  In  the  reign  of  Sultân  Bayazîd  II.,  the  great  Vezir  Gedek 
Ahmed  Pâshâ,  leading  the  expedition  against  KafFa,  took  this  castle  also  from  the 
Genoese,  and  put  troops  into  it.  It  is  situated  at  the  extremity  of  the  Cape  which 
divides  the  territory  of  the  Abdza  from  Circassia,  on  a  clay  cliff;  it  is  a  strong 
castle  without  a  garrison,  and  has  been  several  times  ransacked  by  the  Cossacks  of 
the  Tanais.  Outside  of  the  castle  are  one  hundred  and  fifty  houses  built  of  reed; 
this  village  is  called  Kabak.  North  of  the  castle  are  the  mountains  of  Anapa.  The 
ships  which  go  to  Assov  sail  past  these  mountains,  which  extend  as  far  as  the 
Cossacks  of  Assov.  The  castle  of  Anapa  is  well  built,  and  in  such  good  preserva- 
tion, that  it  appears  as  if  it  had  just  come  out  of  the  hands  of  the  builder.  Sheep 
and  goats  are  kept  inside  during  the  winter.  According  to  the  description  of 
Demir-oghli  Osman  Pâshâ,  Anapa  is  the  seat  of  a  Voivode  of  the  sanjak  of  Tamân 
in  the  province  of  CafFa.  The  people  of  Shefâkî,  which  is  the  name  of  the 
inhabitants,  only  pay  their  tithes  at  the  point  of  the  halberd,  and  are  three 
hundred  rebellious  subjects.  This  castle  has  a  large  port  where  a  thousand  ships 
tied  together  with  one  rope  may  ride  in  safety.  It  is  a  large  harbour,  sheltered 
against  the  wind  from  all  quarters.  There  is  no  port  like  it  in  the  Black  Sea ;  a 
kind  of  pearl  was  formerly  fished  for  here ;  the  shells  still  lie  on  the  shore  ; 
another  reason  why  the  castle  is  called  Kevhergân  (jewel-mine).  The  Russians 
anchor  here  every  year,  without  the  least  apprehension,  and  fish  for  pearls.  If 
this  castle  was  put  into  good  condition,  with  a  sufficient  garrison  and  ammunition, 
it  would  be  easy  to  keep  all  Abaza  and  Circassia  in  complete  obedience.  The 
Noghais  also  bring  merchandise  to  this  port  in  complete  security. 

While  I,  poor  Evliya,  was  remaining  at  Anapa  with  the  Yenicheri-agassi  of 
Konia,  the  Imperial  fleet  made  its  appearance  in  the  Black  Sea,  and  came  to 
anchor  at  noon  in  the  port  of  Anapa.  They  stayed  three  days,  during  which 
time  all  the  small  craft  which  had  been  left  behind  arrived,  and  took  in  water. 
I  and  the  Aghâ  of  Konia  waited  on  the  Kaima-kâm  of  the  Aghâ  of  the  Janissaries 
with  some  presents.  I  then  waited  on  the  Lord  High  Admiral  Deli  Hossein 
Pâshâ,  who  assigned  me  a  tent  and  rations,  made  me  his  Miiezzin  and  gave  me 
a  passage  on  board  the  galley  of  his  Kiaya  Well.  On  the  following  day  the  12th 
Sha'bân,  1053,  the  Imperial  flag  was  hoisted,  and  at  noon,  the  gun  for  departure 
being  fired,  we  left  Anapa  and  made  sail  for  Assov. 

Sultân  Murad  IV.  had  planned  a  great  expedition  against  the  Maltese,  who 
alone   remained   to  be   subdued  after  the  conquest  of  Baghdad,  when   he  was 


QQ  THETRAVELSOF 

removed  by  death ;  amongst  the  fleet  fitted  out  for  the  purpose  there  were  two 
immense  large  ships,  called  Kara  Maona,  of  three  hundred  guns.  After  his  death 
the  Infidels  everywhere  raised  their  heads  against  the  Ottoman  Empire,  and 
the  Khan  of  the  Crimea  reported  to  Kara  Mustafa  Pâshâ,  the  great  Vezir  of 
Sultân  Ibrahîm,  that  the  Russians  had  overran  and  plundered  the  districts  of 
Crimea  and  Assov.  At  last  one  hundred  thousand  Cossacks  took  the  fortress 
of  Assov  after  a  siege  of  forty  days.  Eighty  thousand  Cossacks  remained  in 
possession  of  it,  and  one  hundred  and  fifty  boats,  maimed  by  the  rest,  infested  all 
the  shores  of  the  Black  sea.  This  news  having  spread  to  Constantinople,  Imperial 
rescripts  were  sent  throughout  the  whole  of  Rumeli.  Kojâ  Gurjî  Canaan  Pâshâ, 
the  governor  of  Ozakov,  and  the  Governor  of  Rumeli  with  twenty-eight  sanjak 
Begs,  forty  thousand  Tatars  of  Biijak,  and  forty  thousand  infidels  of  Moldavia 
and  Valachia,  and  twenty  thousand  Transylvanians,  surrounded  the  fortress  of 
Assov  on  the  land  side.  On  the  seaside  came  the  Imperial  fleet  of  one  hundred 
and  fifty  galleys,  as  many  frigates,  two  hundred  shaikas  and  karamursal,  alto- 
gether four  hundred  ships  having  forty  thousand  men  on  board,  which  had 
weighed  anchor  in  the  port  of  Anapa,  passed  the  mouth  of  the  river  Kuban,  and 
the  castle  of  Tamân  ;  on  our  left  hand  was  the  Crimea  with  the  point  of  Kilissejik, 
and  opposite  on  the  right,  the  point  Chucka  on  the  peninsula  of  Taman,  These 
two  points  are  but  a  mile  distant,  and  the  inside  of  this  strait  is  called  the  sea 
of  Assov.  We  entered  it  with  a  favourable  wind,  and  came  to  an  anchor  in  the 
port  of  Balisira.  Here  all  the  ammunition  and  provisions  were  embarked  in 
small  boats,  called  sandal,  sacoleva,  sarbuna,  and  tiuibaza,  and  carried  thirty 
miles  further  on  to  the  castle  of  Assov,  because  galleys  and  chaiks  drawing  five 
feet  water  cannot  be  used  here,  as  the  water  is  but  from  two  to  three  feet  in  depth. 
Balisira  is  on  the  western  extremity  of  the  steppes  (Heihat  Sahrassî)  a  lonely 
place;  but  the  army  and  fleet  having  arrived,  many  thousand  houses  for  men 
and  wares  were  built,  and  it  had  the  air  of  a  large  town,  being  the  harbour  of 
Assov.  There  arrived  here  from  Circassia,  which  belongs  to  the  Governorship 
of  Caffa,  of  the  tribes  of  Shagak,  Shana,  Meshükh,  Takafer,  Bozûdûk,  Pultakaî, 
Khatukaî,  Kabartai,  and  of  the  troops  of  Shâm-khâl  Sultân  the  Lord  of  Taghistan 
forty  thousand  men,  excellent  troops,  with  seven  thousand  waggons,  which  served 
to  transport  a  part  of  the  munitions  and  provisions  to  Assov.  The  troops 
entered  the  trenches  on  the  21st  of  Sha'aban,  and  the  25th  of  the  same  month 
arrived  from  Anatoli  seven  Vezirs,  eighteen  Begler-Begs,  seventy  Sanjaks,  .and  two 
hundred  Ala'i  Begs  with  all  the  Zaims  and  Timariots,  who  vvith  their  men  (Jebelli) 
were  forty-seven  thousand  men.  The  Tatar  Khân  was  ordered  to  keep  the 
look-out,  and  he  surrounded  the  camp  with  his  army  of  Noghai,  Kechin-noghai, 


evliya  efendi.  61 

Shedâk-noghaî,  Urûmpit-noghaî,  Shirînlî,  Manssurlî,  Sebhunlî,  Mankitlî,  Nakshi- 
vânli,  Chekcshke,  Irbâtlî,  U'li,  Olânlı,  Badrâkli,  Arslân  Beg  Ilı,  Chobân  Ilı,  Devi 
Ilı,  Nevruz  Ilı,  ali  Tatars. 

On  the  same  night  the  Infidels  in  the  fortress,  made  an  immense  noise  by  shouts 
and  fireworks,  which  was  caused  by  the  arrival  of  ten  thousand  Cossacks,  who 
came  by  the  Tanais  to  the  assistance  of  the  castle,  and  did  not  cease  firing  all 
night,  so  that  seven  hundred  men  were  killed.     The  next  day  the  Tatar  Khân 
and  the  Pasha  of  Silistra  placed  watches  on  the  shore  of  the  Tanais  to  prevent 
further  reinforcement  of  the  Infidels,  foraging  parties  were  sent  out,  the  trenches 
opened  in  seven  places,  and  on  the  side  of  the  monument  of  Yogûrdî-Baba  pushed 
to  the  edge  of  the  ditch.     The  camp  of  the  Moslims  was  out  of  reach  of  the 
cannon-shot  from  the  castle.      Next  day   Hossein  Pasha  prepared  twelve  large 
cannon  for  the  attack  in   the  trench  of  Yogurdi-Baba ;    and  at  the  same  time 
the  Admiral  Seyawush  Pasha  landed  troops  from  a  hundred  boats,  who  entered 
the  trenches  from  the  side  of  the  water  tower.     These  boats  (firkata),  guarded 
the  side  of  U'luton,  Deriton,  Kanlijah,  Uzegi  and  the  island  of  Timur.     Above 
the  water  tower  the  troops  of  Anatoli  with  eight  large  guns,  and  ten  regiments  of 
janissaries  entered  the  trenches ;    at  those  on  the  south  was  posted  the  troops 
of  Karamanla  with  six  regiments ;  on  the  western  suburb  of  Tayâk,  the  governor 
of  Silistra  Canan  Pâshâ  led  ten  regiments  of  janissaries,  one  of  armourers,  and 
one  of  artillerymen,  with  ten  large  guns  in  the  trenches.     In  short  the  castle  was 
battered  on  seven  sides  by  seventy  large  and  small  cannon,  and  the  Infidels  firing 
on  their  side,  a  terrible  contest  ensued  during  seven  hours  till  daybreak,  with  an 
incredible  noise  and  roaring.     In  the  morning  seven  hundred  martyrs  were  found, 
whose  goods  were  consigned  to   the  revenue.     The  fire  was  renewed,  and  the 
houses  of  the  town  dashed  to  pieces,  but  the  walls  having  been  strongly  built  by 
the    Genoese,  continued   to   resist.     This   lasted  seven    days,  during   which  the 
Commander-in-chief  continually  made  the  round  of  the  trenches,  encouraging  the 
Moslim    warriors  with   words  and    presents,  and  carrying  every  thing  on   with 
dehberation.     Several  breaches  being  opened  some  volunteei's  ascended  one  of 
them,  without  order,  and  planted  the  Ottoman  banner  on  the  wall,  which  being 
seen  by  the  Cossacks,  they  rushed  on  in  superior  numbers,  and  crushed  many 
of  them  by  throwing  down  a  leaden  basket.     The  rest,  however,  defended  their 
post  so  well  on  the  walls,  that  in  the  end  the  Ottoman  banner  was  planted  on 
seven  places,  and  the  Mohammedan  prayer  proclaimed.     The  Infidels  getting  new 
strength  and  rushing  on  like  a  herd  of  swine,  with  the  cry  "  Ne  bose,"  drove  back 
the  Moslim  victors,  so  that  many  standards  and  bodies  remained  on  the  breaches, 
and  the  victors  solaced  themselves  with  the  idea  that  the  conquest  was  predestined 


62  THETRAVELSOF 

for  another  day.  For  ten  days  more  the  Infidels  were  kept  in  continual  anxiety. 
Four  thousand  Cossacks  who  came  to  the  assistance  of  the  fortress  in  forty  boats 
(firkata)  were  attacked  by  Canan  Pdshâ,  who  brought  his  guns  to  bear  upon 
them  so  completely,  that  more  than  a  thousand  men  perished,  and  the  Moslîms 
made  an  immense  booty,  which  was  some  comfort  for  the  hardships  they  had  to 
struggle  with.  They  rejoiced  in  the  idea  that  the  general  assault  was  near, 
because  of  all  the  towers  of  the  town  there  now  remained  but  one,  all  the  rest 
having  been  levelled  with  the  dust  by  the  seventy  pieces  of  artillery.  But  the 
Infidels  now  intrenched  themselves  underground  like  so  many  Ferhads,  and  again 
fortified  themselves  in  such  a  manner,  that  whenever  an  attempt  was  made  to 
overwhelm  them  by  a  mine,  they  averted  it,  and  threw  the  earth  dug  up  for  an  in- 
trenchment  into  the  river.  They  were  most  able  miners  also,  and  continued  to 
make  mines  even  underneath  the  river,  with  resined  boats.  Thus  they  stopped  the 
Ottoman  army  for  the  space  of  forty  days,  during  which,  notwithstanding  great 
vio'ilance,  many  thousand  Infidel  Cossacks  found  means  to  enter  the  Castle  by  throw- 
ing themselves  naked  into  the  Tanais,  and  swimming  across  under  water  with  a 
reed  in  their  mouths ;  their  arms  and  ammunition  were  put  into  leathern  jacks,  which 
they  threw  behind  them  while  swimming,  and  thus  relieved  the  fortress.  To 
prevent  this  the  Moslims  shut  the  Tanais  with  a  wall  of  stakes  impenetrable 
even  to  fish,  and  by  this  means  got  great  riches  from  the  Infidels,  who  now 
having  lost  all  hope  of  succour  continued  the  war  underground,  killing  a  great 
number  of  the  besiegers.  A  rumour  began  to  spread  that  the  Czar  of  Russia  was 
coming  with  twenty  thousand  men,  and  this  rumour,  though  it  was  only  an 
invention  of  the  enemy,  caused  a  great  deal  of  disturbance.  A  great  council  of 
war  of  all  the  commanders  and  officers  was  assembled  to  take  into  consideration, 
that  though  there  was  now  no  walls  left,  yet  it  had  hitherto  been  found  impossible 
to  take  the  Castle ;  that  a  sedition  of  the  janissaries,  who  are  not  obliged  to 
continue  above  forty  days  in  the  trenches,  was  to  be  feared  ;  that  the  winter  was 
drawing  near,  when  the  Sea  of  Assov  freezes,  when  all  communication  would  be 
intercepted,  and  no  safety  for  the  fleet  after  the  day  of  Kassim  (S.  Demetrius) ; 
that  there  would  be  no  shelter  nor  provisions  for  the  army,  the  country  of  the 
Infidels  being  on  the  north,  and  the  salt  steppes  of  Heihat  on  the  east  and  south. 
After  a  long  consultation,  in  which  all  these  topics  were  touched  upon.  Canan 
Pasha  and  Piale  Aghâ,  the  Kiaya  of  the  Arsenal,  proposed  to  fix  the  general  assault 
for  the  next  morning.  The  Fâtıhah  being  read  on  this  resolution,  great  joy  was 
spread  in  the  Ottoman  camp ;  seven  thousand  swords,  two  thousand  shields,  two 
thousand  muskets,  five  thousand  bows,  forty  thousand  arrows,  six  thousand 
halberds,  five  thousand  granades,  and  many  thousand  other  articles  of  arms  were 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  63 

distributed  amongst  the  army,  the  cannons  fired  from  seven  sides  and  the  shout 
of  Allah  raised  so  that  it  filled  the  steppes  of  Kipchak.  Tlie  Moslims  rushed  into 
the  castle  and  penetrated  into  the  inmost  recess  of  it,  where  they  hoisted  the 
banner  and  proclaimed  the  prayer  of  Islam. 

The  guns  were  now  silenced,  and  the  swords  alone  were  clashing.  During 
seven  hours  and  a  half  the  Mussulmans  were  raging  in  the  castle  like  wolves 
amongst  sheep,  and  stained  with  blood  like  butchers.  It  was  a  complete  vic- 
tory to  which  none  can  be  compared  excepting  those  of  Kossova  and  Mohacs. 
The  rest  of  the  Infidels  hidden  beneath  the  ground,  now  set  fire  to  the  mines, 
and  sent  by  that  means  great  numbers  of  the  Moslim  besiegers  to  Heaven ;  others 
shot  them  from  the  loopholes  so  that  they  were  in  great  distress.  It  being  now 
near  sunset,  and  the  victors  being  exhausted  by  fatigue  and  hunger,  were  called 
on  to  retire  by  the  Chaiishes,  who  admonished  them  to  leave  the  end  to  the 
next  day.  They  carried  an  immense  deal  of  booty  with  them,  arms  of  all  kinds 
and  three  thousand  heads  of  Infidels,  besides  one  thousand  and  sixty  prisoners. 
A  general  salute  was  fired,  and  the  martyrs  buried,  after  the  funeral  prayer  was 
said  over  them.  The  wounded  and  maimed  received  pensions,  and  were  given 
into  the  hands  of  the  surgeons.  Those  who  brought  heads  received  a  reward 
of  a  hundred  piastres,  and  those  who  had  made  prisoners  were  allowed  to  keep 
them.  Chelenks,  ziamets,  timars,  and  all  kind  of  military  rewards  were  dis- 
tributed, and  the  property  of  seven  hundred  janissaries  who  were  killed  was 
made  over  to  the  revenue.  Of  the  troops  on  the  seven  sides  of  the  attack  one 
thousand  two  hundred  men  became  martyrs  and  ascended  to  Heaven.  On  this 
night  the  Infidels  made  incredible  efforts  to  repair  the  works  of  the  castle,  by 
raising  walls  and  digging  ditches,  opening  loopholes  and  pointing  guns.  The 
foundations  of  the  castle  resembled  the  wall  of  Gog  and  Magog,  to  the  great 
consternation  of  the  Moslims,  who  solaced  themselves,  saying :  "  Man  proposes 
and  God  disposes,"  recommending  their  business  to  God.  They  continued  the 
war,  but  not  with  the  same  unanimity,  though  not  with  less  zeal  than  before.  A 
great  council  of  war  was  held,  under  the  consideration  that  there  now  remained 
only  forty  days  to  Kâssim  (S.  Demetrius).  The  result  of  the  council  was,  that 
Gerai-Khan,  with  seventy  thousand  regular  troops,  and  eight  hundred  thousand 
horse,  was  ordered  to  ravage  the  provinces  of  Russia.  So  they  did,  and  this 
Tatar  army  returned  on  the  14th  day  to  the  Ottoman  camp  at  Assov,  with  forty- 
five  thousand  prisoners  and  two  hundred  thousand  horses  as  booty,  besides  a 
great  number  of  valuable  things,  pelisses,  rich  cloth,  &c.  By  this  arrival,  the 
hearts  of  the  Moslims  were  coiTiforted,  and  those  of  the  Infidels  afiiicted,  when 
they  saw  the  triumphal  procession  with  the  prisoners  fettered,  and  the  crosses 


64  THETRAVELSOF 

upset.  Since  the  time  of  Jenguiz  Khan  the  Tatars  had  not  made  a  richer  booty. 
This  sight  raised  a  howl  among  the  Infidels  in  the  castle,  who  pierced  the  skies 
with  their  lamentations.  The  same  night  seventy  Infidels,  hungry  and  sad,  left 
the  castle,  and  were  brought  into  the  presence  of  the  Commander-in-Chief, 
Hossein  Pasha.  Some  of  them  embraced  the  Islam,  and  received  presents,  then 
were  sent  altogether  to  tlie  castle  of  Khoros  Kermân  near  Assov. 

By  this  immense  booty  every  thing  became  immensely  cheap  in  the  Ottoman 
camp,  so  that  a  horse  was  sold  for  one  piastre,  a  girl  for  five,  and  a  boy  for  six 
piastres.  The  safe  return  of  the  Tatar  army  was  celebrated  by  a  triple  salute 
of  muskets  and  guns,  and  the  whole  camp  illuminated  during  the  night.  But 
winter  drawing  near,  a  new  council  was  held,  all  the  seniors  of  the  regular  troops 
and  of  the  Tatars  agreed,  and  signed  unanimously  a  petition  of  three  hundred 
signatures  of  Vezirs,  and  officers  of  all  ranks,  saying :  "  that  for  this  year  it  was 
impossible  to  take  the  castle,  that  one  of  the  Russian  Capitals  had  been  laid 
waste,  that  seventy  thousand  Infidels  had  been  taken  prisoners,  and  more  than 
one  hundred  thousand  destroyed  by  the  sword."  At  the  same  time  two  of  the 
prisoners,  who  had  been  instructed  accordingly,  were  sent  back  into  the  castle  to 
say ;  "  that  if  the  Turks  had  intended  to  take  the  castle,  they  might  have  taken  it 
in  a  month,  but  their  object  was  to  pillage  the  Russian  countries,  and  to  return 
with  a  rich  booty,  which  they  had  now  accomplished."  The  same  night  as  the 
messengers  went  off  to  Constantinople  there  was  such  a  hard  frost  that  all  the 
Moslim  warriors  thought  they  could  not  stand  it,  and  by  this  specimen  found  out 
that  the  salt  steppe  of  Heihat  was  as  unmerciful  as  the  Black  Sea.  At  last  the  despair 
of  conquering  the  castle  becoming  general,  the  whole  army  at  once  resolved  to 
raise  the  siege.  The  trumpets  were  sounded,  the  artillery  and  ammunition 
embarked  and  carried  to  Balisira,  where  the  fleet  was  lying  at  anchor.  The 
army  returned  by  different  ways,  some  by  sea  and  some  by  land,  to  Constan- 
tinople ;  some  by  the  desert  of  Kipchdk  in  six  days  and  nights  to  the  river  Kûbân, 
to  Circassia,  Tainan  and  Crimea ;  some  through  the  steppes  (Heihat),  returned  by 
the  north  into  their  native  country  Circassia.  When  the  Imperial  fleet  weighed 
for  Constantinople  I  got  permission,  from  the  Commander-in-Chief  Hossein  Pâshâ, 
to  accompany  the  Khan  of  Crimea  into  his  country,  and  the  Imperial  fleet  sailed, 
trusting  in  God,  through  the  sea  of  Assov. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  65 


JOURNEY    TO    THE    CRIMEA. 

I  left  Assov  in  company  with  the  army  of  Gera'i  Khân  of  eighty  thousand  men, 
and  twenty  thousand  Infidels  of  Moldavia  and  Valachia,  and  crossed  the  Tanais  with 
them,  which  disembogues  at  the  end  of  the  sea  of  Assov.  The  water  being 
shallow  in  the  great  Don,  it  was  passed  by  eight  hundred  thousand  horsemen 
without  the  least  difficulty,  the  water  reaching  only  to  the  stirrups.  The  Tatars 
tied  their  jacks  and  luggage  to  the  tails  of  their  horses,  and  in  the  space  of  twenty- 
one  hours,  the  whole  army  reached  the  opposite  steppes  of  Heihat. 

At  the  station  of  Bûrebaî,  opposite  to  the  western  side  of  Assov,  a  branch 
of  the  Don  flows  in  its  way  to  the  sea  of  Assov,  where  it  disembogues  in  three 
different  channels ;  as  it  runs  through  reeds  for  a  great  distance,  it  is  not  very 
sweet :  the  complexion  of  the  inhabitants  on  its  shores  is  yellow,  and  they  have  a 
kind  of  excrescence  or  crop  on  the  neck.  The  whole  army  halted  here,  as  on  a 
pleasant  flowery  meadow,  and  three  hundred  horses  were  slaughtered  and  eaten 
up  that  evening.  It  was  here  that  I  ate  horseflesh  for  the  first  time.  Though  I 
belonged  to  the  Tatar  Khân,  yet  I  lived  with  Kia  Beg  of  the  tribe  of  Mâssûrlî, 
who  have  their  Yürds  (encampments)  in  Crimea ;  the  district  of  Mankis  Eli  on  the 
side  of  Gozlava  is  their  Yiird.  Their  horses  are  extremely  fat,  and  their  flesh  can 
hardly  be  distinguished  from  roes'  flesh,  and  is  easy  to  digest.  Next  morning  the 
kettle-drums  beat,  and  after  a  march  of  nine  hours  we  arrived  at  the  river  Sud, 
which  the  whole  army  crossed,  and  halted  on  the  other  side,  but  the  ground  being 
extremely  marshy,  one  hundred  horses  and  fifty  slaves  were  lost  in  the  marshes. 
This  river  issues  from  the  western  mountains  of  Russia  and  here  enters  the  sea  of 
Assov.  The  name  Sud  or  milk-river  is  derived  from  its  whitish  colour,  which  it 
contracts  from  the  different  metallic  strata  over  which  it  passes  in  its  course.  It  is 
not  good  for  drinking,  and  causes  crops  or  swellings  on  the  necks  of  those  who 
drink  of  it.  There  are  seventy  cultivated  towns  and  villages  on  both  sides  of  this 
river,  but  they  are  not  very  flourishing  on  account  of  the  depredations  of  the 
Crimea  Tatars.     These  places  all  belong  to  the  Russians. 

We  left  this  place  and  came  to  the  river  Mus,  a  large  river  which  we  passed  over 
with  the  greatest  difficulty  at  this  cold  season,  the  arms  being  all  put  in  leather 
jacks.  It  is  fresh  water  like  that  of  the  Don,  Dnieper,  and  Danube,  and  contains 
excellent  fish.  It  comes  from  the  northern  mountains  of  Russia.  We  crossed  it, 
and  next  day  when  the  Kettle-drums  were  beaten  for  departui'e,  the  snow  had 
fallen  three  cubits  deep.     We  slept  that  night  on  the  snow  of  the  field  of  Kipchdk, 

VOL.  II.  K 


66  THETRAVELSOF 

and  arrived  next  day  at  the  station  of  Bûrûmbai ;  here  we  slept  again  on  the 
snow,  and  on  the  following  day  after  sixteen  hours  ride,  reached  the  frontier  of 
Crimea. 

The  moment  we  entered  the  castle  of  Ordghzi,  Kara  Rejib  Aghd,  the  Courier  of 
the  great  Vezîr  Kara  Mustafa  Pushd,  with  twenty  horsemen  arrived  from  Constan- 
tinople, and  after  having  heard  the  sad  story  of  the  impossibility  to  take  Assov, 
took  letters  from  the  Khan,  and  returned  to  Constantinople.  I  poor  EvHya  entered 
the  town  of  Bagcheserai  with  the  Khân,  and  was  assigned  a  house  there  on  the 
borders  of  the  valley  ofChûrûksü  (rotten  water)  where  I  quietly  passed  the  winter 
without  travelling  one  step.  But  the  Khân  to  prevent  the  Infidels  sending 
reinforcements  to  the  castle  of  Assov,  made  three  excursions  with  between  forty 
and  fifty  thousand  horsemen  even  up  to  the  guns  of  Assov,  bringing  back  prisoners. 
His  Vezir  (the  Kalgha  Sultân)  made  also  three  expeditions  into  the  interior  of  Russia, 
and  returned  with  ten  thousand  slaves  and  a  great  deal  of  booty  to  Crimea.  In 
the  beginning  of  spring  came  Hassan  Aghâ  the  Chamberlain  of  the  Sublime  Porte 
bringing  to  the  Khân  twelve  thousand  ducats  as  boot-money,  and  an  Imperial 
diploma  commanding  him  to  be  ready  to  take  the  field,  with  the  commencement  of 
the  fine  season,  against  Assov.  The  Khân  received  the  orders  with  all  signs  of 
submission  and  duty,  the  horses  were  put  to  feed  in  the  meadows  for  forty  days, 
after  which  the  army  broke  up  again  to  return  to  Assov,  the  garrison  of  which, 
weighing  all  the  hardships  of  siege,  their  losses,  and  the  impossibility  of  holding 
the  fortress  finally  against  the  Ottoman  power,  abandoned  it  and  fled  with  their 
arms  and  effects  to  different  other  Castles. 

The  Tatar  Khân  having  arrived  on  the  border  of  the  river  Sud,  heard  of  the 
flight  of  the  garrison  from  some  prisoners  he  had  taken,  and  made  the  greatest 
possible  haste  to  reach  the  fortress.  He  found  it  empty,  not  only  of  men,  but 
also  of  animals,  neither  dog,  cat  nor  mouse  being  seen  ;  only  one  Genoese  tower 
remained  standing.  The  Tatar  Khân  then  sent  the  welcome  news  to  Constantinople, 
On  the  eleventh  day  some  Russian  spies  coming  from  Constantinople  were  taken 
and  brought  before  the  Tatar  Khân.  They  confessed  freely  and  openly,  that 
there  were  forty  spies  at  the  Port,  who,  having  been  aware  of  the  immense 
preparations  of  the  Ottoman  Army,  had  given  notice  to  the  garrison  to  leave  the 
Castle,  and  that  arriving  there  themselves,  they  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the 
Tatars.  These  three  spies  were  beheaded.  On  the  13th  day  of  this  month  the 
Ottoman  army  arrived  with  great  pomp,  commanded  by  Chowan  Kapüjî-bâshî 
Vezir  Mohammed  Pâshâ,  and  found  the  fortress  empty.  They  ascribed  it  at  first 
to  some  infernal  stratagem  of  the  Infidels,  and  waited  three  days,  on  the  fourth 
day  Moslim  prayer  was  proclaimed,  and  all  the  Moldavians  and  Valachians  were 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  Ö7 

commanded  to  work  on  the  foundations  and  to  build  them  anew.  They  dug 
three  days  till  they  came  to  springs  of  water ;  the  ships  were  all  busy  carrying 
stones  from  an  old  Convent  in  the  island  of  Timiirlenk,  and  the  work  of  buildine 
was  begun.  In  one  month  two  towers  were  finished,  stronger  than  the  former 
Genoese  towers,  and  the  histories  of  Crimea  record  the  date  of  its  building  and 
name  of  the  builder.  It  was  declared  the  seat  of  a  Sanjak  Beg  belonging  to  the 
government  of  KafFa,  a  Begler-Beg  was  left  as  commander  with  twenty  regiments 
of  Janissaries,  six  regiments  of  artillerymen,  ten  regiments  of  armourers,  seven 
thousand  Tatars,  seven  Sanjak  Begs,  and  twelve  Alai  Begs,  with  twenty-six 
thousand  men  ;  seventy  large  guns  on  the  bulwarks,  and  three  hundred  small  ones 
on  the  border  of  the  ditch.  The  complete  repair  and  fitting  out  cost  the  sum  of 
five  thousand  purses.  During  its  building  the  Tatars  made  seven  inroads  into 
Russia,  and  returned  with  from  fifteen  to  twenty  thousand  prisoners  to  the  Ottoman 
camp,  so  that  the  prisonei's  were  sold  for  no  more  than  ten  piastres  each.  At 
last  the  King  of  the  Muscovites  imploring  pardon  and  crying  out.  Âmân !  Aman  ! 
(pardon  O  Family  of  Osman  !)  sent  ambassadors  to  Constantinople.  The  building 
being  nearly  finished,  the  Commander-in-Chief  Mahommed  Pasha  returned  to 
Constantinople,  and  the  rest  of  the  army  got  permission  to  return  to  their  homes. 
I  again  followed  the  tribe  of  Mâssûrlî,  and  came  with  them  to  Crimea.  We  took 
our  pleasure  for  twenty  days  in  Bagcheserai,  then  got  permission  from  the  Khân 
to  return  to  Constantinople,  with  a  present  of  a  purse  of  piastres,  three  slaves,  a 
sable  pelisse,  and  a  caftan.  The  Kalgha  Sultân  and  Nûr-ud-dîn  Sultân  (the  two 
first  dignities  of  the  Tatar  court)  and  fourteen  Aghâs,  gave  me  a  slave  each, 
so  that  I  had  a  number  of  slaves  and  four  purses  of  money  ;  to  these  slaves  I  added 
the  eighteen  which  I  had  acquired  on  my  travels  from  Trebisonde  to  Mingrelia  and 
Abaza,  took  leave  of  the  Khân  and  all  the  great  men,  and  mounted  on  the  horses 
of  the  Kalgha-Sultân,  began  my  journey  in  company  with  some  friends,  who 
remained  with  me  till  we  arrived  at  Kâchidere.  There  we  parted,  all  my  friends 
returned  to  Bagcheserai,  and  I  continued  my  way  to  the  south  for  the  space  of 
six  hours  to  Baliklava. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Baliklava. 

Prevented  by  warlike  expeditions  from  visiting  with  leisure  the  curiosities  of 
Crimea,  I  dare  not  give  a  description  of  it ;  such  is  also  the  case  with  the  castle 
of  Baliklava.  Having  embarked  here  with  three  hundred  persons  on  board  of  the 
Shaika  of  U'cheli  Sefer  Reis,  I  slept  on  board,  troubled  by  heavy  dreams ;  on  the 
next  day  I  went  on  shore,  to  do  away  the  evil  of  the  night  by  some  alms,  and 
next  day  got  clear  of  the  port  in  an  evil  hour,  succeeded,  as  the  text  of  the  Koran 


68  THETRAVELSOF 

says,  by  worse  days.  One  day  and  one  night  we  went  straight  before  the  wind, 
and  were  then  about  the  middle  of  the  Black  Sea.  The  mountains  of  Bâliklava 
and  Suluyâr  had  disappeared,  neither  were  those  of  Sinope  and  Amassra  to  be 
seen,  and  we  were  tossed  about  without  well  knowing  where  we  were  going  to. 
All  at  once  an  easterly  gale  sprung  up  with  thundering  clouds,  at  the  appearance 
of  which  the  boatmen  changed  colour,  and  began  to  wring  their  hands ;  they 
looked  at  the  compass,  and  then  on  each  other,  and  already  made  up  their  minds 
to  lose  their  souls.  An  old  sailor  said  to  them ;  "  Lads  (Dais !)  don't  you  see 
the  forerunners  of  a  tempest,  what  are  you  afraid  of?  Lower  the  topmast  with 
the  sail."  This  they  did,  but  the  ship  going  too  heavy,  they  threw  the  bags, 
mats,  casks  and  trunks  that  were  on  deck  into  the  sea ;  they  stowed  two  hundred 
young  prisoners  below  (Enbar)  and  closed  the  hatches.  Thus  the  ship  was 
lightened,  but  still  terribly  tossed  by  the  effect  of  the  currents.     Verse  : — 

"  If  in  the  storm  my  bark  drives  on  the  strand. 
What  shall  I  do  ?  none  can  the  winds  command." 

On  the  fourth  of  Safer  of  the  year  1055,  the  storm  began  to  buffet  us  most  un- 
mercifully, nothing  but  thunder  and  lightning,  hail  and  torrents  of  rain  pouring 
down  on  us  for  three  days  and  nights.  The  sailors  exhausted  by  fatigue  all 
crept  into  one  corner  of  the  ship.  Of  the  passengers,  some  were  vomiting,  some 
praying,  some  vowing  victims  and  sacrifices,  some  alms  and  pilgrimages.  I,  poor 
Evliya,  said :  "  Come,  Servants  of  God,  come  and  pray  with  me  the  Sura  Ikhlâss 
(deliverance)  which  God  may  be  pleased  to  grant  to  us."  All  having  began  to 
recite  this  Sura  fervently,  the  weather  cleared  up,  the  storm  ceased,  but  the 
tossing  of  the  ship  continued  in  a  most  dreadful  manner;  the  ship  now  touched 
the  highest  heavens,  and  now  descended  into  the  deepest  of  hells.  The  waves  of 
the  Black  Sea  towered  before  us  like  the  perpendicular  walls  of  Mount  Bisûtün. 
At  last  we  opened  the  magazine  (Enbâr)  and  threw  all  the  heavy  merchandize 
into  the  sea,  but  again  to  no  purpose.  We  saw  that  the  rudder  was  going  to 
break,  and  to  prevent  this  all  tlie  sailors  united  and  began  to  cut  with  hatchets, 
first  the  stays,  then  the  mast,  which  in  falling  into  the  sea  killed  eleven  men. 
Until  their  bodies  were  thrown  overboard,  there  was  such  a  howhng  in  the  ship, 
that  every  body  despaired  of  life,  and  felt  that  he  must  give  up  his  soul.  At  this 
moment  there  again  came  a  puflP  of  wind  (Sighinak)  which  threatening  to  tear 
the  ship  asunder  drove  all  the  prisoners  and  slaves  crying  and  lamenting  out 
of  the  magazine ;  some  held  together,  clasping  one  another,  some  stripped  naked, 
and  all  endeavouring  to  lay  hold  of  a  plank  or  a  cask.  I,  poor  Evlîyâ,  feeling 
myself  in  a  state  of  agitation  continued  to  pray  the  Sura-Yass,  and  recommended 


evliya  efendi.  69 

all  my  things  to  God  by  saying  the  verse :  "  I  recommend  my  business  to 
God,"  and  that :  "  Who  fears  God  shall  find  a  place  to  walk  out,  and  shall  find 
his  lot  provided,  from  whence  he  did  not  expect  it ;  and  who  trusts  in  God  shall 
not  be  abandoned  by  him."  While  repeating  these  prayers  I  saw  that  some  Infidels 
(prisoners)  got  hold  of  the  launch,  and  let  it  down  by  ropes,  at  the  same  time  some 
other  sailors  were  throwing  themselves  on  the  other  side,  with  planks,  into  the 
sea.  I,  and  seven  of  my  companions  watching  the  moment  of  the  launch  going 
down  threw  ourselves  into  it ;  the  Infidels  instantly  cut  the  ropes,  and  two  of 
them,  attacked  with  a  knife  Ramazân  Chelebî  of  Aintab.  My  seven  companions 
immediately  drew  their  swords  against  the  eight  Infidels  who  had  raised  their 
hands  against  us,  and  killed  four  of  them ;  the  four  others  throwing  themselves 
into  the  sea  from  fright,  we  remained  masters  of  the  launch.  We  threw  all 
heavy  luggage  overboard,  and  the  launch  being  now  light  and  tossed  by  the 
waves,  I  saw  how  the  great  ship  was  cleft  asunder  from  stem  to  stern,  and  three 
hundred  and  fifty  passengers,  merchants,  and  four  hundred  slaves  were  spread 
over  the  sea,  some  going  to  the  bottom,  some  trying  to  be  saved  by  swimming, 
some  on  planks,  and  some  trying  to  reach  our  boat,  of  whom  we  took  in  the  story- 
teller Emir  Chelebî.  When  we  laid  hold  of  him,  others  came  up  swimming,  and 
we  were  soon  convinced,  that  if  we  took  them  in  we  should  all  go  to  the  bottom 
together,  we,  therefore,  sword  in  hand,  kept  off  all  those  who  offered  to  lay  hold 
of  the  launch.  The  wreck  of  the  ship  had  now  disappeared  with  all  the  men,  and 
while  we  continued  tossing  up  and  down,  our  turbans  heavy  with  the  water,  we 
perceived  the  Judge  of  Menkub,  Alî  Efendî,  swimming  like  an  angel  of  the 
Ocean.  By  the  hand  of  Divine  power  he  was  brought  near  our  boat,  and  we 
took  him  in,  so  that  there  were  now  ten  of  us  in  it.  We  continued  to  pray 
the  Sura-Yass,  and  drove  on,  baling  out  the  water,  and  all  despairing  of  life. 
Thus  we  drove  a  day  and  night,  all  shivering  with  cold,  naked  and  starved,  crying 
and  lamenting.  The  story-teller  and  the  judge  were  attacked  by  a  fit  of  apo- 
plexy, we  threw  their  corpses  into  the  sea,  and  were  reduced  as  before  to  eight 
persons ;  but  we  had  the  misfortune  to  have  a  large  piece  of  timber  twenty  cubits 
length  and  one  yard  in  breadth,  which  drove  along  with  the  boat,  touching  it  from 
time  to  time  without  our  being  able  to  prevent  it. 

On  the  third  day  at  noon  a  wave  came  which  upset  the  boat,  and  I  fell  head- 
foremost into  the  sea;  being  a  good  swimmer  I  worked  with  all  my  strength, 
recommended  myself  to  the  Lord,  to  the  intercession  of  the  Koran,  and  all  the 
Saints,  all  the  great  and  pious  men  I  had  hitherto  known  on  my  travels,  and  by 
this  kind  of  effort,  keeping  my  head  clear,  I  swam  undaunted.  I  saw  that  the  large 
piece  of  timber,  which  had  before  swam  alongside  our  boat,  was  passing  near  to 


70 


THE    TRAVELS    OF 


me,  and  instantly  laid  hold  of  it,  encircling  it  like  a  serpent.  Driving  in  this 
way,  shivering  and  starved,  all  at  once  I  heard  a  noise  behind  me,  and  looking 
round  I  saw  two  Georgian  boys,  two  Circassian  girls  and  a  Russian  slave,  who 
had  all  laid  hold  of  the  long  piece  of  timber  on  which  I  was  driving.  I  was  much 
afraid  that  their  weight  would  sink  the  timber,  and  was  just  thinking  how  to  get 
rid  of  my  companions  in  misfortune,  when  an  empty  cask  driving  by,  the  Russian 
slave  wished  to  get  hold  of  it,  and  threw  himself  into  the  sea  for  that  purpose,  but 
not  being  able  to  reach  it  he  was  drowned,  and  only  the  four  slaves  remained. 
The  storm  was  now  completely  clearing-up,  the  sea  going  down,  and  the  next 
day  land  coming  in  sight,  we  were  thrown  on  the  shore  exhausted  and  half-dead. 
I  threw  myself  on  the  ground,  to  praise  God  and  to  thank  his  infinite  mercy,  who 
having  taken  away  from  me  eighteen  slaves  acquired  in  my  travels  in  Mingrelia 
and  Abaza,  again  made  me  a  present  of  four  slaves,  two  fine  boys  and  two  pretty 
girls.  Being  thrown  into  an  inlet  of  the  rocks,  some  good  people  gave  us  dresses 
to  cover  our  nakedness,  and  hoisted  us  up  the  rocks  which  appeared  to  pierce 
the  skies.  Having  asked  where  I  was,  I  was  told  that  these  were  the  mountains 
of  Kilghra  in  the  sanjak  of  Silistra.  Thus  I  had  been  driven  three  days  in  the 
boat  from  the  moment  the  ship  went  down,  and  after  the  boat  was  upset,  twenty- 
four  hours  on  the  timber,  till  I  was  thrown  on  the  shore  at  Kilghra,  with  the 
Dervishes  of  which  place  I  immediately  began  a  devotional  conversation,  and 
occupied  the  cells,  which  they  assigned  to  me  and  my  slaves. 

Description  of  the  Convent  of  Kilghra  Sultdn. 

This  building  is  ascribed  to  Sari  Saltik  Sultân,  who  having  been  ordained  a 
Dervish  in  the  town  of  Yassu  by  Ahmed  Yassın,  came  with  Hâjî  Begtâsh  and 
three  hundred  poor  people  to  Sultân  Orkhân,  and  was  sent  after  the  conquest  of 
Brussa  into  Russia  and  Poland,  Bohemia  and  Dobruja.  Haji  Begtâsh  gave  him  a 
wooden  sword,  a  carpet,  a  banner,  a  drum,  kettle-drum  and  trumpet.  Kilghra 
Sultân  with  seventy  disciples  spread  the  hide  (on  which  they  sat)  upon  the  sea, 
and  went,  praying,  drums  beating  and  banners  flying,  from  Rumeli  to  Crimea,  and 
from  thence  to  the  people  of  Heshdek  in  Moscovy  and  Lipka  in  Poland.  At 
Danzig  he  conversed  with  Svîty  Nicola  the  patriarch,  whose  name  is  the  same  as 
Sarı  Sâltik  whom  he  killed,  adopted  his  habit,  and  by  this  means  converted  many 
thousands  to  Islam.  Thus  he  travelled  many  years  under  the  name  of  Sâri  Sâltik, 
and  being  himself  yellow-coloured  (as  Sâri  Sâltik  was)  he  obtained  from  Ahmed 
Yassiii  the  name  of  the  yellow  Beg.  But  his  proper  name  is  Mohammed 
Bokhara,  and  he  settled  afterwards  at  Paravadi.  The  King  of  Dobruja  requested 
a  miracle  from  Sâri  Sâltik  in  confirmation  of  his  mission.     There  was  then  in 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  7I 

Dobrüja  a  terrible  dragon,  to  which  even  the  two  daughters  of  the  King  were 
allotted   as   food.     Sciri    Sciltik  agreed  to  deliver    the    two    girls,    on    condition 
that  they  with  their  father  would  embrace  Islam.     He  went  to  the  column  to 
which  they   were  tied  as  victims  for  the  dragon,  accompanied   by  his   seventy 
Dervishes,  who  were  beating  drums  and  swinging  the  banner ;  untied  the  Princesses, 
and  then  waited  with  his  wooden  sword,  expecting  the  dragon  himself,  mean- 
while  the  seventy  Dervishes   beat  the  drum.      The    dragon  coming  near,  Sâri 
Sâltik  addressed  it  with  the  verse  of  the  Koran  beginning; — "  Greeting  on  Noe 
in  both  worlds,"  and  then  cut  off  three  of  his  heads,  so  that  the  dragon  fled  with 
the  remaining  four.     Sari  Sâltik  followed  him  up  to  his  cave,  at  the  entrance 
of  which  he  cut  off  the  remainder  with   his  wooden   sword,  and  followed  the 
dragon  into  his  den.     The  beheaded  dragon  began  to  struggle  with  the  Saint  and 
to  press  him  against  the  rock,  which  gave  way  so  wonderfully  as  to  receive  the 
Saint's  body,  which  place  with  the  marks  of  his  hands  and  feet  are  still  actually 
shewn.     The  dragon  having  exhausted  his  strength  fell  to  the  ground  dead,  and 
the  Saint,  with  his  bloody  breast  and  bloody  wooden  sword,  now  led  the  two  girls 
to  their  fixther  the  king.     Previous  to  their  arrival  a  cursed  monk,  who  had  shewn 
to  Sâltik  Sultan  the  road  to  the  column,  and  picked  up  there  the  tongues  and 
ears  of  the  three  heads  cut  off,  had  laid  them  before  the  king,  boasting  that  he 
had  killed  the  dragon.     Now,  though  the  daughters  asserted  the  contrary,  yet  the 
monk  persisting  in  his  boast,  the  Saint  proposed  as  a  proof,  to  be  boiled  with  the 
monk  in  a  cauldron,  and  though  the  monk  did  not  like  this  kind  of  trial,  yet  by 
order  of  the  king  he  was  obliged  to  undergo  it.     Sârî  Sâltik  was  tied  up  by  his 
Dervishes,  and  the  monk  by  his  companions,  and  both  put  into  a  cauldron  heated  by 
an  immense   fire.     It  was   at  this   hour  that   Hâjî  Begtash,  who  was  then   at 
Kirshehri  in  Anatolia  swept  with  a  handkerchief  a  dripping  rock,  saying :    "  My 
Sâltik  Mahomed  is  now  in  great  anxiety,  God  assist  him  !"     Ever  since  that  day 
salt-water  has  dropped  from  that  rock,  and  from   thence  the  salt  called  Hâjî 
Begtash  is  produced.     The  place  where  this  cauldron  was  heated  is  shewn  at  the 
present  day,  and  the  mountain  is  called  the  mountain  of  the  cauldron  Kazan 
Balkanı'.       The    cauldron  being   opened    Sâri    Sâltik    was    found    sweating  and 
saying :  "  Ya   Hayî,   O  all  vivifying ;"  and  of  the  monk  nothing  remained  but 
black  coals  and  burnt  bones.      The  King  of  Dobruja    moved   by  this   miracle, 
instantly  embraced  Islam,  with  seven   thousand  of  his  subjects ;  he  sent  ambas- 
sadors to  Sultân  Orkhân,  and  received  from  him  in  exchange,  the  appointment 
of  a  Judge,  a  tail  and  a  banner.      His  name  was  Ah  Mokhtâr,     In  the  same 
year  Sâri  Sâltik  made  his  will,  wherein  he  commanded  seven  coffins  to  be  made, 
because  seven  kings  were  to  contend  for  his  body  after  his  death.     This  hap- 


72  THETRAVELSOF 

pened  indeed  as  he  foretold,  because  being  washed  after  death  and  put  into  the 
coffin,  seven  kings  claimed  to  have  the  true  body,  which  was  found  in  every 
one  of  the  seven  coffins  when  opened.  The  seven  kings  who  desired  to  be  pos- 
sessed of  the  true  body  were  the  King  of  Muscovia,  where  Sari  Sâltik  is  held  in 
great  veneration  under  the  name  of  Svîty  Nicola  ;  the  King  of  Poland,  where  his 
tomb  is  much  frequented  at  Danzig ;  the  King  of  Bohemia,  where  his  coffin  is 
shewn  in  the  town  of  Pezzunijah  (?)  and  in  Sweden  at  Bivanjah  (?)  The  fifth 
King  was  of  Adrianople,  where  his  tomb  is  in  the  Convent  of  the  town  of  Ba- 
tûria  which  is  now  a  large  place  called  Baba-eskissi,  and  is  visited  by  those, 
who  travel  from  Constantinople  to  Adrianople.  The  sixth  King  was  that  of 
Moldavia,  who  buried  it  in  a  shady  place  near  the  Castle  of  Bozâk,  where  Bâyazîd 
II.  after  the  conquest  of  Akkermân,  built  a  mosque,  an  imaret,  a  college,  a  bath, 
a  khan  and  a  monument  for  Sâri  Sâltikdedeh  ;  this  town  is  called  Babatâghî  ;  a 
pleasant  town  all  belonging  to  the  endowments  of  Sâri  Sâltik.  The  seventh  coffin 
was  taken  possession  of  by  Alî  Mokhtâr  the  converted  King  of  Dobrûja,  who 
buried  it  at  Kilghra  in  the  cave  of  the  Dragon,  and  hence  he  is  called  Kilghra 
Sultan ;  Kilghra  signifies  in  Latin  a  seven-headed  dragon,  it  is  the  purest  Latin. 
Of  these  seven  burial-places  of  this  Saint,  three  are  in  the  Ottoman  Empire,  from 
which  he  is  called  Baba  Sultân  at  Babatâgh ;  Sâri  Sâltik  Sultân  at  Baba-Eskissî ; 
and  here,  Kilghra  Sultân  ;  in  Christian  countries  he  is  generally  called  St.  Nicolas, 
is  much  revered  and  the  Christian  monks  ask  alms  under  his  auspices. 

The  Convent  is  situated  on  a  cape  which  extends  into  the  Black  Sea  like  the 
proboscis  of  an  Elephant.  The  ships  that  sail  from  Constantinople  to  Kara 
Khirmen,  Kostenji,  and  Kill  pass  along  these  rocks  of  Kilghra  directly  opposite  to 
those  of  Sinope,  and  if  the  weather  is  clear,  are  mutually  seen  from  both  shores. 
The  cave  in  which  Sâri  Sâltik  killed  the  dragon  is  at  the  same  time  his  burial  place. 
The  convent  was  built  by  Alı  Mokhtar ;  the  wooden  sword  of  the  Saint,  his  swing, 
half-drum,  kettle-drum,  drum,  banner  and  sanjak  are  kept  here,  numerous  cells 
surround  it,  occupied  by  learned  and  virtuous  Dervishes,  who  reside  here  on  their 
hides,  all  true  Sunnis  and  faithful  believers,  more  than  one  hundred.  They  read 
with  me  more  than  eight  months  according  to  the  method  of  Hafss.  The  windows 
of  the  Convent,  and  of  the  monument,  all  look  towards  the  sea.  The  mag- 
nificent kitchen  like  that  of  Keikavus  is  worth  seeing ;  day  and  night  the  fire  is 
kept  up  on  the  stove  for  passengers  and  strangers,  they  have  no  endowments  but 
live  on  alms  ;  they  are  all  purified  by  mystic  divine  love.  To  the  right  and  left 
of  the  mountain  are  many  wells  in  the  rocks.  The  rocks  being  perpendicular 
like  those  of  Mount  Bisûtûn  are  excavated  at  the  base.  The  projecting  rocks  are 
so  lofty  that  ships  with  topmasts  an  hundred  yards  high  may  enter  here,  and  come 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  73 

to  an  anchor.  The  masters  of  these  ships  take  in  barley  and  wheat  whicli  is 
brought  in  waggons  to  the  mouths  of  the  aforesaid  shafts  which  are  cut  in  the 
rock,  and  poured  down  them  into  the  holds  ;  these  shafts  were  cut  in  ancient 
times  by  Infidel  stonecutters,  who  were  like  so  many  Ferhâds ;  and  it  is  a 
peculiar  sight  not  to  be  seen  elsewhere,  and  saves  a  circuit  of  between  three  and 
four  hours  in  bringing  the  barley  to  the  foot  of  the  rock.  There  are  no  such 
high  and  dreary  rocks  any  where  in  the  Black  Sea.  During  southernly  and 
easternly  gales,  the  sea  produces  a  roaring  in  the  excavations,  which  is  heard  as  far 
as  Iflatar  and  ilhanlar  near  Silistra,  a  day's  journey  from  hence.  On  the  top  of 
these  rocks  are  nests  of  eagles  each  as  large  as  a  sheep,  they  are  even  killed  and 
eaten  by  some  for  mutton.  Near  the  Convent  is  the  Castle  of  Kilghra,  which 
was  taken  by  Miissa  Chelebî  out  of  the  hands  of  the  Infidels.  It  belongs  to  the 
district  of  Bâlchik  in  the  government  of  Ozakov.  It  is  a  small  but  strong  square 
castle  on  the  seashore,  twenty  paces  in  circumference,  with  a  gate  opening  to  the 
west,  it  has  neither  mosque  or  khân,  commander  or  garrison.  Being  situated  on 
a  limestone  cliff  it  has  no  ditch  on  one  side  ;  on  the  east  side  is  a  precipice  of  one 
hundred  fathoms  ;  the  lower  part  of  this  castle  is  also  excavated,  like  the  rocks  of 
the  convent.  When  Nassif  Pasha  Zadeh  Hossein  was  governor  of  Ozakov,  these 
shores  were  sometimes  infested  by  the  Cossacks  and  Infidel  Russians,  who  made 
prisoners  of  the  inhabitants.  Hossein  Pasha  then  renewed  this  castle  at  his  own 
expense,  and  garrisoned  it,  so  that  the  shores  were  protected  from  inroads  ;  but 
the  Great  Vezir  Kara  Mustafa  Pasha,  having  taken  away  the  garrison  in  order  to 
mortify  Hossein  Pâshâ,  the  castle  remained  deserted.  Praise  be  to  God,  that  after 
having  escaped  the  dangers  of  the  sea,  and  being  delivered  from  it  before,  as  the 
bird  of  the  soul  left  the  cage  of  the  body,  I  passed  eight  months  here  in  sweet 
conversation,  till  at  the  commencement  of  the  spring  I  took  leave  of  my  friends 
and  returned  to  Constantinople. 

Return  to  Constantinople. 

In  the  spring  of  1054, 1  took  leave  of  Kilghra  Sultân  and  embarking  with  my 
four  slaves  coasted  the  shore  of  the  Black  Sea,  so  that  at  the  least  storm  I 
could  come  to  an  anchor.  Thus  I  passed  on  my  road,  Kavarna,  Bâlchik,  Varna, 
Ahieboli,  Sîzebolî,  Missivra,  Bûrghâs,  Chenkina,  the  island  of  mirrors  (Aina 
adassi  or  Inada)  and  the  strong  castle  of  Torkoz.  Near  this  place  is  the  flowery 
meadow,  and  pleasant  place  of  Skumrf-jair  where  the  janissaries  and  kürûjis  are 
encamped,  and  from  hence  watch  over  the  security  of  the  adjacent  villages,  because 
some  years  ago  these  shores  were  infested  by  Cossacks.  From  hence  we  came  to 
the  black  stones  (Cyanies),  a  rocky  ground  outside  of  the  mouth  of  the  Bosphorus. 

VOL.  II.  h 


74  THETRAVELSOF 

It  was  changed  into  stone  by  a  woman's  distaff,  and  is  a  curious  sight.  We  passed 
it,  and  in  God's  name  entered  the  channel  of  Constantinople,  anchoring  before  the 
Castle  of  Kavak.  I  went  on  shore,  and  thanked  God  for  the  happy  escape  from 
the  dangers  of  the  Black  Sea.  The  length  of  the  Black  Sea  from  the  Bosphorus 
to  Trebisonde  at  the  mouth  of  the  Phasus  is  fifteen  hundred  miles,  the  shores 
of  the  Abaza  are  seventeen  hundred  miles,  and  to  the  corner  of  the  sea  of 
Assov  two  thousand  miles  ;  seventeen  hundred  large  and  small  streams  fall 
into  it.  The  largest  is  the  Danube,  which  receives  seven  hundred  rivers  in  its 
course,  and  disembogues  into  the  Black  Sea  by  five  branches,  at  Kili,  Tûlja, 
Siilina,  and  Kara-khirmen ;  the  Phasus,  and  Chürûgh  on  the  Asiatic  side.  The 
Kuban  near  the  castle  of  Tamân,  the  river  of  Assov,  the  river  of  Ozakov,  and 
the  Dniester ;  on  the  Asiatic  shore  the  Kizil  Irmak,  the  Wesnesday  river,  and  the 
Sakaria.  From  Constantinople  to  Caffa  is  reckoned  one  thousand  miles,  to 
Baliklava  eleven  hundred,  to  A'kkermân  fifteen  hundred,  to  Varna  five  hundred ; 
from  the  point  of  Kilghra  to  that  of  Sinope  five  hundred,  from  the  mouth  of 
the  Bosphorus  to  Amassra  one  thousand,  and  to  Heraclea  one  hundred.  The 
whole  circuit  of  the  Black  Sea,  with  that  of  Assov,  is  six  thousand  and  sixty 
miles,  and  if  made  by  land  is  one  hundred  and  fifty  days  or  five  months  journey, 
each  day's  journey  to  be  reckoned  twelve  hours.  As  soon  as  I  arrived  at 
Constantinople  I  hastened  to  Eyyûb  to  read  once  more  the  Koran  there,  having 
performed  which  I  went  to  my  parents,  who  received  me  with  the  greatest  kindness. 
I  swore  never  to  try  the  navigation  of  the  Black  Sea  any  more.  May  God  guard 
from  its  misfortunes  all  the  faithful  people  of  Mohammed.  I  then  became  the 
Imam  of  the  Inspector  of  the  mouth,  and  soon  found  by  the  presents  from  my 
friends,  compensation  for  the  loss  I  sustained  in  the  Black  Sea,  of  my  eighteen 
slaves  and  other  things. 


EXPEDITION    AGAINST   MALTA    IN    THE   YEAR   1055    (1645). 

The  Kizlar  Agha  of  Sultân  Ibrahim  Sunbul  Aghd  after  his  dismissal  from  the 
Serai,  embarked  for  Egypt  with  fifty  fair  slave  girls,  and  as  many  boys,  and  forty 
horses  of  the  best  breed,  in  the  Caravel  of  Ibrahim  Chelebi.  He  stowed  all  his 
riches  for  three  months  into  the  six  magazines  of  this  Caravel,  and  went  on  board 
with  five  hundred  armed  men  of  his  suite,  three  hundred  merchants,  two  hundred 
sailors,  and  Ezuî  Mohammed  Efendi  who  was  exiled  into  Egypt ;  altogether  one 
thousand  three  hundred  persons,  who  sailed  on  Friday,  trusting  in  God.  Near 
Rodos  they  met  six  Maltese  Galleys,  with  whom  they   had  an  engagement  of 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  75 

twenty  four  hours,  during  which  the  horses  getting  loose  increased  the  confusion 
of  battle.  The  Caravel  was  dismasted  and  dismantled,  and  except  two  hundred 
men  all  the  rest  fell  martyrs.  The  owner  of  the  ship  upbraiding  the  Kizlar  Aghâ, 
said  unto  him  :  "  Cursed  Arab  did  I  not  tell  thee  not  to  put  horses  into  the  ship, 
but  rather  to  take  in  stores  and  ammunition ;  but  thou  didst  obtain  an  Imperial 
order,  hast  overloaded  the  ship,  and  in  that  way  given  up  to  the  Infidels."  Thus 
saying,  he  with  his  sword  severed  the  Kizlar  Aghd's  head  from  his  body,  and  was 
himself  at  the  same  moment  cut  into  pieces  by  the  suite  of  the  Eunuch,  who 
rushed  on  him  with  drawn  swords.  The  Infidels  witnessing  this  fact,  boarded  the 
ship,  fought  for  three  hours  more  on  board  of  it,  made  the  rest  of  the  men  including 
Ezîrî  Mohammed  Efendi  prisoners  and  took  the  ship  directly  into  the  harbour  of 
Canea,  where  they  came  to  an  anchor.  Here  they  remained  a  month  selling  the 
horses  and  slaves,  and  violating  all  the  girls.  Some  prudent  monks  and  patricians 
said  :  "  Woe  to  us,  better  would  it  have  been  not  to  see  this  Ottoman  ship  in  this 
town,  with  its  horses  and  girls,  because  a  prophecy  exists,  that  if  this  happened, 
the  island  would  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  Moslims."  This  rumour  being  spread 
was  the  cause  of  many  famihes  emigrating  from  the  island,  the  population  of  which 
then  consisted  of  four  hundred  thousand  Greeks,  and  seventy  six  towns  and  castles 
were  garrisoned  by  sixteen  thousand  Soldiers.  This  is  the  account  obtained  at  that 
time  by  my  Lord  Alî  Aghâ  the  inspector  of  the  custom  house.  The  Emperor 
being  much  hurt  at  the  unhappy  accident  of  the  Kizlar  Aghâ,  immediately  sent 
for  the  Venetian  Bailo,  accusing  him  and  his  whole  mission  with  a  breach  of  the 
peace,  by  allowing  the  Maltese  to  sell  Ottoman  goods  in  their  harbour.  They 
kissed  the  earth  and  said  :  "  Gracious  Emperor,  our  capitulations  stated,  that  if 
your  Imperial  fleet  conduct  prizes  of  Infidel  ships  into  our  ports,  we  are  to 
receive  thein  as  guests.  God  forbid  that  we  should  intend  to  break  the  peace,  we 
were  forced  by  the  Maltese  Infidels  to  admit  them."  The  Emperor  then  asked,  if 
they  would  assist  him  with  men  and  ships ;  they  promised  readily  to  furnish  three 
hundred  ships,  on  which  they  were  invested  with  robes  of  honour,  and  lulled  by  these 
means  into  the  sleep  of  hares.  Three  thousand  purses  were  issued  from  the 
Imperial  treasury  for  the  preparations  for  war,  and  Kapijî-Bâshîs  sent  to  one 
hundred  and  fifty  districts  on  the  side  of  Jâînak,  Sinope,  Amassra,  Ergelf,  Koja  Hi  and 
Isnikmid,  to  buy  and  get  ready  timber  for  three  hundred  ships.  From  the  mountains 
A'alemtâgh  and  Kapûtâgh  (in  the  neighbourhood  of  Constantinople)  wood  was 
brought  in  abundance,  so  that  all  the  magazines  of  the  arsenal  were  full  of  it.  The 
ship-builders  of  all  the  Islands  were  called  in,  and  every  week  a  galley  was  launched. 
An  Imperial  High  Admiral's  Ship  (Bashtarda,  Head  tartana,)  and  ten  Maunas  were 
built,  and  the  Arsenal  swarmed  with  busy  men.     Vezirs  were  sent  into  Rumeli 


76  THETRAVELSOF 

and  Anatoli  to  collect  armies,  Khassekfs  and  the  standard-bearer  of  the  prophet 
were  dispatched  to  Algiers,  Tunis,  and  Tripolis,  with  twelve  thousand  ducats  of 
powder-money,  and  Imperial  rescripts  exhorting  them  to  join  the  Capitan  Pâshâ 
in  the  spring.  It  was  generally  reported,  that  this  expedition  was  planned  against 
Malta,  but  the  Emperor,  the  Vezir  Kara  Mustafa  Pâshâ  and  the  Mufti  were  alone 
in  the  secret.     The  following  was  the  Fetva  proposed  and  given  by  the  Mufti. 

Query :  —  If  the  Infidels  are  possessed  of  a  land,  which  was  formerly  in  the 
possession  of  Moslims,  if  they  have  defiled  its  mosques,  colleges  and  oratories 
with  their  superstitions,  if  they  plunder  Mussulman  merchants  and  pilgrims, 
can  the  Emperor  of  the  Islam,  moved  by  his  zeal  for  the  house  of  God,  wrest 
these  countries  from  the  hands  of  Infidels,  and  add  them  to  the  Mussulman 
territory  ? 

Atiswer : — God  knows  every  thing  best.  Peace  with  the  Infidels  is  but  legal, 
if  advantageous  to  all  Moslims,  but  if  not,  it  is  not  legal  at  all.  As  soon  as  it 
is  useful,  it  is  also  allowed  to  break  the  peace,  be  it  concluded  for  a  fixed  time,  or 
for  ever.  This  is  justified  by  the  example  of  the  Prophet,  who  having  con- 
cluded peace  with  the  Infidels,  which  was  broken  by  Alî  in  the  6th  year  of  the 
Hejira,  took  the  field  against  them  in  the  8th  year,  and  conquered  Mecca.  The 
Emperor  has  but  imitated  the  Sunna  of  the  Prophet.  God  bless  his  victories. 
This  was  written  by  the  poor  despised  Abu  Sa'id. 

The  Emperor  took  this  Fetva  and  stuck  to  it  like  to  a  cable  of  safety ;  he  went 
the  same  day  to  visit  the  tomb  of  Eyyub,  was  twice  girt  there  by  the  Mufti  with 
the  sword  of  Omar,  in  anticipation  of  victory,  and  then  went  to  the  Arsenal,  where 
two  hundred  galleys  were  fitted  out  and  filled  with  troops.  Fifty  other  galleys 
were  ready  at  the  landing-place  of  the  Flour-hall ;  thirty-six  regiments  of  janis- 
saries, ten  of  artillerymen,  and  ten  of  armourers,  were  embarked  in  great  transport 
ships,  Mauna.  The  governor  of  Rumeli  with  the  troops  of  twenty-four  sanjaks, 
with  all  the  Timariots  and  Zaims  forming  an  army  of  twenty-two  thousand,  and 
with  the  Jebellis  of  twenty-seven  thousand  men,  was  ordered  to  repair  to  the 
Dardanelles ;  the  troops  of  Morea,  Sirmium,  Semendra,  Bosna,  and  Herzogavina, 
were  ordered  to  embark  at  the  castle  of  Benefshe  in  the  island  of  Morea.  The 
governor  of  Anatoli  with  the  army  of  his  fourteen  sanjaks,  and  the  men  of  one 
hundred  and  ninety-nine  military  fiefs,  amounting  to  five  thousand  five  hundred 
and  eighty-nine  men,  with  the  Jebellis  and  the  household  of  the  Pâshâ,  altogether 
twenty  thousand  men,  were  also  commanded  to  the  Dardanelles  on  the  Asiatic 
side.  The  governors  of  Damascus,  Haleb,  Diarbekr,  Mera'ash,  Adana,  Karaman, 
Sivas,  and  Trebisonde,  with  seventy  thousand  men  received  similar  orders.  At  the 
same  time  that  the  Kapîjî-bâshis  and  Khassekis,  who  had  been  sent  to  collect 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  77 

those  troops,  reported  that  they  were  ready  at  the  Dardanelles,  the  cavalry  had 
been  embarked  at  Constantinople.  At  the  beginning  of  spring,  the  whole  fleet 
was  ready,  consisting  of  two  hundred  galleys,  tartanas,  galliots,  twelve  large 
Mauna,  one  hundred  Firkata,  Caravella,  galleons,  pinks,  Butâj,  Shaitie,  Shaika 
and  Karamursal,  with  a  great  number  of  pioneers  and  miners  on  board.  Alto- 
gether seven  hundred  ships,  were  anchored  before  the  point  of  the  Seraglio. 

At    the    Sinan    Koshk    the    U'lemas  and   all   the   great  men    waited   on    the 
Emperor ;  the  Vezirs,  Begler-begs,  Captains,  Aghâs,  and  Colonels,  going  to  war, 
one  thousand  seven  hundred  individuals,  were  invested  with  magnificent  dresses. 
The  Commander-in-Chief  Yûssûf  Pâshâ,  the  great  Vezîr  Kara  Mustafa  Pâshâ  and 
the  Mufti  alone  remained  with  the  Emperor,  the  rest  having  already  gone  on 
board.     Sultân   Ibrahim  took  the  Vezir  and  Commander-in-Chief  each  by  the 
hand,  went  with  them  into  a  corner,  and  said :   "  Yûssûf,  where  art  thou  going 
to,"     Yûssûf  Pasha  answered,  "  To  Malta  if  it  please  God,"  and  Ibrahim  replied, 
"  If  it  please  God,  by  the  destination  of  the  all  vivifying,  all  standing,  have    I 
given  to  thee  the  destination  to  go  to  the  island  of  Crete.     Keep  this  a  secret  to 
thyself,  and  continue  to  say  thou  art  going  to  Malta ;  take  that  direction  with 
the  fleet  first,  remain  a  couple  of  days  on  the  shores  of  Morea,  and  then  sail 
back  to  Candia ;   disembark  the  troops  before  daybreak,  and  take  possession  of 
St.   Todero,   so  as   to   have  a  firm   post,  from  whence   to  begin   the   siege   of 
Canea.     These  are  my  instructions,  if  thou  return  victorious,  (if  it  please  God) 
I'll  reward  you  to  a  degree  that  you  shall  appear  with  a  brilliant  face  before  God. 
Keep  your  secret  well,  according  to  the  maxim,  which  commands  every  man  to 
hide  three  things,  Zeheb,  Zehâb,  and  Mezheb,  viz.  his  gold,  his  walks,  his  sect." 
After  this  instruction  Yûssıif  Pâshâ  was  invested  with  two  golden  robes  one  above 
the   other,   and   Sultân    Ibrahîm  said ;     "  Go    now   with    God,   who   will    assist 
thee."      He    went   on    board    the    High   Admiral's    ship,    Bashdarda,    and    the 
astronomers  of  the  Court  having  fixed  the  favourable  moment  for  getting  under 
weigh,  the  Commander-in-Chief  gave  the  order  to  the  High  Admiral,  and  at  the 
same  time  five  hundred  clarions  sounded ;  from  the  Admiral's  ship  the  shouts  of 
Allah  Î  allah !  pierced  the  air,  and  the  skies  were  rent  with  the  noise  of  muskets 
and  guns.     The  shouts  and  salutes  were  repeated  three  times,  and  the  Admiral's 
ship  took  the  lead,  the  music  playing  the  tune  Segah.     Passing  the  Sinân-koskh 
the  Commander-in-Chief  saluted  the  Emperor  and  the  Great  Vezir,  and  the  other 
ships  followed  like  a  row  of  cranes,  keeping  up  such  a  heavy  fire,  that  the  birds  of 
heaven  found  themselves  so  many  salamanders  in  the  midst  of  fire,  like  Abraham 
in  the  oven  of  Nimrod.     I,  poor  Evliya,  accompanied  this  expedition  as  Chief 
Moezzin  of  the  Commander-in-Chief,  Yûssûf  Pâshâ,  was  messmate  of  Ibrahim 


78  THETRAVELSOF 

Chelebî,  Clerk  of  the  Treasury,  on  board  of  the  Bashdarda,  and  passed  my  time 
pleasantly  eating  dates  and  diavolini  (Kotrobunîit). 

Station  of  Gallipolis. 

The  fleet  anchored  here  after  a  salute  fired  from  the  fortress,  and  repeated  by 
the  whole  fleet.  The  Mussulman  victors  all  went  to  the  arsenal  to  hasten  the 
embarkation  of  the  European  troops  on  board  of  fifty  barbaresque  vessels,  and 
on  the  opposite  side  in  the  harbour  of  Chârdâk,  the  Asiatic  troops  were  also 
doing  the  same.  In  twenty-four  hours  every  thing  was  completed,  and  next  day 
the  fleet  weighed  anchor  again  amidst  the  noise  of  muskets  and  guns.  We  passed 
Tenedos  (Buzja  Ada) ;  ten  Firkata  were  sent  on  ten  miles  a-head  to  keep  a  good 
look  out.  Their  captains  were  invested  with  robes  of  honour,  and  promised 
to  be  made  Begs  of  the  Imperial  arsenal  (post  captains).  We  passed  Tine 
(Istendil)  which  belonged  to  the  Venetians,  who  sent  presents  on  board  the 
Admiral's  ship,  but  no  notice  was  taken  of  them,  and  we  sailed  by.  We  passed 
Thera  (Değirmenlik),  an  Ottoman  island  belonging  to  the  khass  of  the  Captain 
Pasha,  weathered  the  point  of  Temashalik  (Sunium),  passed  Athens,  the  castle 
of  Termish  in  Morea,  and  stopped  at  Napoli  (di  Romania),  a  strong  castle  at  the 
end  of  a  great  port,  where  we  took  in  provisions  for  the  troops  of  twenty-seven 
Rumelian  sanjaks ;  we  did  the  same  at  Benefshe,  which  is  an  open  place  with  no 
port;  passed  Candia,  taking  no  notice,  as  if  we  were  going  to  Malta,  passed 
Cerigo  and  Cerigotto  also  belonging  to  the  Venetians,  the  fortresses  of  Coron  and 
Modon,  and  the  island  of  Borak,  a  small  island  near  Morea,  till  we  came  to 
Navarin.  This  is  a  large  port  defended  by  two  castles,  one  on  the  shore,  the 
other  on  high  rocks.  Here  we  came  to  anchor  and  discharged  the  lading  of  ten 
heavy  transport  ships  (Chakâlgemî)  of  the  Arsenal,  shifting  their  cargoes  of 
troops  and  artillery  on  to  lighter  ones.  During  our  stay  here,  the  commanders 
of  Zante  and  Cephalonia,  Venetian  Islands,  sent  presents  of  powder  and  lead  to 
the  Commander-in-Chief,  wishing  him  a  happy  voyage  and  success  in  the  ex- 
pedition ;  seeing  that  every  thing  was  directed  against  Malta,  they  returned  with 
great  satisfaction.  We  took  on  board  here  three  thousand  brave  Albanians,  and 
also  took  in  water,  because  a  great  fresh  water  river  disembogues  into  the  sea  at 
the  extremity  of  this  port. 

On  the  third  day  the  flag  was  hoisted,  the  trumpet  of  departure  sounded,  and 
nine  hundred  small  and  large  ships  left  the  port.  The  two  captains  Karabatak 
and  Dûrâk  with  ten  small  Firkata  were  at  the  head,  as  look-out  ships,  leading 
towards  Malta,  which  was  thought  by  the  whole  of  the  fleet  to  be  its  destination. 
At  noon  the  Commander-in-Chief  turned  round  on  a  sudden,  made  signals  for 


E  V  L  I  Y  A    E  F  E  N  D  I.  79 

the  whole  fleet  to  do  the  satne,  and  again  passed  by  Cerigo,  the  Castle  of  which 
now  began  to  light  fires,  and  fire  signal  guns.  At  sunset  we  were  before  Candia, 
and  before  daybreak  the  whole  fleet  anchored  opposite  the  castle  of  St.  Todero  on 
the  north  side  of  the  island  at  the  harbour  of  Suda.  Troops  and  two  light  guns 
(culverines)  were  disembarked  with  the  necessary  ammunition,  the  castle  assailed, 
and  in  less  than  two  hours  forced  to  surrender.  At  sunrise  the  Infidels  marched  out 
and  were  embarked  in  ships  for  Cerigo.  The  ships  were  now  secured  in  the  port, 
and  large  guns  placed  behind  gabions  to  defend  them.  The  two  governors  of 
Karaman  and  Adana  were  left  in  garrison,  and  the  whole  fleet  anchored  at  the 
harbour  of  the  Lazaret,  close  to  Canea.  The  whole  army  disembarked  with  their 
tents,  seventy  great  guns  (Balyemez),  forty  falconets,  and  two  hundred  small 
guns  (Shâhitop)  and  encamped  out  of  reach  of  gun  shot.  The  fleet  anchored 
in  the  port  of  the  Lazaret  safe  against  all  possible  winds,  and  the  Begs  (Captains) 
of  the  Barbareses  received  orders  to  cruise  with  seventy  Firkata.  The  Shaikas 
and  Kara  Mursal  also  now  disembarked  their  cargoes,  and  the  governor  of  Sivas 
was  commanded  to  watch  over  the  security  of  the  port,  which  is  situated  on  the 
west  side  of  Canea.  Praise  be  to  God,  it  was  taken  very  easily.  It  is  situated  sixty 
miles  distance  from  Cape  Kabâjâ  in  Morea,  and  its  conquest  as  well  as  that 
of  St.  Todero,  was  first  thought  necessary  for  the  facility  of  passing  troops  from 
Morea.  Great  batteries  were  raised  and  furnished  with  large  guns  to  protect 
the  fleet  lying  in  it,  meanwhile  Firkatas  were  keeping  the  open  sea  at  twenty  and 
thirty  miles  distance  as  guardships,  (Karaul  Kullik). 

Siege  of  the  Fortress  of  Canea. 

The  camp  being  pitched  round  the  Castle  of  Canea  at  a  gun-shot's  distance, 
and  every  man  having  taken  his  post  according  to  the  orders  of  the  Commander- 
in-Chief,  the  janissaries  first  entered  the  trenches.  The  next  day  the  Commander- 
in-Chief  held  a  grand  review  in  sight  of  the  Infidels,  and  in  defiance  of  them,  who 
were  confounded  at  this  show  of  the  Ottoman  power.  As  soon  as  he  had 
dismounted  at  his  tent,  forty  thousand  men  with  shovels  and  axes  began  to  work 
on  the  trenches  at  seven  points  round  the  fortress.  (1)  On  the  south  side  the 
Aghâ  of  the  janissaries,  in  whose  company  the  Commander-in-Chief  himself 
entered  the  trenches.  (2)  The  governor  of  Anatoli,  with  ten  regiments  and  the 
Zagarjî-bashî.  (3)  The  governor  of  Rumeli  with  ten  regiments  headed  by  the 
Samsünjî-bashî.  (4)  The  governor  of  Sivas  with  five  regiments  headed  by  the 
Khasseki.  (5)  On  the  east  side  at  the  silver  bulwark,  the  Barbareses  opened 
the  trenches.  (6)  On  the  west  side  at  the  golden  bulwark,  the  governor  of 
Haleb,  with  three  regiments  of  Zenberekji.     In  short,  the  attack  was  carried  on 


80  THETRAVELSOF 

from  seven  points.  The  north  side  bordering  on  the  sea  and  the  port  was  alone 
unable  to  be  attacked  by  trenches,  which  were  opened  on  all  other  points  of  the 
compass.  The  Infidels  having  enjoyed  peace  ever  since  the  conquest  of  Cyprus, 
their  artillery  and  arsenals  were  in  the  highest  state  of  perfection.  During  seven 
days  and  nights  they  fired  forty  thousand  guns  and  many  hundred  thousand 
musket-shot ;  seven  thousand  men  became  martyrs  being  killed  in  the  trenches, 
and  their  property  taken  possession  of  by  the  fiscus.  But  the  Moslim  victors 
encouraged  by  the  presence  and  the  gifts  of  the  Commander-in-Chief,  advanced 
with  undaunted  steadiness,  and  arrived  on  the  tenth  day  at  the  edge  of  the  ditch 
Seven  batteries  with  large  guns  were  battering  the  walls  on  seven  sides.  During 
twenty  days  and  nights  the  fire  continued  to  rage  from  both  sides.  The  Moslims 
at  last  began  to  raise  mounds  of  earth  on  the  side  of  the  sand  bulwark,  which 
being  perceived  by  the  garrison,  they  burned  the  Moslims  with  shells  and 
grenades.  This  way  of  continuing  the  siege  above  ground  being  found  im- 
practicable, it  was  carried  on  by  mines  under  ground.  On  the  west  side  of  the 
town,  where  the  Lazaret  is  estabUshed,  a  mine  of  three  mouths  was  blown 
up,  and  with  it  seventy  yards  of  the  wall,  with  all  the  Infidels  upon  it,  who  were 
sent  through  the  sky  to  hell.  The  Infidels  witnessing  this  artful  mining, 
imitated  it,  they  passed  under  the  ditch  and  blew  the  mounds  of  earth  with  a 
couple  of  hundred  men  into  the  air ;  so  that  the  air  was  obscured  by  the  dust  for 
more  than  an  hour's  time.  The  Mussulman  victors  not  caring  for  this,  exhorted 
one  another,  and  the  volunteers  brought  in  heads  and  prisoners  whom  they 
caught  at  the  breaches.  The  Commander  rewarded  those  who  brought  heads 
with  fifty,  and  those  who  brought  prisoners  with  an  hundred  ducats,  making  them 
besides  a  present  of  the  men  and  distributing  ziamets  and  timars. 

The  Faithful  devoting  themselves  with  heart  and  soul,  penetrated  sometimes 
into  the  interior  of  the  fortress,  from  whence  they  brought  heads  and  prisoners, 
and  amongst  the  last  even  the  son  of  the  commanding  general.  But  this  day 
was  a  bloody  one,  which  cost  many  lives. 

One  day  an  Infidel  descending  on  a  rope-ladder,  came  into  the  Commander-in- 
Chief's  tent,  and  said  he  had  good  news  to  tell  him,  if  he  would  promise  the 
safety  of  his  house  and  family.  The  Commander-in-Chief  granted  immediately 
what  he  asked,  and  promised  to  give  him  the  command  of  the  Infidels  besides. 
He  then  confirmed  his  promise  by  an  oath,  and  tied  a  handkerchief  of  pardon 
round  his  neck.  Then  the  Infidel  said  that  there  were  two  parties  in  the  castle, 
the  Greeks  who  wished  to  surrender,  and  the  Venetians  who  wished  to  defend 
themselves  to  the  last  man.  The  latter  were  assembled  on  the  side  of  the 
harbour,  where  the  fortress  had  not  yet  been  battered,  he  advised,  therefore,  to 


evliya    efendi.  81 

disturb  them  by  a  battery  raised  on  that  side,  and  to  throw  into  the  Greek  quarter» 
some  arrows  only,  with  flattering  promises  to  the  Greeks.  This  advice  having 
been  followed,  ten  Greeks  came,  who  embraced  Islam,  and  received  Mussulman 
names.  The  siege  was,  however,  continued  with  the  same  zeal.  On  the  east 
side  of  the  harbour  a  great  bastion  was  raised,  from  which  the  high  houses 
and  palaces  of  the  Infidels  near  the  port  were  battered,  and  where  cries  and 
lamentations  pieixed  the  skies.  The  same  day  orders  were  issued  to  all  Captains 
of  the  Navy,  and  to  the  Begs  of  the  Barbareses,  to  keep  a  good  watch,  and  twelve 
Maunas  were  ordered  to  batter  the  port,  and  the  sea  side  of  the  town.  This 
raised  a  great  outcry  there,  but  some  of  the  shots  injuring  the  camp,  other  orders 
were  issued  to  the  chief  gunner  of  the  fleet.  The  Infidels  never  relaxing  in  their 
fire  and  their  stratagems,  there  was  no  day  without  a  couple  of  hundred  falling 
martyrs.  It  would  be  too  tedious  to  relate  all  the  memorable  events  of  this  siege  ; 
in  short,  one  day  the  Infidels  seeing  forty  thousand  brave  men  with  drawn  swords 
and  heavy  shields,  ready  to  assail  the  walls,  hoisted  the  white  flag  of  surrender, 
crying,  "  Aman,  âmân,  O  exquisite  family  of  Osman  !"  No  regard  being  paid  to 
this,  and  the  firing  continuing  as  before,  some  Captains  came  out  by  the  breaches, 
asking  for  a  respite  of  ten  days.  The  Commander-in-Chief  answered,  "  You 
will  walk  out  to-morrow,  or  all  fall  victims  to  the  sword."  This  was  agreed  to. 
Some  of  them  remained  in  the  tent  of  the  Commander-in-Chief,  some  went  into 
the  castle  and  returned  with  the  answer,  that  next  morning  they  would  all  be 
ready  to  surrender.  The  Janissaries,  Sipahis,  Jebejis  and  Topjis,  instantly  took 
possession  of  the  walls  and  the  artillery,  and  during  the  night,  the  Infidels  were  em- 
barked for  their  cursed  country.  The  next  day  the  Islamitic  prayer  was  proclaimed, 
salutes  of  guns  and  muskets  fired,  and  those  salutes  repeated  thrice  from  time  to 
time  during  three  days.  The  ships  of  the  Infidels  steering  eastward  to  the  Castles 
of  Retimo  and  Candia,  their  General  when  he  saw  and  heard  these  rejoicings, 
when  he  heard  the  profession  of  Islam  proclaimed  from  the  belfries,  when  he  saw 
the  crosses  upset  and  the  green  banner  of  Mohammed  waving  on  the  spires, 
could  not  bear  such  a  sight,  but  blinded  himself.  The  whole  fleet  now  entered 
the  harbour,  and  messengers  were  sent  to  Constantinople  with  the  good  news. 
Seventy-seven  tartanas  and  galleys,  and  fifty  barbaresque  ships,  came  to  an 
anchor.  All  the  stores  and  ammunition  were  disenibarked,  and  large  batteries 
raised  on  the  shore  to  mount  the  guns  on.  The  troops  were  occupied  in  cleansing 
the  trenches  and  ditches,  and  repairing  the  walls ;  thus  the  castle  became  ten 
times  stronger  than  it  was  before ;  all  the  churches  were  converted  into  mosques, 
and  the  first  Friday  prayer  performed  in  the  mosque  of  Sultân  Ibrahim.  The 
streets  were  adorned  with  shops  and  lighted  with  lamps  during  the  night.     The 

VOL.  II.  M 


82  THETRAVELSOF 

clarions  sounded  after  the  prayer  was  performed,  the  shouts  of  Allah  pierced 
the  skies,  and  a  triple  salute  was  fired,  the  report  of  which  shook  not  only  Rome 
and  Irak,  but  the  whole  of  earth  and  Heaven. 

The  sixth  day  after  the  conquest  of  the  castle,  a  fleet  of  a  hundred  sail  bearing 
the  Venetian,  Tuscan,  and  Popish  flag  came  to  the  assistance  of  it ;  but  when 
they  saw  the  port  full  of  the  Ottoman  fleet,  and  the  ships  of  the  Barbareses 
cruising  before  it,  when  they  saw  the  belfries  turned  into  minarehs,  and  the 
Crescents  in  the  place  of  the  Crosses,  they  sighed  heavily,  "  Good-by  Canea! 
Good-by  Canea !"  and  sailed  in  despair  for  Siida.  The  Ottoman  victors  found  in 
the  conquered  fortress  all  the  slaves  and  girls  of  the  late  Kislar  Agassi  embarked 
on  board  the  galleon  of  Ibrahim  Chelebi,  all  his  precious  things,  and  high-bred 
horses ;  they  revenged  the  blood  shed,  and  turned  the  Convents  of  their  monks 
and  nuns  into  those  of  Dervishes.  The  contest  at  this  siege  was  scarcely  so 
heavy  and  bloody  as  at  the  sieges  of  Assov,  Erivan  and  Baghdad,  which  have  been 
celebrated  by  eloquent  writers.  The  Commander-in-Chief  sent  messengers  and 
letters  to  nine  towns  and  fortresses  of  the  island,  and  to  the  Rayas  in  the  interior 
of  the  island  in  the  mountains  of  Assfakia,  summoning  them  to  pay  ti'ibute,  to 
surrender  to  the  Sultîîn  the  keys  of  their  castles,  and  to  enjoy  ease  and  plenty 
under  the  protection  of  the  Emperor;  threatening  those  who  would  not  comply 
with  this  demand,  with  the  havoc  of  their  lands,  slavery  of  their  families,  and 
death  to  themselves  by  the  sword.  Within  seven  days  came  three  hundred 
deputies  from  all  places  and  villages  in  the  island  to  pay  obeisance  and  bring 
presents.  The  rest  of  the  island  not  having  submitted,  the  Vezirs  and  Begler- 
Begs  received  orders  to  send  the  Ottoman  victors  to  collect  the  legal  tithes. 
From  seventy  to  eighty  thousand  men  were  immediately  dispersed  over  the  seven 
hundred  and  seventy  miles  of  the  island,  taking  booty,  day  and  night,  in  the  ways 
of  God.  Gold,  silver,  brass  vessels,  fine  boys,  and  pretty  girls,  were  carried  in 
immense  numbers  to  the  Ottoman  camp,  where  there  was  such  an  abundance  that 
a  boy  or  girl  was  sold  for  eighteen  piastres.  Some  thousand  men  of  the  army, 
seeing  such  plenty,  settled  in  the  island.  Kuchuk  Hassan  Pasha  with  seventeen 
Begler-Begs,  seventy  Alai-Begs,  and  all  the  Zaims  and  Timariots,  remained  at 
Canea,  besides  the  garrison  of  regular  troops,  consisting  of  twenty-seven  regiments 
of  janissaries,  ten  regiments  of  artillery,  ten  regiments  of  armourers,  four  re- 
giments of  cavalry,  and  three  thousand  men,  Egyptian  troops ;  altogether 
seventy-seventy  thousand  men.  In  the  castle  remained  seven  thousand  seven 
hundred  Azabs,  and  forty  ships  were  left  for  the  transport  of  troops  from  Men- 
keshe,  besides  fifty  firkata  manned  with  an  hundred  stout  lads. 

The  Commander-in-Chief,  Yûssûf,  took  leave  of  all  the  Vezirs  and  great  men. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  83 

and  weighed  anchor  with  a  favourable  wind,  and  sailed  for  Constantinople.  He 
passed  with  a  fleet  of  two  hundred  sail  before  Cerigo  and  Cerigotto,  destroyed 
the  repairs  of  the  Mainotes  at  the  Cape  of  Maina  in  Morea,  with  the  Castle  ofKilli 
situated  on  the  same  point ;  passed  the  Cape  of  Capospada,  and  the  Castle  of 
Menkeshi,  and  came  to  anchor  at  Napoli.  After  a  stay  of  three  days  a  council 
was  held,  and  it  was  resolved  to  lay  waste  the  Island  of  Istendil  (Tine),  belonging 
to  the  Venetians.  At  the  moment  the  fleet  was  sailing,  an  Imperial  rescript 
arrived  from  Constantinople  congratulating  the  Commander-in-Chief  on  his  victories, 
and  rewarding  him  with  an  Imperial  robe  of  honour,  and  a  sword  and  cutlass  set 
with  jewels.  The  same  day  the  Island  of  Tine  was  plundered,  but  no  great  booty 
found.  Its  castle  being  strong  and  high,  the  signal  of  departure  was  immediately 
given,  and  the  southerly  wind  being  favourable,  in  the  course  of  ten  days  we 
touched  at  different  places,  such  as  Chios,  Lemnos,  Mitylene,  and  Tenedos; 
these  castles  were  put  in  repair,  and  garrisoned  with  the  necessary  number  of 
troops.  From  Tenedos  we  arrived  at  Gallipolis,  where  we  took  water,  and  where 
the  Commanders  received  strict  orders  to  be  watchful.  From  hence,  in  two  days 
and  one  night,  we  reached  the  Prince's  Isalnds,  in  sight  of  Constantinople,  and 
next  day  arrived  at  the  Seraglio  point,  with  such  demonstrations  of  joy  as  cannot 
be  expressed.  The  conqueror  of  Canea,  Yûssûf  Pasha,  kissed  the  ground  before 
the  Emperor,  was  decorated  with  Imperial  robes  of  honour,  and  offered  a 
treasure  worth  that  of  Egypt,  and  youths  like  those  of  Paradise,  besides  an 
infinite  number  of  presents.  But  he  was  afterwards  calumniated  and  killed. 
When  Sultan  Ibrahfm  saw  his  body,  he  said,  "  how  white  he  was !"  and  fell  a 
crying.  He  added,  "  My  Yûssûf,  may  those,  who  have  played  thee  this  trick 
soon  share  thy  fate !"  and,  while  saying  so,  he  looked  at  his  favourite  Jinji  Khoja. 
His  death  caused  general  complaint  and  lamentations,  and  there  was  but  one 
voice  of  sorrow.     God's  mercy  be  upon  him  ! 

Cause  of  the  Death  of  Yiissi'if  Pctshd. 

Envious  calumniators  informed  the  Emperor,  that  Yûssüf  Pasha  had  secreted 
from  the  treasures  of  Canea  three  great  tubs  of  gold,  three  millions  of  money, 
and  a  golden  column  ;  that  he  had  not  given  a  drop  of  the  ocean  nor  an  atom 
of  the  sun  of  his  treasures  to  the  Emperor.  After  his  death  nothing  was  found, 
and  the  column  wrapt  up  in  felt,  which  had  been  said  to  be  a  golden  tree, 
was  found  to  be  a  column  of  yellow  stone,  which  was  afterwards  used  to  support 
the  oratory  of  the  mosque  built  by  the  mother  of  Mohammed  IV.  It  is  a  stone 
more  precious  indeed  than  gold  and  jewels,  because  persons  afflicted  with  jaundice 
are  cured  by  touching  it  three  times  on  a  Saturday.  This  is  the  stone  which 
caused  the  death  of  Yûssüf  Pasha. 


84  THETRAVELSOF 

"  The  servant  proposes  and  God  disposes,  and  the  tongues  of  the  people  are 
the  pens  of  God."  When  Sultân  Ibrahim  disclosed  the  secret  of  the  expedition 
to  Yussilf  Pâshâ  on  his  departure,  he  said,  "  If  thou  returnest  victorious  I'll 
reward  thee  according  to  thy  merits:"  and  indeed  it  happened  so,  because 
the  conquest  of  Canea,  an  enterprise  so  difficult,  was  granted  to  Yûssûf  Pâshâ 
before  the  arrival  of  the  enemy's  fleet  by  a  special  favour  of  God,  and  no  reward 
could  equal  such  merit,  but  the  glory  of  Martyrdom.  He  was  beloved  of  God, 
who  first  granted  him  the  conquest  and  then  the  Martyr's  crown.  Praise  be  to 
God  that  I,  poor  Evliyfi,  witnessed  such  a  famous  siege,  and  returned  safe  to  my 
native  city.  I  kissed  my  parents'  hands,  who  wished  me  joy  on  my  safe  return. 
My  father  said,  "  The  campaign  thou  hast  made  now  renders  my  going  into 
the  field  superfluous."  I  said,  "  My  dear  father,  you  have  grown  old,  you  have 
been  present  at  seventy  battles  since  Sultân  Suleiman's  time.  Pray  now  for 
your  beloved  son,  who  shall  go  into  battles  instead  of  you."  I  kissed  his  hand, 
and  he  then  told  me  the  following  story,  exhorting  me  to  listen  to  it  with  the 
ears  of  my  soul. 

"  In  the  year  when  thou  wast  born,  my  son,  in  the  reign  of  Sultân  Ahmed  I.  a 
great  assembly  of  seven  hundred  Vezîrs  and  great  men  was  held  at  the  Hippo- 
drome in  order  to  lay  the  foundation  of  Sultân  Ahmed's  mosque.  They  dug 
from  forty  to  fifty  cubits  deep,  and  the  walls  of  the  foundations  having  reached 
the  level  of  the  earth,  the  Ulemas  and  Astronomers  were  assembled,  and  with 
the  prayers  and  ceremonies  usual  in  similar  cases  the  position  of  the  mihrâb 
determined.  Kalender  Pâshâ  was  named  inspector,  Kara  Sunbul  Alî  Efendi,  the 
Secretary,  and  our  Khoja  (Evliyâ's  reading-master)  Evliya  Efendi,  imâm  of  the 
foundations ;  the  Sheikh  of  Scutari,  Mahommed  Efendî,  was  named  the  Sheikh ; 
Mahmud  Chelebl,  Kara  Mahmud  Agha,  and  forty  other  men  with  fine  voices,  the 
Moezzins  of  the  foundations.  One  day  Sultân  Ahmed  came,  and  pitched  his 
tent  on  that  part  of  the  courtyard  of  the  mosque,  where  there  then  remained  only 
a  single  painted  Koshk  belonging  to  the  Serai  of  Koja  Mohammed  Pâshâ.  Here 
the  Sultân  gave  a  feast  to  all  the  Vezîrs  and  great  men  of  the  capital,  which 
surpassed  even  that  which  was  given  at  the  feast  of  circumcission  of  Sultân 
Ahmed.  The  assembly  having  retired,  there  remained  in  the  Sultan's  tent,  only 
Mahmud  Efendî  of  Scutari,  Evliya  Efendi  my  master,  Kara  Sunbul  Alî  Efendi, 
Ibrahim  Efendî  the  senior  of  the  surgeons,  Dervish  Omar  Gulshenî  one  of  the 
favourite  singers  and  I,  thy  poor  father,  sitting  on  our  heels.  The  Sultân  said 
unto  us,  "  If  it  please  God  this  mosque  shall  be  finished,  and  be  a  fine  praying 
place,  but  it  requires  to  be  well  endowed."  Evliya  and  Mahiuud  Efendi  of 
Scutari  said,  "  My  gracious  Emperor,  undertake  a  military  expedition,  and  then 


evliya  efendi.  85 

devote  the  revenues  of  the  conquered  land  to  your  new  built  mosque,  as  your 
ancestor  Suleimdn  did,  who  having  in  person  conquered  Rodos,  Stancio,  and 
different  other  islands,  devoted  their  revenues  to  his  mosque,  which  is,  therefore, 
the  best  endowed  of  all  the  Imperial  mosques.  If  your  Majesty  should  undertake 
an  expedition  against  Creta  (Kirîd),  you  would  protect  the  passage  of  Ottoman 
merchants  and  pilgrims  from  the  ships  of  the  Infidels.  The  senior  of  the  surgeons, 
Ibrahim,  and  Mahmiid  Efendi  of  Scutari  said  a  Fâtihah  for  this  good  intention, 
the  seven  prayers  of  which  were  repeated  by  all  present,  who  finished  it  by 
saying,  '  If  it  please  God  our  prayer  shall  be  granted.' 

"  Sultan  Ahmed  then  said,  '  But,  learned  gentlemen,  we  are  at  peace  with  the 
Venetians,  is  it  decent  for  a  Shehin-shah  (king  of  kings)  to  encroach  on  treaties  of 
peace  ?  Under  what  pretext  shall  we  break  it,  particularly  now,  when  Anatoh  is 
kept  in  rebellion  by  Kara  Yaziji,  Safd  Arab,  Kalender-oghli  and  Jennet-oghlî, 
against  whom  myVezîr  Murad  Lala  is  marching  ?  How  shall  I  then  think  of  the  con- 
quest of  Candia  ? '  Evliya  answered,  '  My  Emperor,  on  the  third  day  all  the  rebels 
shall  be  beaten,  and  you  shall  receive  the  good  news  on  the  twelfth,  they  shall 
pass  away  Hke  a  torrent ;  Murad  Pasha  shall  fill  wells  with  their  dead  bodies,  and 
obtain  in  history  by  this  deed  the  name  of  Murad  Pasha  the  well-maker  (Kiiyiiji).' 
This  prediction  was  accomplished  by  the  news  that  Murad  Pasha  had  filled  all  the 
wells  near  Haleb  and  Azez  with  the  bodies  of  the  rebels.  Mahmud  Efendi  of 
Scutari  availed  himself  of  this  opportunity  to  remind  the  Emperor  of  the  project  of 
the  Cretan  war,  and  suggested  to  him,  first  to  send  an  embassy  to  the  Prince  of 
Venice  to  ask  that  he  should  give  up  the  island  of  Creta.  Sultân  Ahmed,  being 
pleased  with  this  idea,  sent  Kûrd-Chaûsh,  a  good  and  eloquent  speaker,  with 
presents,  as  ambassador  to  Venice.  He  made  great  haste,  and  at  the  end  of  seven 
days  arrived  at  Venice,  making  his  public  entrance  on  the  eighth,  and  read  his 
letters  in  public  council ;  the  Senate  consented  to  the  demand,  and  letters  were 
made  out,  with  which  Kûrd-Chaûsh  was  sent  back  ;  having  kissed  the  ground 
before  the  Emperor,  the  letters  were  read  by  the  Interpreter  in  presence  of 
Mahmud  Efendi  of  Scutari,  Evhya,  Sunbul  Alî,  Ibrahim,  Toghani,  Ismail  Efendi 
the  Commentator  on  the  Mesnevi,  Jûnûbî  the  Sheikh  of  the  Mevlevi's  at  Kâssîm 
Pasha,  Dervish  Omer  Gulsheni,  Guzelji  Gıüâbı,  Kûzû  Alî  Aghâ,  Abdî  Agha,  and 
of  me,  thy  poor  father,  m  the  following  form  and  tenor,  *  You  have  asked  from 
me  the  Principe,  your  most  humble  servant,  the  island  of  Creta,  with  six  hundred 
thousand  inhabitants,  seven  hundred  and  seventy  villages,  and  of  seven  hundred 
and  seventy  miles  circumference,  with  seven  mines  of  gold,  silver  and  other  metals, 
which  we  are  ready  to  give.'  At  these  words  all  those  who  were  present  read  the 
Fatihah,  and  the  Mohammedan  shouts  (Allah  Î  Allah  !)  rent  the  air. 


80  THETRAVELSOF 

"  The  end  of  the  letter  said,  '  But  we  poor  fellows,  giving  to  you,  great 
Monarch,  an  island  as  rich  as  that  of  Creta,  we  beg  of  you  the  favour  to  make  us  a 
present  of  the  ports  of  Acra,  Saida,  Beirut,  and  of  the  old  seat  of  our  rehgion, 
Jerusalem.  It  is  only  for  this  purpose  we  can  cede  to  you  the  island  of  Creta,  and 
it  would  be  more  reasonable  to  dehver  your  hereditary  countries  from  the  rebels, 
who  infest  it,  than  to  form  such  strange  demands  : — Our  comphments  to  you  ! ' 
Ahmed  hearing  this  answer  was  deeply  afflicted,  and  began  to  cry.  Mahmüd 
Efendi  said,  '  Why  should  your  Majesty  be  afflicted ;  they  began  by  saying,  that 
they  were  ready  to  give  up  the  island,  it  is  God  who  has  dictated  these  words  to 
them,  according  to  which  they  shall  be  obliged  to  yield  the  island.'  A  Fatihah  was 
said,  and  the  Mahommedan  shouts  (Allah !)  repeated.  Then  they  said,  '  If  it 
please  God,  it  shall  most  certainly  be  conquered,'  and  saying  so,  they  changed  the 
conversation.  When  this  letter  was  again  read  at  the  Divân,  the  Emperor 
happened  to  be  in  his  innermost  garden  at  the  place  called  ChemensofFa,  con- 
versing with  the  abovenamed  learned  and  virtuous  gentlemen.  At  this  moment 
the  gate  of  the  innermost  Harem  opened,  and  the  Kislar-agassf  walked  out, 
followed  by  seven  Princes,  who  kissed  the  hands  of  the  Emperor,  and  then  of  the 
Sheikhs,  who  were  with  him,  and  the  Sultân  said,  '  Gentlemen,  the  Princes  my 
sons,  are  your  most  humble  servants.'  He  then  ordered  that  they  should  play 
before  him,  to  dissipate  the  melancholy  which  the  answer  of  the  Venetians  had 
caused.  They  played  ball,  and  Pi'ince  Osman,  the  strongest  and  stoutest  of  them, 
was  superior  to  the  rest.  Coming  near  his  father's  throne,  he  asked  him,  '  My 
Osman  !  wilt  thou  conquer  Creta  ? '  The  Prince  answered,  '  What  shall  I  do  with 
Creta  ?  I  will  conquer  the  land  of  the  white  Russian  girls,  and  shed  blood  there.' 
Saying  so,  he  continued  to  play  ;  Evhya  Efendi,  praise  to  God,  the  innocent  boy 
could  not  reach  the  meaning  of  the  Emperor's  words.  Mahmüd  observed,  that  he 
had  understood  well  the  word  Creta,  but  that  there  was  something  mysterious  in 
his  answer  about  the  white  Russian  girls.  Now  Prince  Osman  came  up  pursuing 
his  brother  Mohammed  even  under  the  throne,  where  Mohammed  sheltered  him- 
self, and  having  crept  forth  again,  the  ball,  which  Osman  threw  at  him,  touched 
his  gilt  turban,  and  hurt  his  neck  so  that  blood  was  flowing,  and  he  turned  giddy. 

"  Sultân  Ahmed  said,  '  Look  Mohammed,  Osman  is  thy  brother,  and  yet  he 
has  hurt  thee,  this  is  the  course  of  the  world  :  strike  him  in  your  turn.'  He  wiped 
his  blood  off,  and  having  seated  him  at  the  foot  of  the  throne,  he  asked  him, 
'Will  you  conquer  Creta,  Mohammed  ?'  Mohammed  said,  '  I  will,  but  my  brother 
Osman  sheds  my  blood ;  if  it  is  not  me,  another  Mohammed  will  finish  the  con- 
quest begun  by  me.'  The  Senior  of  the  Surgeons,  Ibrahim  said,  '  Praise  be  to 
God,  what  secrets  are  revealed  to-day  1  but  nobody  yet  understands  them.'     Now 


evliya  efendi.  87 

the  Princes  continued  to  play  at  ball ;  Bayazid  and  Siileimc'in  were  chasing  each 
other,  when  all  at  once,  Prince  Murad  sallied  forth  from  the  place  called  the  black 
cypress,  and  threw  a  ball  at  them,  which  hurt  them  both,  so  that  blood  dropped 
from  their  noses.  Sultân  Ahmed  said,  '  My  Murad,  why  dost  thou  beat  thy 
brethren  so.'  The  Prince  replied,  '  It  was  not  my  intention,  but  such  is  the  play 
of  the  woi-ld,  I  was  obliged  to  do  it  because  they  gained  upon  me,  and  were  going 
to  take  my  place ! '  Omer  Gulsheni  said,  *  There  is  also  some  mystery  in  that.' 
Now  came  Prince  Ibrahim  in  a  ruby-coloured  dress  :  Sultân  Ahmed  asked  him, 
*  Where  have  you  been  my  Ibrahim  ? '  'I,'  said  he,  '  have  taken  the  ablution  of 
martyrdom,  and  am  now  come  to  wrestle  and  play  with  all  my  brethren.'  He 
entered  wildly  and  threw  a  ball  at  Sultân  Osmân's  head,  so  that  he  knocked  off  his 
turban  and  set  him  crying.  Prince  Murad  now  threw  a  ball  at  Ibrahim,  which  he 
received  undaunted,  feigned  to  direct  his  ball  at  Bayazid,  but  turned  round 
in  a  moment,  and  threw  it  at  Murad  with  such  violence,  that  he  was  for  some 
time  senseless.  Ibrahim  now  ran  to  his  father's  throne,  sat  at  the  foot  of  it, 
and  said,  '  Have  I  not  aimed  a  good  ball  at  Murad,'  and  then  fell  to  indelicate  play. 
Murad  was  crying  on  the  ground,  saying,  '  I  had  rather  died,  than  have  been 
beaten  in  that  way  by  Ibrahim  ! '  The  play  continuing,  to  the  surprise  of  all  the 
beholders,  Murad  again  pursued  Ibrahim,  and  threw  the  ball  at  him,  which 
he  received  as  boldly  as  the  first  time,  and  retreated  under  the  throne,  from  whence 
he  then  issued  without  his  turban  and  in  a  state  of  undress.  Sultân  Ahmed 
caught  hold  of  his  ear,  and  said,  '  Wilt  thou  conquer  Creta,  and  make  of  it  an 
endowment  for  my  mosque  for  Mecca  and  Medina,'  The  Prince  said,  '  If  God 
assists  me,  and  helps  me,  in  God's  name,  and  if  it  pleases  God,  my  son  Yüssûf 
shall  conquer  it  under  Yüssûf  the  Prophet's  favour  ! '  All  who  were  present  now 
said  a  Fatihah  that  this  might  happen,  and  Sultân  Ahmed  said,  'Now,  how  curi- 
ous it  is,  that  I  am  fallen  into  melancholy  since  the  Venetian  letter  has  been  read, 
that  wishing  to  divert  myself  with  my  children's  play,  they  got  bloody  necks  and 
noses,  and  made  me  more  melancholy  than  before,  till  Ibrahim  has  at  once  chased 
away  my  spleen  by  saying  that  he  will  conquer  Creta  by  his  son.'  God's  mercy 
on  Sultân  Ahmed  !     All  that  had  been  foreshewn  in  this  play,  really  happened. 

"  1.  Sultân  Osman  who  hurt  his  brother  Mohammed's  neck,  ordered  him  to  be 
executed  when  going  to  Khotyn, 

"  2.  Sultân  Osman,  who  was  hurt  by  Ibrahim's  ball  in  his  groin,  died  after  his 
unsuccessful  return  from  Hotyn,  at  the  Seven  Towers,  when  one  Piniâl  tortured 
him  till  he  died  by  compression  of  the  scrotum. 

"  3.  The  two  Princes,  Bayazid  and  Suleiman,  overtaken  by  Murad  at  the  black 
cypress,  were  strangled  in  the  same  place,  the  blood  dropping  from  their  noses,  by 


88  THETRAVELSOF 

Sultân  Murad's  order  in  the  year  1045,  when  he  sent  Beshir  Aghâ  to  Constanti- 
nople with  the  news  of  the  conquest  of  Erivan.  They  were  buried  in  their  father 
Ahmed's  tomb,  twenty-one  years  after  this  play  had  happened  in  their  father's 
presence. 

"  4.  The  ball  received  by  Ibrahim  from  Murad  foreboded  that  Ibrahfm'  would 
be,  as  he  was,  Murad's  successor. 

"  5.  Ibrahim's  indelicate  play  at  the  foot  of  the  throne,  showed  the  luxury  of 
his  reign  passed  in  weddings  and  pleasure  parties. 

"  6.  His  having  then  said  ;  '  woe  to  my  cullies,'  was  the  forerunner  of  the 
infamous  disease  of  which  he  died. 

"  7.  The  reply  given  by  Ibrahîm,  when  coming  forth  from  beneath  his  father's 
throne,  and  saying,  that  he  would  conquer  Creta  with  his  son  Yûssûf,  is  to  be 
understood  of  Yüssûf  Pashd  the  Commander-in-chief  of  the  expedition  to  Canea. 

"  8.  God  knows  my  son  (continued  Evliyâ's  father)  whether  the  name  of 
Yûssûf  may  not  be  applied  to  Ibrahim's  son,  who  shall  finish  the  conquest  of 
Creta  begun  by  his  father. 

"  My  son,  all  these  mysteries  I  witnessed  in  Sultân  Ahmed's  presence,  and  have 
waited  ever  since  for  the  conquest  of  Creta  promised  by  Sultân  Ibrahim  to  his 
father,  and  now  fulfilled  accordingly.  I,  thy  poor  father,  was  present  at  the  prayers 
then  said  at  the  suggestion  of  this  conquest,  and  thou  my  son  hast  witnessed  the 
fulfilling  of  it.     If  it  please  God,  thou  shalt  witness  also  its  entire  conquest." 

It  was  in  this  manner  that  my  father.  Dervish  Mohammed,  the  chief  of  the 
goldsmiths  at  Constantinople,  related  the  story  of  the  Princes.  God's  mercy  upon 
him  !  As  some  thousand  descriptions  of  the  siege  of  Canea  exist,  I  would  not  ex- 
patiate too  much  on  this  subject,  but  have  related  what  I  witnessed  in  a  plain  way. 

Jowanji  Kapûjî  Mohammed  Pâshâ  the  great  Vezir  being  deposed,  he  was  named 
Commander-in-chief  at  Creta,  and  the  Vezirat  given  to  the  Defterdar  Sâleh  Pâshâ, 
who  bestowed  on  his  brother,  Murteza  Pâshâ,  the  governorship  of  Bude  with  three 
tails ;  and  on  Ibrahim  Chelebi,  who  had  been  Khazinedar,  the  governorship  of 
Baghdad.  The  son  of  Sâleh  Pâshâ,  Chelebî  Mohammed,  known  by  the  name  of 
the  hanged  Defterdâr-zadeh  Mohammed  Pâshâ,  was  made  Aghâ  of  the  janissaries, 
with  the  character  of  Vezir,  but,  as  he  did  not  accept  of  it,  he  was  sent  as  Com- 
mander-in-chief to  Erzerûm.  I,  poor  Evliya,  was  appointed  clerk  at  the  custom- 
house of  Erzerûm,  Moezzin  and  companion  to  this  Pâshâ.  He  was  a  man  of 
agreeable  conversation,  great  acquirements  in  all  sciences,  generous,  brave,  a  poet 
and  statesman.  He  bestowed  on  me  rich  presents,  and  I  prepared  my  tents  for 
the  journey  to  Erzerûm.  I  was  invested  with  a  robe  of  honour  (caftan)  in  Sultân 
Ibrahim's  presence.     He  said  unto  the  Pâshâ,  giving  him  the  Imperial  rescript. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  89 

"  Thou  art  my  absolute  Vczir  and  Commander  against  the  Persians  ;  if  they  should 
become  rebels,  all  the  army  of  Anatolia  as  far  as  Erivan  is  under  thy  command." 
He  gave  h  im  five  purses,  fifty  mules  and  as  many  camels  for  the  journey,  a 
splendid  tent,  and  two  sable  pelisses.  We  passed  under  Sultân  Ibrahim's  blessing 
to  Scutari,  where  we  pitched  our  tents  at  the  place  called  Aghâchairî.  The  same 
day,  Cherkess  Derzi  Mustafa,  one  of  the  Imperial  armsbearers  (Silahshor),  was 
sent  express  to  Erzenim  to  Malatialf  Silihdar  Suleiman  Pasha.  During  our  stay 
at  Scutari,  the  treasurer  of  the  Pâshâ  Dilber  Chelebî  was  deposed  by  an  Imperial 
firman,  and  his  place  given  to  Ah'  Aghâ  one  of  the  relations  of  the  Pâshâ;  we 
remained  a  week  at  Scutari,  and  then,  on  the  first  day  of  Rejeb,  set  out  on  our 
journey  for  Erzerum. 


JOURNEY    TO    ERZERUM. 

Having  remained  a  month  in  Scutari,  the  buildings  of  which  town  have  been 
minutely  described  in  our  first  volume  ;  the  news  arrived  that  the  Mossellem 
(substitute  of  the  Pâshâ)  had  happily  taken  possession  of  the  governorship  ;  the 
Pâshâ  immolated  victims,  and  everybody  rejoiced,  because  the  principal  reason 
for  conferring  this  governorship  on  Defterdar-zadeh  was  the  rumour  which  pre- 
vailed, that  Abaza  Pâshâ  the  famous  rebel,  whom  Sultân  Murad  had  spared, 
contrary  to  the  wishes  of  the  troops,  had  returned  from  his  travels  in  Africa  and 
India,  but  most  happily  Suleiman  Pâshâ,  the  governor  of  Erzerum  (predecessor 
of  Abaza)  killed  this  pretender  and  sent  his  head  to  Constantinople,  and  the 
Mosellem,  Mustafa  Aghâ,  took  possession  of  the  governorship.  We  set  out  from 
Scutari  in  the  early  part  of  Sha'abân,  and  arrived  at  the  end  of  seven  hours  march 
at  Pendik,  a  great  village  on  the  seabord,  it  belonging  to  the  foundation  of  Kirechji- 
bashi  at  Scutari.  Its  numerous  gardens  supply  the  Capital  with  vegetables.  Here 
our  master  received  from  the  Great  Vezfr  Sâleh  Pâshâ,  ten  purses,  ten  horses,  and 
a  great  number  of  other  valuable  presents.  From  hence  the  quarter-master 
(Konakjf)  and  chief  of  the  cellar  (Kilârjî),  with  the  inspector  of  the  kitchen 
(Mutbakhemini),  and  the  purveyor  at  market  (Bazâra  giden),  led  the  van  with 
five  hundred  men  and  a  tail. 

Gehize. 
This  was  formerly  a  large  town.     At  the  time  when  Sidi  Battal  besieged  Con- 
stantinople, a  great  convent  existed  at  Constantinople,  within  the  gate  of  Sîlîvrı, 

VOL.  II.  N 


90  THETRAVELSOF 

at  tlie  place  now  called  the  mosque  of  Koja  Mustafa  Pâshd.     Hardn-ur-raslud, 
built  a  fortress  here  and  garrisoned  it  with  three  thousand  men,  in  order  to  keep 
the  infidels  in  check.     The  inhabitants  of  Gebîze  having  killed  some  men  belonging 
to  Sidf  Battal,  who  commanded  the  garrison  of  the  said  fortress,  he  laid  the  town 
of  Gebize  in  ruins,  and  retired  to  Malatia ;  traces  of  this  havoc  are  still  visible. 
It  was  conquered  by  Mohammed  I.,  who  destroyed  the  castle,  that  it  might  not 
be  a  refuge  for  the  infidels ;  but  Sultân  Mohammed  II.  rebuilt  it  after  the  conquest 
of  Constantinople.     It  is  now  a  jurisdiction  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers  in  the 
sanjak  of  Koja  I1Î.     Mustafa  Pdshâ,  who  built  the  bridge  which  bears  his  name  in 
Rumeli,  built  a  mosque  here,  whose  administrator  (Muteveh)  is  at  the  same  time 
commanding  officer  of  the  place.     It  lies  an  hour's  distance  from  the  sea,  at  the 
top  of  a  dry  mountain ;  there  are  about  one  thousand  houses  with  gardens,  in  the 
ancient  style,  three  mosques,  the  largest  of  which  covered  with  lead,  outshines 
the  mosques  of  the  Vezirs  at  Constantinople  ;  it  was  built  by  Mustafa  Pâshâ,  the 
builder  of  the  bridge  called   by    Sultan    Suleiman,  the    bridge    of  the   illiberal 
(Namerd),  who  when  governor  of  Egypt  had  the  finest  stones  cut  in  plates  to 
adorn  this  mosque,  and  made  a  stone  candelabrum  of  them,  which  has  no  equal  in 
the  world.     The  stones  came  direct  from  Egypt  to  the  landing-place  of  Darîjî, 
where  they  were  disembarked.     The  interior  of  the  mosque  is  lined  with  marble 
and  granite  to  the  height  of  three  men,  which  is  not  to  be  seen  in  any  other 
mosque  in  the  capital.     The  minber  (pulpit),  mihrdb  (altar),  and  mahfil  (oratory) 
of  the  Moezzins  are  of   most  excellent    workmanship,  which  is   impossible   to 
describe  to  those  who  have  not  seen  it.     It  was  built  by  the  architect  Hassam, 
the  first  assistant  to  the  architect  Koja  Sinan,  who  showed  his  skill  here  most 
minutely.     The  windows  on  the  four  sides  are  composed  of  small  painted  glass, 
which  in  sunshine  illuminates  the  mosque  with  a  most  delicious  light,  therefore  it 
is  that  you  read  on  the  middle  vault  the  verse  of  the  Koran,  "  God  is  the  light  of 
Heaven."     The  interior  of  the  cupola  is  adorned  with  circles  of  lamps  and  a 
great  number  of  suspended  decorations.     The  Egyptian  carpets  on  the  floor  vie 
with  those  of  Isfahan.     The  pulpit  of  the  preacher  (Kursi)  is  inlaid  with  pearl- 
shell.     Outside  of  the  walls  is  a  delicious  garden,  where  flowers  and  odoriferous 
herbs  fill  the  air  and  brain  with  perfumes,  and  nightingales  enrapture  with  their 
warbling  notes.      The  mosque  has   but  one  gate   opposite   the  altar;    on  the 
threshold  is  written  the  chronograph  in  the  writing  of  Kara  Hissârî  Hossein,  and  in 
the  mosque  seventy  Korans  are  kept,  each  of  which  is  worth  an  Egyptian  treasure. 
A  copy  of  Yakut  Mostea-assemi,  hke  that  which  is  seen  here  on  the  left  of  the 
altar,  is  not  to  be  found  elsewhere,  except  it  be  at  the  mosque  of  Sultân  Ahmed  at 
Constantinople.     On  both  sides  of  the  gate  are  six  cupolas  supported  by  as  many 


evliya  efendi.  91 

columns,  and  the  cupola  immediately  over  the  gate  is  the  seventh.  The  Harem  or 
courtyard,  as  spacious  as  those  of  imperial  mosques,  is  adorned  with  trees,  the 
minareh,  with  one  gallery,  is  well  proportioned.  Close  to  the  mosque  is  a  Cara- 
vanserai, affording  accommodation  for  three  thousand  men,  and  two  thousand 
horses,  with  a  stable  appropriated  for  camels.  In  the  dining-room  (dar-ul-ita'am), 
old  and  yonng  men  and  women  dine  in  plenty ;  and  at  the  Caravanserai,  every 
evening,  every  fire-place  is  furnished  with  a  dish  of  soup,  a  loaf  of  bread,  a  candle, 
and  a  bag  of  forage  for  every  horse,  ass,  mule  or  camel.  A  bath  is  attached  to  it, 
covered  with  lead  like  all  the  other  buildings  of  this  foundation.  Besides  this 
Caravanserai  thei'e  are  forty  large  and  small  khans,  and  one  hundred  and  eighty 
shops,  all  the  work  of  Sinan  ;  the  mosque  in  the  market  is  an  old  simple  building  ; 
the  houses  are  all  faced  with  red  bricks,  the  water  of  the  wells  is  a  little  thick,  but 
the  air  is  good. 

We  advanced  from  hence  five  hours  towards  the  east  to  the  Castle  of  Helke  or 
Herke,  conquered  by  Mohammed  I.  with  considerable  loss  of  men.  It  is  a  nice 
small  castle,  of  immense  stones,  built  on  the  seashore,  on  a  cliff  between  two 
vallies.  Its  gate  opens  to  the  north  and  has  no  houses  within.  The  district 
belongs  to  the  sanjak  of  Koja  Ilı.  At  the  end  of  eight  hours  journey  along  the 
seashore,  we  arrived  at  Isnikmid  (Nicomedia),  which  has  been  already  minutely 
described  in  our  former  journey.  After  a  day's  rest  we  again  started  and  came,  at 
the  end  of  six  hours  march,  to  Sabanja,  called  so  from  Sabânjî  Koja,  who  first 
cleared  the  thick  woods  here  by  the  plough.  In  Suleiman's  time  it  was  cultivated, 
and  Sâri  Rostem  Pasha  founded  a  khan  here  with  one  hundred  and  seventy  fireplaces, 
a  pleasant  mosque  and  bath  covered  with  lead,  and  about  one  thousand  houses 
faced  with  brick  built  by  Koja  Sinan.  The  administrator  of  these  endowments  of 
Rostem  Pasha,  is  at  the  same  time  the  first  public  oflBcer  of  the  place.  Besides  its 
white  cherries,  it  is  renowned  for  its  white  bread,  Sumiin,  which  is  baked  in  a 
shop  underneath  the  bath,  and  which  keeps  its  flavour  and  does  not  become 
mouldy  for  the  space  of  six  days.  It  has  often  been  sent  by  couriers  to  the  Shah 
of  Persia,  has  arrived  fresh,  and  obtained  general  approbation.  Its  good  qualities 
are  due  to  the  water. 

Praise  of  the  Lake  of  Sabdnja. 

Its  circumference  is  twenty  miles,  and  seventy-six  villages  adorn  its  shores. 
The  people  who  drink  of  its  water  are  of  ruddy  complexion,  and  the  products  of 
the  land  are  abundant ;  there  are  no  vineyards,  but  a  great  number  of  gardens. 
On  the  borders  of  the  lake  there  are  melons  and  water-melons  of  such  a  size  that  two 
make  an  ass-load.     On  the  lake  are  from  seventy  to  eighty  kaiks  and  boats,  which 


92  THETRAVELSOF 

are  employed  in  the  passage  from  village  to  village,  and  for  the  transport  of  wood. 
There  are  a  great  number  of  most  delicious  fish.  Its  depth  is  twenty  fathoms,  the 
water  is  clear  and  brilliant,  and  excellent  for  washing  without  soap.  It  is  this  water 
which  gives  a  whiteness  resembling  cotton  to  the  bread  Sûmûnî.  On  the  east 
side  of  the  lake,  at  two  hours  distance,  passes  the  river  Sakaria,  which  disem- 
bogues into  the  Black  Sea  in  the  province  of  Koja  Ilf  at  the  place  called  Irva  ;  it 
would  require  but  little  spirit  of  enterprise  to  unite  the  lake  with  the  sea,  by  means 
of  this  river,  a  branch  of  which  goes  down  to  the  salt-marshes  of  Nicomedia.  As 
early  as  the  reign  of  Mohammed  III.  a  great  number  of  workmen  were  employed 
in  establishing  a  communication  between  the  gulf  of  Nicomedia  and  the  lake  of 
Sabanja,  but  the  undertaking  was  given  up  at  the  request  of  the  inhabitants.  If 
the  Sakaria  were  united  with  this  lake,  and  the  lake  with  the  gulf  of  Nicomedia,  this 
town  would  be  quite  an  inland  port ;  the  timber  and  wood  might  be  brought  down 
to  Boll,  and  it  would  cost  no  more  than  five  aspers  the  quintal.  God  make  it  easy  ! 
We  marched  to  the  eastward  six  hours,  along  the  seashore,  through  thick  forests, 
called  "  Ocean  of  trees,"  and  crossed  the  Sakaria  by  a  wooden  bridge  ;  this  river 
issues  from  the  mountain  Chifteler,  passes  through  Koja  Ilı,  and  goes  into  the 
Black  Sea  near  Irva. 

The  Statio7t  of  Khandak-bazdrt. 

A  small  place  belonging  to  the  territory  of  Koja  Ilı,  with  woods,  mountains, 
gardens,  a  mosque,  a  khân,  a  bath,  a  market,  a  judge  appointed  with  one  hundred 
and  fifty  aspers,  an  ofiicer  of  the  janissaries,  and  a  Sûbashî.  In  the  woody  marsh 
here,  is  a  long  wooden  bridge  (causeway)  famous  all  over  Arabia  and  Persia.  We 
marched  twelve  hours  further  on  through  thick  forests,  and  came  to  Dûzje-bazâr, 
the  first  place  belonging  to  Boli,  in  a  mountainous  region,  with  a  mosque  and  two 
khans  founded  by  Shemsi  Pasha,  who  also  paved  the  road.  In  the  neighbourhood 
are  many  villages. 

West  of  this  place  on  the  side  of  Akcheshar,  and  two  hours  beyond  the  river  Melân 
is  the  place  of  U'skiibi,  a  khass  of  the  territory  of  Boli,  with  a  mosque,  a  khân,  and 
a  bath.  Nine  hours  further  on  we  reached  Boh,  conquered  in  Osmân's  name  by 
Sonkor  Bai  Shemsi,  to  whom  and  to  whose  descendants  it  was  given  as  hereditary 
property  (Ojaklik).  Its  castle  was  built  by  the  Greek  Commander  of  Brussa,  it  is 
a  small  ruined  castle,  on  a  high  mountain  without  vestige  of  cultivation.  Accord- 
ing to  the  division  of  Sultan  Mohammed  II.  it  is  the  seat  of  a  sanjak.  The  khass 
of  the  Beg  amounts  to  three  hundred  thousand  one  hundred  and  twenty-two  aspers, 
fourteen  ziamets,  and  fifty-five  timârs,  with  the  Jebellis  two  thousand  eight  hundred 
swords.     The  judge  is  appointed  with  three  hundred  aspers  :  five  districts  belong 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  93 

to  it,  viz.  the  district  round  the  town  of  Boli,  that  of  Gokjesûî,  that  of  S^zak 
Kerde  to  the  left  of  Boli,  that  of  Tûrtıir-divân,  and  that  of  Yaflije.  The  annual 
revenue  is  five  thousand  piastres,  and  those  of  the  Beg  fifteen  thousand.  But  the 
judge  and  Beg  are  obliged  to  be  very  cautious,  because  if  they  commit  the 
smallest  injustice,  the  Rayas  can  reach  Constantinople  in  three  days,  and  complain 
of  the  oppressor.  There  is  an  officer  of  the  janissaries,  of  the  Sipahis,  and  a 
Nakib-ul-i'shnif.  Though  the  inhabitants  are  Turcomans,  yet  there  is  a  great 
number  of  merchants.  It  is  a  large  town  of  thirty-four  quarters  and  as  many 
mosques,  three  thousand  well  covered  houses,  some  of  which  are  faced  with  bricks  ; 
some  serais  and  mosques.  In  the  market-place  is  that  of  Mustafa  Pasha  and  of 
Ferhâd  Pâshd,  much  frequented ;  they  are  both  the  work  of  Koja  Sinan  the  great 
architect :  the  best  and  most  pleasant  bath  is  that  of  Shemsi :  seven  khans,  and 
seven  fountains,  all  founded  by  Shemsi  Pasha ;  four  hundred  elegant  shops,  but 
no  college  or  school  of  tradition,  as  far  as  I  know  of;  but  there  are  seventy  schools 
for  boys,  and  more  than  two  hundred  of  whom  know  the  Koran  by  heart.  The  book 
Mohammedieh  is  much  read  here ;  they  have  also  story-tellers  who  recite  moral 
maxims  (Oghuz).  The  mildness  of  the  air  contributes  to  the  beauty  of  the  in- 
habitants. The  women  wear  Ferrâjîs  and  large  head-dresses,  they  are  very 
decent  and  modest  ladies.  There  are  a  great  number  of  gardens  and  vineyards. 
Of  its  eatables  and  products  the  cherries  are  the  most  renowned.  The  water-cans 
of  fir-tree  refresh  those  who  drink  out  of  them  like  the  living  spring ;  these  cans 
are  called  Akasik  and  Podiich.  The  inhabitants  for  the  most  part  are  merchants. 
The  surrounding  forests  being  composed  of  fir-trees,  the  inhabitants  live  by  cutting 
and  making  planks  of  them,  which  are  much  esteemed  at  Constantinople.  Two 
journies  to  the  west  from  this  place  is  the  landing-place  of  Akcheshar ;  those  of 
Eregli,  Bartın,  and  Hissarogi,  also  belong  to  the  sanjak  of  Boli.  The  hotbath 
lies  to  the  south,  on  the  outside  of  the  town  ;  amidst  the  gardens  is  a  small  hot- 
bath,  extremely  hot  and  particularly  useful  against  the  itch.  It  purifies  the  stomach 
and  cleanses  the  body.     People  of  all  degrees  flock  to  this  hotbath  on  waggons. 

Places  of  Pilgrimage  at  Bolt. 

The  convent  of  Yuzghfid  Baba  near  the  hotbath.  We  marched  twelve  hours 
to  the  east,  through  cultivated  villages  to  Kerde,  the  seat  of  a  Sûbashî  subordinate 
to  Boll ;  a  judge  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers.  The  town  consists  of  a 
thousand  wooden  and  brick- built  houses  in  a  large  valley,  nine  quarters,  and 
eleven  mosques,  besides  the  Mesjids  ;  three  convents,  three  khans,  two  hundred 
shops,  and  seven  coffee-houses.  The  knife-cutlers  and  tanners  of  Kerde  are  re- 
nowned for  the   knives  and   Safien   of   this  place.      The  air   is   pleasant,  and 


94  THETRAVELSOF 

the  inhabitants  healthy  ;  they  are  mostly  students  eager  for  information  (Sûkhte 
Thalebî).  It  is  a  common  saying  that  Kerde  is  famous  for  its  thieves,  its  tanners, 
and  its  winter,  which  is  compared  to  that  of  Erzerum  ;  the  inhabitants  are  a  set  of 
lively  stout  Turks.  At  the  four  points  of  the  compass,  and  particularly  on  the 
south  towards  Kânghrî,  are  cultivated  districts  inliabited  by  forty  or  fifty  thou- 
sand Turks.  The  names  of  the  districts  are,  Kizîl-ûzû,  Alaja-ûzu,  Aleh-di- 
vân,  Bir-divân,  Ikî-divan,  Uch-divân,  and  so  on  to  seven  Divâns,  ali  in  the 
mountains.  The  name  of  Divân  given  to  these  districts  originated  in  the  time 
of  Ertoghrul,  who,  being  named  Beg  by  Ala-ud-din  the  Prince  of  the  Seljuk 
family,  granted  to  the  Infidels,  whose  districts  he  conquered,  the  privilege  of 
kettle-drums.  The  name  is  thus  preserved  in  seven  districts,  whose  inhabitants 
are  a  rebellious  people,  speaking  a  peculiar  language  of  their  own. 

From  Kerde  we  travelled  to  the  eastward  for  the  space  of  eight  hours,  through 
cultivated  villages,  to  the  village  of  Bayander  in  the  district  of  Boli,  a  jurisdiction 
of  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers.  The  conquest  of  these  villages  situated  amongst 
steep  mountains  cost  much  blood  to  Osman.  Here  are  three  hundred  covered 
houses,  a  khân  where  every  passenger  is  allowed  to  stay,  and  receives  wood, 
straw  and  water,  gratis.  We  travelled  thence  through  a  straight,  called  Hamâmlî 
Boghâz,  and  came  with  a  thousand  difficulties  at  the  end  of  nine  hours  to  the  place 
Jerkesh,  the  seat  of  a  Subashi  in  the  sanjak  of  Kânghrî.  Here  is  a  judge  with  one 
hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  an  officer  of  the  janissaries,  and  Sipâhis.  The  town  consists 
of  three  hundred  houses,  a  mosque,  a  bath  and  from  forty  to  fifty  shops.  Mustafa 
Pâshâ,  the  sword-bearer  to  Sultân  Murad  IV.,  built  a  khân  here  of  fifty  fire-places, 
and  one  hundred  shops,  but  died  before  it  was  finished.  Once  a  week  a  great 
market  is  held  here.  Seven  hours  further  on  is  the  village  of  Karajalar,  a  ziâmet 
in  the  jurisdiction  of  Kânghrî,  three  hundred  houses  of  poor  but  very  obstinate 
Turks ;  they  will  sell  a  trunk  of  a  tree  forty  times  over,  putting  it  in  the  water 
every  night,  so  that  you  may  be  compelled  to  lay  out  ten  aspers  in  brushwood 
to  set  it  on  fire.  A  traveller  marked  one  of  these  trunks  by  fixing  a  nail  in  it, 
and  when  he  returned  three  years  afterwards  from  the  siege  of  Erivan,  they 
gave  him  the  very  same  trunk,  which  he  had  tried  in  vain  to  burn  three  years 
before.  Thus  they  will  sell  a  trunk  forty  times,  and  praise  it  as  being  forty  years 
old.  They  also  trade  in  different  small  articles,  particularly  in  girdles,  for  which 
Karajalar  is  renowned. 

Pilgrimage  to  Habib  Karamdni. 
Habib  was  born  at  Ortakoî  near  Nikde,  and  is  buried  here.     He  died  a  Sheikh 
of  the  Beirâmî  in  the  reign  of  Mohammed  II.  Hamza  Efendi  was  one  of  his 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  95 

disciples.  We  left  Karajalar,  and  after  nine  hours  walk,  we  came  to  Kojhissâr  a 
jurisdiction  of  Kcinghri.  Its  castle  was  conquered  in  the  year  708  by  Osman, 
and  destroyed  in  order  that  it  should  no  longer  afford  shelter  to  the  Infidels. 
Nine  hours  further  on,  we  reached  the  town  of  Tussia,  conquered  by  Mohammed  I, 
the  seat  of  a  Sûbashî,  and  of  a  judge  appointed  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers. 
The  public  officers  are  a  commander  of  the  janissaries  (Serdar),  an  officer  of  the 
Sipâhîs  (Kiaya-yerî),  a  Mufti  and  Nakfb ;  though  it  is  a  Turkish  town,  yet  there 
is  a  great  number  of  learned  divines.  The  town  is  situated  on  an  elevation,  and 
consists  of  three  thousand  wooden  houses  faced  with  brick,  there  are  eleven 
quarters,  twenty-one  mosques,  besides  the  mesjids,  seven  khdns,  three  hundred 
and  forty  shops,  and  a  Bezestau  with  an  iron  gate.  The  KiizK  and  Leblebi 
Halwa  (two  sorts  of  sweetmeats)  of  the  place,  are  famous.  The  air  is  heavy  ;  the 
inhabitants  are  Turks,  but  very  kind  to  strangers.  Outside  the  town  in  a  fine 
meadow  is  the  tomb  of  Sheat  Baba  Sultân,  to  which  pilgrimages  are  performed. 

Our  road  now  led  for  eight  hours,  amongst  the  mountains  along  the  border 
of  the  Kizil  Irmak  (Red  river)  when  we  arrived  at  the  village  of  Haj  Hamza,  the 
companion  and  disciple  of  Habfb  Karamanı ;  this  village  was  his  birth-place  :  there 
remains  only  an  ancient  mosque  on  the  great  road,  the  other  houses  are  in  ruins. 
It  is  on  the  banks  of  the  Kizil  Irmak,  the  opposite  shore  of  which  is  laid  out  in 
elegant  gardens.  The  Kizil  Irmak  issues  from  the  mountains  of  Churum  and 
enters  the  Black  Sea  near  the  village  of  Bafra,  where  it  forms  a  cascade,  the  noise 
of  which  alarms  men  like  the  rolling  of  thunder ;  the  river  rushes  on  with  great 
impetuosity,  and  is  not  navigable.  Its  colour  is  red  both  in  winter  and  summer  ; 
it  is  a  cruel  water,  for,  in  attempting  to  cross  to  the  opposite  shore  on 
horseback  I  was  upset  with  my  horse  in  the  middle  of  it,  and  saved  with  difficulty 
by  getting  hold  of  a  willow.  We  left  Hâjî  Hamza  and  continued  our  road  to 
the  eastward  among  the  mountains  and  along  the  Kizil  Irmak.  The  road  winds 
along  the  rocks  at  the  base  of  the  high  mountain  called  Sârîmâshiklî,  so  that  on 
the  right  side  are  the  cliffs,  and  on  the  left  a  precipice,  at  the  bottom  of  which 
flows  the  Kizil  Irraak,  which  in  some  places  must  be  crossed.  After  eight  hours 
march  we  came  to  the  Castle  of  Osmanjik.  Some  say  that  Osman  was  born 
at  this  place,  and  the  castle  built  by  his  successors.  In  the  year  795  it  was 
taken  out  of  the  hands  of  the  Turks  by  liderim  Bayazîd.  It  is  the  seat  of  a 
Voivode  belonging  to  the  sanjak  of  Churum,  and  has  a  judge  with  a  salary  of  one 
hundred  and  fifty  aspers  appointed  to  it ;  there  is  a  Serdâr  and  Kiaya-yerî,  but 
no  Mufti  or  Nakib.  There  are  few  distinguished  inhabitants,  but  a  great 
number  of  gardens.  You  cross  the  Kizil-Irmak  by  a  bridge  to  the  castle,  it  is 
of  a  strong  architecture,  no  more  than  eight  hundred  paces  in  circumference. 


96  THETRAVELSOF 

with  an  iron  gate.  As  it  is  situated  so  amazingly  high  I  did  not  see  the  interior, 
but  only  the  outer  town  or  suburb,  consisting  of  a  thousand  old  Titar  houses 
covered  with  planks  and  earth,  there  are  seven  quarters  and  as  many  mosques, 
three  khans,  and  a  small  bath,  the  water  of  which  is  drawn  from  a  well  supplied 
by  the  Kizil  Irmdk.  On  three  sides  of  the  town  is  sandy  ground.  Raisins  are 
very  sweet  here  on  account  of  the  heat  of  the  soil.  In  the  sand  grows  a  plant 
called  Kabre  (Capers)  which  preserved  in  vinegar  is  in  great  use.  The  poor  and 
almost  all  the  inhabitants  are  Dervishes  of  the  order  of  Hajf-Begtash,  because 
one  of  their  pnncipal  Saints  is  buried  on  the  west  side  of  the  town  on  an  elevated 
spot. 

Pilgrimage  to  the  tomb  of  the  great  Saint  Koyun  Baba,  (Father  of  the 

Dynasty  of  the  Sheep.) 

He  was  the  true  successor  of  Haji  Begtâsh.  Having  appeared  to  Sultân 
Bayazîd,  he  ordered  him  to  build  a  cupola  on  his  tomb,  a  mosque,  a  convent,  a 
meeting-place  for  the  Dervishes,  (Meidan),  a  caravanserai  with  kitchen  and  cellar. 
All  these  establishments  are  covered  with  lead,  which  with  the  golden  crescents 
on  them  dazzle  the  eyes  of  beholders  even  at  a  distance.  The  imaret  (kitchen 
for  the  poor)  is  smoking  day  and  night.  As  soon  as  I,  poor  Evliya,  arrived  here, 
I  went  to  visit  this  place  of  pilgrimage  ;  I  kissed  the  threshold,  saying,  "  Es-selam 
aleik,"  and  entered  the  tomb,  where  I  read  the  Koran,  thanking  God  for  the  grace 
he  had  granted  me  to  visit  it.  The  cupola  is  perfumed  with  musk  and  amber, 
which  is  very  agreeable  to  the  senses  of  visitors,  on  whom  the  keepers  of  the 
mausoleum  also  sprinkle  rose-water.  The  preacher  and  the  other  Dervishes 
Begtashi  who  watch  and  pray  at  the  tomb,  said  prayers  on  the  head  of  me,  poor 
Evliya,  wishing  me  a  happy  journey,  with  good  sight,  and  perfect  health  and 
happiness  in  both  worlds.  The  Dervishes  all  uttered  the  Mohammedan  shout 
(Allah !)  and  read  a  Fâtihah.  When  the  Sheikh  covered  my  head  with  his  cap,  I 
felt  a  wind  blowing  on  both  my  ears,  and  my  eyes  were  lighted  up  like  Arab 
torches.  Since  the  shipwreck  which  I  had  suffered  in  the  Black  Sea,  swimming 
naked  for  three  days  and  nights,  my  sight  had  suffered  cruelly,  and  was  only 
restored  by  this  head-dress  (the  Crown  of  felicity)  being  put  on  my  head.  I  then 
conversed  with  all  the  poor  of  the  convent,  and  dined  with  them,  and  I  have 
ever  since  kept  the  symbols  of  Dervishship,  which  I  received  at  the  Convent,  viz. 
the  habit  (Khirka) ;  the  carpet  (Sejade ;)  the  standard  (A'alem) ;  the  drum 
(Tabl  Kûdümî)  ;  the  halter  (Palehenk) ;  the  stick  (Assa) ;  and  the  head-dress  or 
crown,  (Taj). 

Inside  of  the  cupola  are  different  inscriptions  by  the  visitors,  to  which  I  added 


evliya  efendi.  97 

one  of  my  own  composition  which  suddenly  occurred  to  me.  The  name  of  Koyun 
Baba  was  given  to  this  Saint,  because  when  he  came  from  Khorassan  in  Haji 
Begtash's  company,  he  bleated  like  a  sheep  once  in  twenty-four  hours,  which  was 
the  signal  for  prayer.  The  Dervishes  of  the  order  of  Begtcish  are  generally  in 
bad  repute,  but  those  of  this  convent  are  indeed  meek  like  sheep,  devout,  pious, 
praying  people,  and  in  all  my  travels  in  Rdm,  Arabia,  and  Persia,  I  met  nowhere 
a  more  worthy  convent. 

Pilgrimage  to  the  Tomb  of  Burhdndedeli. 

A  great  Saint  renowned  for  many  miracles.  The  bridge,  a  work  of  Bayazid  II. 
is  a  marvellous  pile  of  building  of  nineteen  arches,  each  arch  gives  an  idea  of  the 
rainbow,  of  the  galaxy,  of  the  girdle  of  Divine  Power,  or  of  the  Tak  Kosra.  Its 
length,  from  one  end  to  the  other,  is  four  hundred  and  fifty  paces ;  and  although 
the  river  was  so  rapid,  the  architect  built  it  straight  as  the  bridge  of  Sirat  (over 
which  souls  are  to  pass  on  the  day  of  the  last  Judgment).  We  halted  here  for 
a  day,  then  again  crossing  the  bridge,  and  marching  towards  the  west,  amidst 
frightful  mountains,  we  arrived  at  the  small  pass  of  Direglibil ;  which,  if  one  man 
only  ascends  to  the  top  of  the  rock,  and  rolls  stones  down,  he  may  defend 
against  a  thousand  men.  It  is  known  in  all  Asia,  and  called  Diregli-bil  (the  pass 
with  trees),  because  the  mountain  being  excavated  in  many  places,  and  threatening 
to  fall  down,  the  rocks  are  supported  by  trees,  which  were  placed  there  by  well- 
meaning  people.  Here  our  gracious  lord  the  Pasha  descended  from  his  horse,  and 
taking  some  of  the  stones  out  of  the  road,  which  encumbered  it,  himself  threw 
them  down  the  precipice ;  this  example  was  instantly  followed  by  the  whole  suite, 
four  hundred  men,  who  dismounting,  cleared  the  road  of  the  stones,  shouting  Allah, 
with  the  clarions  sounding.  After  nine  hours  march  from  Osmanjik,  we  came  to 
the  village  Hâjîkoı,  the  frontier  of  the  sanjak  of  Amasia,  a  ruined  village,  with  a 
khan  in  ruins,  though  it  is  very  well  situated  for  cultivation.  Six  hours  further  on 
we  reached  the  field  of  Mârzivân,  and  the  village  of  Kerkiraz,  belonging  to 
Amasia,  with  sixty  villages,  a  mosque,  and  khan,  also  falling  into  ruins.  At  the  end 
of  eight  hours  we  came  to  the  mountain  town  of  Amasia,  which  is  said  to  have 
been  built  by  the  Amalekites,  and,  according  to  others,  by  Ferhâd,  the  mountain 
cutter.  In  the  year  476  (1083)  it  was  conquered  by  Sultân  Melek  Ghazî,  of  the 
Dânishmend  family.  The  princes  of  Azerbeijan  laid  siege  to  it  more  than  once, 
without  being  able  to  take  it.  From  the  hands  of  the  Dânishmend  family  it 
passed  into  those  of  the  Seljuk.  It  was  then  conquered  by  Sultan  liderim,  who 
thus  prevented  its  falling  into  the  hands  of  Timur.  He  then  made  his  son  Issa 
Chelebi  governor,  and  coins  were  struck,  which  bear  the  inscription  of  Amasia,  of 

VOL.  II.  o 


98  THETRAVELSOF 

the  purest  silver,  which  is  found  in  three  mines  here.  At  the  division  of  the 
empire  by  Sultan  Mohammed  II,  Amasia  is  described  as  the  seat  of  a  Beg.  It 
has  sometimes  been  given  as  Arpalik  to  Vezirs  of  three  tails.  According  to  the 
Kantin,  its  khass  amounts  to  two  hundred  thousand  aspers,  nineteen  ziamets,  and 
forty-two  timârs  ;  it  has  an  Ala'i  Beg  and  Cheri-bashi.  Tlie  Zaims  and  Timâriots, 
with  the  Jebelli,  amount  to  three  thousand  men;  the  judge  has  three  hundred 
aspers  a  day.  The  districts  (Nahie)  are  those  of  Aine-bazar,  Kildighdn,  Aktâgh, 
and  Kafâla ;  the  jurisdictions  those  of  Koprî,  Samara,  Zeitûn,  Gumish,  Bûlâk, 
Merzifün,  Kerkerâr,  Lâdik,  Veraî,  and  Zenûn-abdd.  The  annual  revenue  of  the 
iudo-e  is  valued  at  seven  thousand  piastres,  and  those  of  the  Pdsha  at  seventy 
thousand  piastres.  Five  Sübashis  are  attached  to  the  khass  of  the  Pasha,  viz., 
Shehrbah-bazdr,  Werai,  Aine-bazârî,  Akt<Cgh,  and  Siiliova.  Its  magistrates  are, 
the  Sheikh-ul-Islam,  the  Nakîb-ul-ishrâf,  the  Serdâr  of  the  Janissaries,  and  the 
Kiayayerf  of  the  Sipahis.     There  are  many  learned  divines  and  rich  merchants. 

Form  and  size  of  Amasia. 

Its  towers,  crowning  the  height  of  the  mountains  are  always  veiled  with  clouds, 
and  it  is  only  at  noon  that  the  spires  of  the  mosques,  and  the  roofs  of  the  houses 
are  visible.  Its  circumference  is  nine  thousand  and  sixty  paces.  In  form  it  is  a 
pentagon,  extremely  strong,  worthy  of  being  a  work  of  Ferhâd,  with  forty-one 
towers,  and  eight  hundred  battlements  altogether.  The  number  of  the  houses  is 
not  known  to  me.  There  are  magazines,  cistei-ns,  and  a  road  cut  in  the  rock, 
leading  down  to  the  water,  called  Chapân  Yoli,  of  three  thousand  and  seven  steps. 
It  has  no  luarket-place  (Charshii),  or  market  (Bazar).  There  are  four  iron  gates 
looking  to  the  east.  In  the  castle  is  a  mosque  built  by  Sultân  liderim,  and  a  mar- 
vellously deep  dungeon,  resembling  the  pit  of  hell ;  and  seventy  cannons,  but  of  no 
sreat  calibre,  as  it  is  not  a  frontier  fortress.  This  castle  has  six  wonderful  caverns, 
where  the  rich  inhabitants  hid  their  valuable  effects  in  the  time  of  the  AnatoUan 
rebellions  of  Kara  Yaziji,  and  Kara  Said. 

Timiir  besieged  this  fortress  with  an  innumerable  army  for  the  space  of  seven 
months,  and  was  obliged  to  retire  in  confusion.  Though  it  is  situated  in  the  midst 
of  the  province,  yet  a  commander  (Dizdar)  and  a  garrison  is  appointed,  lest  rebels 
should  gain  possession  of  it.  The  lower  castle  is  built  on  the  banks  of  the  river 
Tûzânli,  a  small  castle,  whose  circumference  is  not  known  to  me.  It  has  three 
gates,  the  first  opens  towards  the  Kiblah,  Karânlik  Kapû ;  the  second  Ma'adenos 
Kapu,  looks  in  the  same  direction  ;  and  the  third,  Meidan  Kapû,  to  the  west ; 
from  whence  a  great  bridge  leads  to  Gok-medresse,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
town.     The  gate  Serkiz  leads  over  a  wooden  bridge  to  the  mosque  of  Ghariblar. 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  99 

The  number  of  mosques,  palaces,  and  houses  are  six  hundred.  The  river  Tûzîinlî, 
which  passes  through  the  town,  issues  from  the  mountains  of  the  same  name  above 
Tokat,  passes  by  Eski,  Aine-bazar,  Kargol,  the  castle  of  Tiirhfil,  Chcngellî-bîl, 
Sârikûsûn,  the  bridge  of  Davikavf,  Chapan,  through  the  pass  of  Ferhâd  to  Amasia, 
where  it  joins  the  river  Chekerek,  opposite  the  great  stone  bridge.  This  river 
springs  from  the  lake  of  Ladek,  conies  from  Suliova,  and  joins  the  Tuzânlı 
near  Amasia  as  aforesaid.  It  is  vulgarly  called  Yava ;  the  proverb,  "  Tokat 
defiles  it,  Amasia  drinks  it,"  is  applied  to  it  because  it  flows  from  Tokat  to 
Amasia.  After  it  has  passed  Amasia  it  is  called  Chehâr  Shenbesü  (Wednesday's 
water),  and  after  irrigating  many  fields,  it  disembogues  in  the  Black  Sea,  on  the 
western  side  of  Samsun.  Below  the  village  Chehâr  Shenbeh  it  is  joined  by  several 
springs,  and  below  Nîgissâr,  in  the  province  of  Sivas,  it  receives  the  river  Kerkük  ; 
thus  it  reaches  Samsun,  after  having  increased  its  stream  by  those  of  seven  other 
rivers.  The  town  of  Amasia  is  built  on  both  sides  of  this  river,  and  on  the  hills 
and  mountains  bordering  on  it.  A  bridge  worth  seeing,  the  work  of  Sultân 
Bayazid,  crosses  it.  This  river  comes  to  Amasia  from  the  south,  running  north- 
ward, and  turning  many  mills  and  water-wheels  ;  which  at  Amasia  are  not  less  to 
be  praised  than  those  of  Hama  and  Adana.  Amasia  is  divided  into  forty-eight 
quarters  of  Moslims,  and  five  of  Christians ;  there  are  altogether  five  thousand 
houses,  besides  palaces. 

The  Serai  of  the  Sultân  is  situated  on  the  banks  of  the  river,  surrounded  by 
delightful  gardens,  curious  trees,  and  many  seats ;  it  is  cultivated  by  a  master 
gardener  (Usta),  and  fifty  gardeners,  who  wear  yellow  caps.  The  Serai  of  Ma- 
hommed  Pasha  is  close  to  the  mosque  ;  within  the  castle  is  the  Serai  of  Sultcin 
Bayazid,  and  many  others,  faced  with  brick ;  there  are  altogether  two  hundred 
and  forty  mosques.  Among  them  is  the  mosque  of  Bayazid  II.  In  his  youth 
Bayazid  was  first  made  governor  of  Trebisonde,  and  then  of  Amasia  ;  his  father, 
Mahommed  II,  having  died  at  Maldepeh,  he  went  to  Constantinople  to  ascend  the 
throne,  but  gratefully  remembering  that  he  was  made  Emperor  at  Amasia,  he 
freed  the  inhabitants  from  all  contributions,  and  built  this  mosque,  one  hundred 
feet  square  :  the  mihrab,  minber,  and  mahfil  of  the  Muezzins  are  of  elegant 
workmanship.  The  cupola  is  not  very  large,  but  adorned,  like  those  of  other 
imperial  mosques,  with  circles  for  suspending  lamps  and  other  ornaments.  The 
chronograph  on  the  gate  opposite  the  Kiblah  gives  the  date  of  its  building,  892 
(1486),  it  has  two  minarehs,  and  in  the  middle  of  the  court-yard  a  water-basin  for 
ablutions.  The  mosque  of  Kuchiik  Aghâ,  opposite  the  river  Chekerek ;  the 
mosque  of  Bayazid  Pasha,  covered  with  lead,  and  paved  with  marble ;  the  mosque 
of  Mohammed  Pasha,  covered  with  lead,  and  one  minareh  ;  the  mosque  of  Khizr 


100  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

Elias,  a  large  building,  covered  with  lead  ;  the  mosque  of  Mekkeme,  built  of  wood, 
as  also  is  the  minareh  ;  the  mosque  Fethie,  formerly  a  Christian  church  and  con- 
vent ;  the  mosque  of  Yogurch  Pasha,  who  was  Vezir  to  Mohammed  I. ;  the 
mosque  of  Gokmedresse,  covered  with  lead,  but  without  a  minareh ;  besides  a 
great  number  of  Mesjids.  There  are  ten  colleges,  the  most  elegant  of  which  is 
that  of  Sultân  Bayazîd  ;  nineteen  houses  for  reading  the  Koran  ;  at  that  of  Sultdn 
Bayazid  there  are  more  than  three  hundred  Hâfizes  (who  know  the  Koran  by 
heart) ;  ten  houses  of  tradition  ;  and  two  hundred  schools  for  boys,  some  of  which 
are  covered  with  lead.  There  are  forty  convents  for  Dervishes,  the  best  of  which 
is  that  of  Jelâl-ud-dîn  Rûmî,  and  ten  dining  establishments  ;  at  that  of  Sultân 
Bayazid  all  the  poor  dine  twice  a  day.  Of  the  Caravanserais,  that  of  Sulttin 
Bayazid  is  covered  with  lead,  as  is  also  that  of  Bairdm  Pashd,  the  Vezir  of  Murad 
IV.  The  Khans  are  lead-covered,  with  iron  gates,  besides  those  for  merchants 
(Khoja),  there  are  those  for  single  men  (Mujerred) ;  these  last  have  their  own 
gatekeepers,  and  are  shut  up  every  night,  so  that  those  who  do  not  come  home 
before  the  hour  for  closing  are  not  let  in,  and  those  who  are  within  cannot  go  out 
till  the  gates  are  thrown  open  in  the  morning,  when  eveiy  person  goes  to  his  work. 

In  the  market-place  (Charshii)  there  are  altogether  one  thousand  and  sixty 
shops,  and  one  hundred  and  sixty  different  workmen,  with  vaults  of  stone  like  the 
market  place  of  Brussa.  A  Bezestan  with  four  iron  gates.  The  market  place  is 
paved  with  large  slabs.     There  are  many  distinguished  inhabitants. 

Inhabitants,  Language,  Dress,  Provisions,  ^c.  , 

The  inhabitants  are  a  set  of  merry  jolly  fellows,  and  are  all  red-faced  and  fresh- 
coloured  ;  their  occupation  may  be  thus  described  ; — first,  the  Zaims  and  Timariots 
and  the  Pasha's  court ;  secondly,  the  divines,  judges,  and  professors ;  the  Imams, 
Khatibs,  Muezzins,  &c. ;  and  thirdly,  the  merchants  and  handicraftsmen.  There 
are  many  well-bred  highly -finished  gentlemen,  who  speak  with  great  eloquence, 
but  the  dialect  of  the  common  people  is  harsh.  The  wealthy  dress  in  sable 
pelisses  and  Ferraji  of  cloth,  the  middle  classes  in  Bogassin.  The  women  are 
Turkish  beauties,  with  well-ranged  teeth  and  words. 

From  the  district  of  Kfighla  comes  a  sort  of  corn  called  Dârdevedîshî,  of  which 
most  excellent  bread  is  made,  called  Levasha,  Kerde,  Chakil ;  there  are  forty  sorts 
of  pears,  ruby-coloured  cherries,  and  seven  sorts  of  grapes  and  quinces,  of  which 
a  far-famed  robb  is  made,  and  sent  to  Princes  as  a  present. 

Sherbet  of  must,  scented  with  musk  ;  sherbet  of  quince  jelly,  which,  on  account 
of  its  heating  quality,  is  as  useful  in  medicine  as  terra  sigillata.  The  sherbets 
called  Khardalie,  Büldâklî,  are  exported  into  Persia  ;  a  pleasant  white  beverage. 

The  workmen  are  clever  in  all  kind  of  handicraft,  but  the  tailors  and  cotton 


evliya  efendi.  101 

beaters  are  the  most  famous,  as  well  as  the  barbers  and  confectioners.  In  the 
time  of  the  Amalekites,  the  river  Tûzânlî  did  not  pass  through  the  town  ;  it  was 
Ferhâd,  the  lover  of  Shirin,  who  cut  these  mountains  like  cheese,  and  the  traces 
of  his  work  is  yet  to  be  seen  in  the  mountains  on  the  west  side  of  the  town. 

The  situation  of  this  town  in  a  deep  valley,  and  on  the  banks  of  a  river,  contri- 
butes to  the  mildness  of  the  air,  and  the  riches  of  its  cultivation.  The  windows 
of  the  houses  look  to  the  west  and  north  ;  the  winter  is  temperate.  The  water 
which  Ferhâd  carried  to  the  town  from  the  opposite  mountains  is  delightful;  it  is 
distributed  from  house  to  house. 

Of  the  Walks,  and  Pilgrimages  or  Tombs. 

There  are  seventy  different  walks ;  the  first  is  that  of  the  bloody  fountain  (Kânlî 
binar ;)  it  is  so  called  because  a  wicked  old  woman  having  brought  false  news  to 
Ferhâd  here,  of  Sherin's  death,  he  threw  his  hatchet  into  the  air,  and  himself  down 
the  precipice,  by  which  means  he  was  killed. 

The  tomb  of  Ottoman  Princes,  who  are  buried  in  the  cypress  wood,  their  names 
I  do  not  know  ;  the  tomb  of  Zekeria  Khalveti,  he  was  the  first  disciple  of  Pi'r 
Elias,  and  is  bvmed  near  the  saddlers'  shops  (Serrajiler).  The  pilgrimage  of  the 
Sultân  of  the  faith,  the  Simorgh  of  truth  Sheikh  Abd-ur-rahman  Ben  Hassâm-ud- 
din  Gomishli-zadeh,  he  is  the  nephew  of  Fir  Elias,  and  was  a  dervish  of  the  order 
of  Khalveti,  of  whom  many  miracles  are  related.  The  three  Princes,  sons  of 
Murad  II.  having  visited  this  Sheikh,  two  of  them  kissed  his  hand,  and  the  third, 
Mohammed,  kissed  his  feet.  The  Sheihk  took  the  handkerchief  (Reda)  he  wore 
on  his  neck,  tied  it  round  the  neck  of  Prince  Mohammed,  and  admonished  him  to 
take  care  of  the  Moslfms  at  Constantinople.  This  Sheikh  has  left  many  poems  on 
divine  love ;  his  poetical  name  is  Hossami.  His  tomb  is  near  th^t  of  Pır  Ehas, 
in  the  convent  of  Yakub  Pasha.  Molla  Kassem  Khatib  Ben  Yakub,  who  was 
born  and  buried  at  Amasia,  one  of  the  deepest  of  learned  divines.  Molla  Ala-ud-dîn 
Ilîkâmi,  born  and  buried  at  Amasia.  Molla  Abd-ul-jebbâr  Ajemî,  near  the  tomb 
of  the  Ottoman  Princes.  Molla  Abd-ur-rahman  Ben  Ali  Ben  Moyed,  born  and 
buried  at  Amasia.  The  Sultan  of  poets,  Munîrî  Efendi,  born  and  buried  at 
Amasia,  he  improvisated  Arabic,  Turkish,  and  Persian  poems,  and  was  one  of  the 
Vezirs  of  Prince  Ahmed,  when  Governor  of  Amasia.  The  excellent  female  poet, 
Mihrmah  Khatun,  descending  from  Pir  Elias's  family,  was  a  virtuous  lady  like 
Rabie  Adiiye,  who  knew  seventy  scientific  books  by  heart,  and  beat  the  most 
learned  men  in  disputing  :  her  true  name  being  Mihrmah,  she  took  the  name  of 
Mihri  for  her  poetical  surname  ;  she  left  a  Divân,  and  some  theological  treatises, 
and  was  buried  near  her  grandfather.  Sheikh  Pır  Elias. 


102  THETRAVELSOF 

Pilgrimage  of  the  Pole  of  Poles,  the  Sheikh,  par  excellence,  the  cream  of  saints, 
the  column  of  the  Princes,  Sheikh  Pır  Elias.  He  was  one  of  the  Sheikhs  of 
Sultân  Bayazîd  I.,  and  went  with  Timur  to  Shirvân,  from  whence  he  returned  to 
Amasia,  his  birth-place,  where  he  is  buried  on  an  elevated  spot,  called  Sevddie, 
near  Amasia.  He  is  famed  for  many  miracles,  one  of  the  most  celebrated  is,  that 
when  his  corpse  was  washed,  he  straightened  the  hand  which  had  been  placed  crooked 
by  the  washing-man.  His  mausoleum,  with  all  the  foundations  belonging  to  it, 
was  erected  by  Bayazîd  H.,  son  of  Sultân  Mohammed  II.  Strangers  and  poor 
persons  are  here  most  liberally  entertained.  Praise  be  to  God,  that  I  was  so 
happy  as  to  visit  it,  and  to  finish  a  complete  lecture  of  the  Koran  there.  The 
pilgrimage  of  Kelij  Arslan,  a  Sheikh  of  the  Mevlevis,  buried  in  the  convent  of 
that  order.  The  pilgrimage  of  Ferhâd ;  he  is  buried  on  the  top  of  the  mountain 
which  he  cut  for  the  love  of  Sherin,  and  the  old  woman  who  was  the  cause  of  his 
death  is  buried  between  him  and  his  mistress.  The  thistles  and  thorns  which  grow 
on  the  tomb  of  the  old  woman  prevent  the  flowers  uniting.,  which  grow  on  the 
tombs  of  Ferhdd  and  Shen'n. 

There  are  a  great  number  of  pilgrimages  of  great  and  holy  men,  but  I  visited 
only  those  I  have  given  an  account  of,  and  at  each,  in  honour  of  their  souls,  said 
the  Siira  Yass,  asking  for  their  spiritual  assistance.  On  the  third  day  of  our  stay 
the  clarions  of  departure  sounded  ;  we  took  leave  of  our  friends,  and  travelled  the 
same  day  through  the  mountains  of  Chengelli-bil,  reaching,  after  six  hours  march, 
the  station  of  Kânlî-bînâr,  which  is  the  spot  where  Ferhâd  killed  himself.  It  is  a 
pleasant  place,  with  a  luxuriant  spring  of  most  delightful  water.  We  watered 
our  horses  here,  and  pitched  our  tents,  and  continued  our  road  next  morning 
towards  the  north  for  seven  hours.  We  arrived  at  the  village  of  Ezil,  a  district 
belonging  to  Amasia,  three  hundred  houses  with  gardens,  a  khan,  a  mosque, 
and  a  bath. 

The  Town  and  Castle  of  Nigissdr. 

The  next  day  we  reached,  in  eight  hours  time,  the  seat  of  the  Ddnishmend  family, 
the  old  town  and  stronghold  of  Nîgissâr.  Its  builder  was  a  Greek  Emperor ;  it 
was  conquered  in  the  year  476  (1083)  by  Sultan  Melek  Ghâzı,  of  the  Danishmend 
family,  and  became  the  seat  of  this  dynasty ;  their  second  residence  was 
Amasia.  The  Seljuks,  who  anxiously  wished  to  possess  it,  laid  siege  to  it  several 
times  without  success.  Its  name  is  a  corruption  of  Nıg-hissâr,  the  good  castle. 
It  is  an  ancient,  strong-built  castle,  on  a  limestone  rock,  five  hundred  and  sixty 
paces  in  circumference,  of  an  hexagon  shape :  the  three  gates  face  the  east,  west, 
and  south  ;  within  the  castle  are  three  hundred  houses  and  magazines,  and  a  mosque. 


evliya  efendi.  ]03 

which  was  formerly  a  church.  The  garrison  is  small  in  number,  because  it  is  not 
a  frontier  fortress ;  they  only  keep  watch  against  rebels ;  the  lower  suburb  is  a 
large  town,  but  its  streets  being  narrow,  and  going  continually  up  and  down  hill,  it 
is  with  difficulty  that  a  horseman  can  make  his  way  to  the  market-place,  and  for  a 
waggon  to  do  so  is  out  of  the  question.  This  town  belongs  to  the  khass  of  the 
Pcîshâ  of  Sivas,  the  residence  of  a  Sübashî  of  seven  hundred  purses'  revenue,  the 
judge  is  appointed  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  and  there  is  a  Mufti,  NakflD, 
Serdar,  and  Kiaya-yeri.  The  town  comprises  forty-three  quarters,  with  sixty 
mihrâb  (Jâmî  and  Mesjids),  of  which  nine  are  Friday  mosques,  wherein  the 
Khutbe  is  peiformed.  The  mosque  of  the  castle  was  formerly  a  church,  an  ancient 
place  of  worship.  To  the  mosque  of  Melek  Ghâzî,  the  visitor  descends  by  five  or 
six  steps ;  it  has  a  slender,  thin,  well-proportioned  minareh  :  its  equal  is  not  to  be 
seen  elsewhere.  The  mosque  of  Chaplakdneh  is  faced  with  bricks.  At  the  west  end 
of  the  town  is  the  mosque  of  Juregf ;  outside  of  the  castle  is  the  mosque  of  Khalil 
Efendi,  just  finished,  faced  with  brick ;  also  outside  of  the  castle  is  the  mosque 
of  the  Mufti.  The  houses  of  the  town,  in  the  valley,  and  on  the  hill,  ascending 
one  above  the  other,  are  two  thousand  seven  hundred  in  number,  faced  either  with 
earth  or  bricks.  There  are  three  baths,  viz.,  that  of  the  Mufti  in  the  castle,  that 
of  Chaplakhaneh  outside  of  the  castle,  and  tl;at  of  the  Infidels,  also  outside  of  the 
castle,  besides  forty-five  private  baths  in  the  palaces. 

The  Hot-spring  of  N'lgissdr. 

It  is  a  small  hot-bath  outside  of  the  town  to  the  south  ;  the  women  and  boys  of 
the  town  wash  their  clothes  here  ;  it  is  a  well-flavoured  water,  has  no  sulphurous 
smell,  and  is  useful  as  a  remedy  in  leprous  and  arthritic  diseases.  It  is  visited 
every  year,  in  the  month  of  July,  by  a  great  number  of  people,  who  amuse  them- 
selves for  a  month,  and  then  return  to  their  homes.  There  is  a  college,  and 
house  for  reading  of  the  Kordn  and  tradition,  but  no  kitchen  for  the  poor ; 
there  are  seventy  schools  for  boys.  The  inhabitants  are  an  honest  set  of  people, 
with  some  beautiful  women  amongst  them.  There  are  seven  convents,  the  first  of 
which  is  the  great  convent  of  Chevregî ;  that  of  Elias-dedeh  is  not  less  famous. 
There  are  a  great  number  of  springs  and  fountains,  which  move  as  many  corn  and 
fulling  mills,  also  five  hundred  elegant  shops,  but  no  Bezestân.  Tlie  narrow 
street,  which  leads  down  from  the  castle,  is  lined  on  both  sides  with  shoemakers' 
shops  ;  the  principal  streets  are  paved  with  large  slabs.  The  inhabitants  are  fresh- 
coloured  lively  looking  Turks,  who  pay  great  attention  to  strangers.  Among 
the  eatables,  pomegi-anates  are  much  famed  ;  they  each  weigh  an  occa,  and  some 
even  as  much  as  five  hundred  dirhems,  and  are  of  the  size  of  a  man's  head.     The 


104  THETRAVELSOF 

cheese,  Kufte  and  Passdagh  of  this  place  are  famous  ;  the  environs  are  laid  out  in 
rice  plantations  (Cheltuk).    The  Black  Sea  is  two  journies  distance  from  this  place. 

Pilgrimages  of  Nigissdr. 

The  conqueror  of  Nigissdr,  Melek  Ghâzî,  of  the  Danishmend  family,  is  buried 
near  the  castle  gate.  God's  mercy  be  upon  him  !  Chevregî-boyûk  Sultân  lies  near 
the  great  mosque,  beneath  a  cupola.  We  left  this  town  and  advanced  towards 
the  east,  through  mountains  and  forests.  After  six  hours  march  we  reached 
Kariebash  Chiftlik,  the  frontier  of  Sivas,  here  bordering  the  governorships  of 
Erzerum,  with  two  hundred  Armenian  houses,  and  a  ziamet.  The  next  day,  as 
soon  as  we  trod  the  ground  of  Erzerum,  we  offered  up  a  sacrifice  of  two  hundred 
and  seven  camels,  and  the  inhabitants  of  Erzerum,  with  the  Kiaya  of  the  Chaushes, 
the  Defter-Eminf,  the  Chaûshlar-Emînî,  the  Timar  Defterdarı,  and  other  gentle- 
men of  the  Divan  at  their  head,  came  to  meet  us  with  presents. 

The  Governorship  of  Erzerum  or  Erzenrum. 

It  is  situated  in  Azerbeîjân  and  Armenia,  and,  according  to  some,  erected  by 
Nurshivan  ;  but  the  truth  is  that  it  was  by  Erzenbai  Ben  Softâr  Ben  Kunduz,  of 
the  dynasty  of  the  White  Sheep,  whose  ancestors  had  come  from  Mahdn,  and 
built  the  castle  of  Akhldt,  on  the  borders  of  the  lake  Wan  ;  they  are  all  buried  at 
Akhlat,  and  the  ancestors  of  the  Ottomans,  Ertoghrul  and  Suleiman,  derive  their 
lineage  from  them.  Uzun  Hassan,  ha\ang  become  master  of  Azerbeijan,  built  the 
castle  called  Hassan,  after  his  name,  at  Erzeröm.  Envious  of  the  conquest  of 
Constantinople  by  Mohammed  II.,  he  began  to  trespass  on  the  frontiers,  and  to 
violate  the  peace.  Mohammed  II.,  in  defiance  of  him,  conquered  Trebisonde,  and 
defeated  him  with  twenty  thousand  men  in  the  field  of  Terjean.  With  great 
difficulty  we  traversed  the  rude  pass  of  Iskefser,  and  in  three  hours  we  reached 
Shakhna,  an  Armenian  village  of  two  hundred  houses,  where  the  Armenian  girls 
are  wonderfully  pretty.  From  Constantinople  to  this  place  we  had  constantly 
ascended  towards  the  east,  and  all  the  rivers  were  flowing  from  that  direction 
towards  us ;  this  will  show  on  what  high  ground  Erzerum  is  situated.  From 
Shakhna  we  crossed  the  Governorship  of  Ezenim,  which  was  our  allotted  province, 
in  different  directions  to  the  south,  north,  east,  and  west,  and  shall  now  describe 
the  stations  of  these  our  excursions. 

Tekine  is  a  village  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Iskefser,  with  one  hundred  houses, 
a  ziamet.  Five  hours  further  on  is  the  village  of  Chadar,  of  one  hundred  houses, 
in  the  jurisdiction  of  Koilî.  The  castle  of  Koilf  was  built  by  Usun  Hassan,  from 
fear  of  Mohammed  II. ;  it  belongs  to  the  sanjak  Shuban  Kara  Hissar,  in  the  pro- 


E  VL  I  YA    efendi.  105 

vince  of  Erzerüm ;  it  is  situated  on  a  high  rock,  and  is  one  thousand  three 
hundred  paces  in  circumference.  Inside  are  one  hundred  houses  and  magazines, 
an  iron  gate  opens  to  the  west ;  it  has  a  commander  and  seventy  men ;  the  suburb 
outside  consists  of  one  hundred  houses,  a  mosque  and  some  shops.  The  castle 
saluted  us  with  seventeen  guns,  and  the  inhabitants  met  us  with  presents ;  they 
slaughtered  ten  sheep  as  a  sacrifice,  for  which  they  received  ten  ducats.  Two  stations 
north  of  this  village,  on  the  shore  of  the  Black  Sea,  is  Baihssa-bazârî,  which  a 
man  on  foot  may  reach  in  one  day.  In  the  reign  of  Ahmed  I.  the  Cossacks  of 
Oczakov  pillaged  this  place :  the  environs  being  gardens  and  flowery  meadows  are 
extremely  favourable  to  bees,  and  the  honey  of  Koilî-hissâr,  scented  with  musk 
and  ambergris,  is  famous  ;  the  inhabitants  are  a  turbulent  set  of  people.  We 
descended  a  deep  precipice,  and  after  seven  hours  reached  the  village  of  Doirfln. 
The  river  here  issues  from  the  mountains  of  Kerkük,  is  joined  by  several 
streams  from  the  mountains  of  Koili-hissar,  and  below  Chehârshenbe  by  the 
river  of  that  name,  which  passes  Amasia.  The  Kerkük  is  an  excellent  fresh- 
water river.  I'he  village  of  Doiran,  situated  on  its  banks,  in  the  valley  of 
Akshâr,  consists  of  one  hundred  houses.  We  now  went  towards  the  east  four 
hours,  to  Anderes  on  the  frontier  of  Shuban  Kara-hissar,  in  the  valley  of 
Akshâr,  a  village  of  one  hundred  houses.  Having  marched  two  hours  towards 
the  east,  we  reached  the  Chiftlik  of  Taban  Ahmed  Agha,  where  the  Pasha  was 
presented  with  an  Arabian  horse,  and  with  twenty  horses  for  his  suite,  three  thousand 
sheep,  seven  strings  of  camels,  seven  of  mules,  and  ten  purses ;  it  was  a  great 
festival,  worthy  of  the  Ottoman  court  itself.  In  recompense  for  this  great  festival, 
the  giver  of  it,  Ahmed  Agha,  was  imprisoned  in  the  Kiaya's  room,  and  bought 
his  life  by  the  payment  of  forty  purses  and  seventy  camels,  by  which  opportunity 
I  also  got  a  horse.  Two  hours  further  on  lies  the  village  of  Ezbeder,  in  the  ter- 
ritory of  Shuban  Kara-hissar,  an  Armenian  village  surrounded  with  gardens.  Four 
hours  further  we  reached  the  valley  of  Tilismât  Za'aba;  the  torrent  of  Tilismât 
Za'aba  issues  from  the  neighbouring  mountains,  and  falls  into  the  river  Akhlat ; 
there  are  one  hundred  houses  here  built  upon  rocky  ground  ;  the  subjects  here  are  all 
Armenians.  A  cave  is  still  shown  in  which  there  was  formerly  a  treasure,  guarded  by 
two  swords,  which  were  continually  moving  up  and  down,  a  mast  has  many  times 
been  put  beneath  them  and  instantly  cut  through  ;  a  magician  has  since  got  pos- 
session of  the  treasure,  but  the  cave  still  remains  to  be  seen.  There  is,  besides, 
another  talisman  somewhere  hereabout,  but  I  have  not  seen  it.  Five  hours  from 
hence  is  the  village  Yaküb,  on  the  frontier  of  Shuban  Kara ;  three  hours  further 
on,  that  of  Korkun  Kiassî,  and  in  one  hour  more,  the  village  of  Barii ;  after  which 
we  came  through  the  pass  of  Tekman,  which  is  closed  by  the  winter  for  seven  or 

VOL.  II.  P 


]06  THETRAVELSOF 

eight  months.  After  having  got  through  it  with  much  difficulty,  we  reached  Kâzî- 
oghlikoi,  an  Armenian  village.  Four  hours  further  is  the  castle  of  Shiran,  on  the 
frontier  of  Shuban  Kara  ;  in  four  hours  the  village  of  Kara  Jalar ;  in  five  hours 
the  village  of  Sârîchalar,  inhabited  by  Moslims  and  Armenians  ;  in  eight  hours  the 
village  of  Sal  lit,  the  pass  of  which  we  traversed  with  considerable  trouble,  and  for 
the  space  of  five  hours  were  crossing  the  great  plain  of  Kerkük.  At  the  end  of  this 
plain  is  the  village  of  Genj  Mohammed  Agha,  with  two  hundred  houses  and  a 
mosque,  on  the  frontier  of  the  district  of  Shuban  Kara-hissar ;  five  hours  to  the 
east  is  the  village  of  Keremli,  inhabited  by  Moslims  and  Armenians  ;  opposite  to 
it,  on  a  hill,  lies  the  Castle  of  Dermeri,  built  in  the  reign  of  Sultân  Ahmed  from 
fear  of  the  rebels  ;  it  is  a  small  castle  with  a  gate  to  the  north,  without  commauder 
and  garrison.  Here  the  Pasha  made  an  excursion  (Ilghar),  with  three  hundred 
horsemen,  and  we  arrived,  at  the  end  of  twelve  hours,  at  Chaghir  Kanlı  Sultân, 
who  was  a  great  Sheikh  in  the  time  of  Sultân  Mohammed  II.  His  tomb  is 
adorned  with  several  lamps  (chirâghdân),  candelabras  (shemidân),  censers  (bûk- 
hürdân),  and  vases  for  sprinkling  rose-water  (gülabdan).  It  is  a  reverential  place, 
where  prayers  are  put  up  to  Heaven.  I  visited  it,  and  read  the  Siira  Yass  there  ; 
through  the  sanctity  of  this  saint  the  country  abounds  with  cattle.  Two  Chiftliks 
are  exempted  by  Imperial  diploma  from  all  taxes ;  the  village  consists  of  three 
hundred  houses,  with  a  mosque  and  a  convent,  the  dervishes  of  which  go  bare- 
headed and  barefooted,  and  wear  their  hair  long.  The  people  carry  wooden  clubs 
in  their  hands,  some  of  them  crooked  sticks  (litui).  They  all  came  to  wait  on  the 
Pasha,  and  to  exhibit  the  grants  of  their  foundation.  The  Pâshâ  asked  from 
whence  they  dated  their  immunity,  and  they  invited  him  to  visit  their  place  of 
devotion  (Sema'âkhâneh).  We  followed  them  to  a  large  place  where  a  great  fire  was 
lighted  of  more  than  forty  waggon-loads  of  wood,  and  forty  victims  sacrificed. 
They  assigned  a  place  for  the  Pâshâ  at  a  distance  from  the  fire,  and  began  to  dance 
round  it,  playing  their  drums  and  flutes,  and  crying  "  Hû  !  "  and  "  Allah  ! ''  This 
circular  motion  being  continued  for  an  hour,  about  an  hundred  of  these  dervishes 
naked,  took  their  children  by  the  hand,  and  entered  the  fire,  the  flames  of  which 
towered  like  the  pile  of  Nimrod,  crying  "  0  all  constant !  O  all  vivifying ! "  At 
the  end  of  half  an  hour,  they  came  out  of  the  fire,  without  the  least  hurt  except 
the  singeing  of  their  hair  and  beards,  some  of  them  retiring  to  their  cells,  instead 
of  coming  before  the  Pâshâ,  who  remained  much  astonished.  They  then  gave  a 
feast  to  the  Pâshâ,  which  was  even  greater  than  Ahmed  Taban's  feast.  It  was 
surprising  that  they  were  enabled  to  prepare  such  a  feast  in  so  short  a  time,  as 
the  Pâshâ  had  arrived  suddenly,  and  by  a  by-road.  The  Pâshâ  confirmed  their 
immunities,  and  gave  them  a  present  of  one  hundred  ducats.  In  sixteen  hours 
more  we  came  to  the  plain  of  Terjân.     The  mosque  of  Sultân  Hassan  is  a  praise- 


evliya  efendi.  ]07 

worthy  monument  of  Uzun  Hassan,  but  it  stands  alone  here.     Uzun  Hassan,  who 

liked  the  situation,  intended  to  build  a  town  here  bearing  his  name,  but  Sultân 

Mohammed  H.  destroyed  all  his  projects  by  the  famous  battle,  which  was  fought 

on  this  plain ;  it  was  a  scene  of  great  slaughter,  even  now  the  peasants  find  bones 

and  hidden  treasures  when  ploughing  the  field.     We  crossed  this  plain  hastily,  and 

in  eight  hours  reached  the  village,  where  the  Kiaya  of  the  Chaushes  had  provided 

a  great  feast  for  the  Pashci,  and  presented  him  with  five  horses,  five  purses,  and 

three  Georgian  slaves.     At  the  end  of  five  hours  we  reached  the  village  of  Pûlür, 

and   in    four  hours   that    of  Terjânlî   Alî  Agha,  an    Armenian  village  of  three 

hundred  houses,  a  mosque  and  a  bath.     Alî  Agha  gave  a  grand  repast  here, 

accompanied  with  a  present  of  ten  horses,  ten  purses,  ten  strings  of  camels,  and 

five  of  mules.     We  went  from  hence  nine  hours  further,  to  the  village  of  Mama 

Khatun,  in  the  district  of  Erzerum,  consisting  of  one  hundred  Mussulman  houses ; 

it  is  a  free  ziâmet. 

Pilgrimage  of  Mama  Khatun. 

This  lady  is  buried  beneath  a  cupola,  at  the  foot  of  a  rock ;  she  was  the  daugh- 
ter of  one  of  the  Princes  of  the  Aiik  Koyünlî,  and  lies  buried  here  with  all  her 
children,  but  without  any  keeper  attached  to  her  mausoleum,  she  is  buried  in  a 
marble  coffin  ;  near  it  is  a  mosque  and  a  bath.     Six  hours  further  is  the  village  of 
Habs,  at  the  western  end  of  the  plain  of  Erzerum  ;  it  consists  of  one  hundred  and 
fifty  Armenian  houses.     All  the  principal  men  of  Erzerum  came  to  this  place  with 
presents  to  meet  the  Pasha's  Divân.     We  proceeded  with  a  large  retinue  for  the 
space  of  five  hours,  to  the  hot-bath,  which  is  also  situated  at  the  western  end  of 
the  plain  of  Erzerum,  and  where  every  year  some  person  or  other  is  drowned.     It 
is  a  very  useful  bath,  but  too  warm  to  be  used  without  a  mixture  of  cold  water. 
Some  of  the  former  princes  have  built  a  dressing-room  here  (jâmeghân),  and   a 
basin  (havuz)  :  the  climate  is  pleasant.      The  Motesellem  Mustafa  Agha,  here 
presented  the  Pâshâ  with  an  Arabian  racehorse,  caparisoned  with  jewels,  a  sable 
pelisse,  a  quiver,  and  a  sword  set  with  jewels,  a  dagger  and  a  girdle,  and  ten 
racehorses,  mounted  by  ten  Georgian  boys,  all  armed.     His  three  hundred  and 
seventy  slaves  were  clad  in  showy  dresses,  like  so  many  waiting  youths  in  Para- 
dise.    He  gave  also  to  me,  poor  Evliya,  a  sable  fur,  some  cloth,  and  one  hundred 
piastres,  because  I  had  been  master  to  his  son  for  some  time.     Our  arrival  at  this 
hot-bath  was  exactly  the  seventieth  journey  we  had  made  since  we  left  Constanti- 
nople, and  an  entrance  in  grand  procession  was  organized,  which  outrivalled  in 
brilliancy  those  of  the  greatest  Vezîrs.     Indeed,  the  Pâshâ  was  a  Commander-in- 
Chief  (Serdâr),  who  by  Imperial  rescript  (Khatti  Sherif)  was  allowed  even  to  use 
the  Tughra,  or  cypher  of  the  Sultân.     The  troops  of  Erzerum  paraded  on  both 


108  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

sides  of  the  way  from  this  hot  bath,  which  is  six  hours  distance  from  Erzerûm,  up 
to  the  gates  of  the  town  ;  with  cuirasses  and  casques,  bearing  long  lances,  their 
horses  being  adorned  with  knots  of  sea-horses'  bristles,  and  various  other  trappings. 
The  Pashd  was  surrounded  by  eight  body-guards  (Shatir),  who  wore  golden  caps 
on  their  heads,  carried  battle-axes  in  their  hands,  had  golden  girdles,  and  splendid 
caftans,  walking  like   the  peacocks  of  Paradise.      On  the  right  and  left  of  the 
Pdsha  walked  the  Mataraji-bashi  (keeper  of  the  leaden  bottle,  which  contains  the 
water  for  purification),  and  the  Tufenkjî-bashî,  or  head  of  the  fuzileers,  bearing  a 
water-bottle  set  with  jewels,  and  muskets  of  costly  workmanship.     The  Pasha 
passed  between  two  lines,  greeting  both  sides,  and  the  people  returned  his  salute. 
Four  hundred    Ulemds   all  clad  in  armour  were  headed  by  the   Imam,  and  I, 
poor  Evliya,  as  Muezzin.     Behind  us  followed  the  treasurer  and  the  standard-  ■ 
bearer,   with  the  eightfold  Turkish  music.     The  Tatar  troops,  the  Müteferrika, 
the  chamberlains,  passed,  all  clad  in  armour.     As  soon  as  the  procession  drew  near 
Erzerûm,  the  fortress  began  to  salute  by  firing  the  great  guns  from  the  highest 
tower,  called  Kessik  Kala'â,  as  a  selâm  aleikum,  after  which  the  Janissaries  fired 
the  guns  of  the  inner  castle,  and  so  continued  during  the  procession.     But  when 
the  Pasha  himself  entered  the  gate  of  Erzenjan,  the  six  hundred  and  seventy  guns, 
which  compose  the  artillery  of  the  fortress,  were  all  discharged  at  once,  and  the 
skies  were  rent  and  the  earth  trembled.      Seven   regiments  of  Janissaries  Hned 
the  way  from  the  gates  of  the  town  to  the  gates  of  the  palace,  ready  to  salute 
the  Pasha,  who,  as  soon  as  he  had  entered  the  palace,  was  saluted  once  more  by 
a  general  discharge  of  the  artillery  on  the  walls.     Many  hundred  victims  were 
sacrificed,  and  a  splendid  repast  equal  to  that  of  Madi  Kerb  followed.     After  din- 
ner the  music  played,  and  a  divân  was  held,  wherein,  after  the  decision  of  many 
lawsuits,  the  twenty-seven  Aghas  of  the  castle,  those  of  the  Janissaries,  artillery- 
men, armourers,  &c.,  were  invested  with  seventy  brilliant  robes  of  honour,  and 
Molla  Chelebî  Efendi,  the  relation  of  Emir  Bokhara,  with  a  green  sable  pelisse. 
I  received  a  caftan  in  my  degree  of  clerk  of  the  custom-house.     The  governor 
then  most  graciously  assigned  me  a  lodging  in  the  palace  built  by  Tekeli  Mustafa 
Pâshâ,  where  I  lived  quietly,  sometimes  keeping  company  with  the  Governor,  and 
at  others  discharging  the  functions  of  clerk  of  the  custom-house.     I  had  full  op- 
portunity of  acquiring  the  most  perfect  knowledge  of  the  state  of  Erzerûm,  as  I 
was  allowed  to  see  all  the  kanuns,  registers,  and  protocols. 

Description  of  the  Fortress  of  Erzerûm. 
It  was  wrested  out  of  the  hands  of  Kara  Yusstif,  the  son  of  Uzun  Hassan,  by 
Sultân  Mohammed  II.     The  khass  of  the  Vezir  is  fixed  at  one  million,  two  hun- 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  ]09 

dred  and  fourteen  thousand  six  hundred  aspers ;  the  whole  province  is  divided 
into  twelve  sanjaks.  The  officers  are  a  Defterdar  of  the  treasury,  a  Kiaya  of  the 
Defterdar  of  the  Timers,  a  Kiaya  and  Inspector  of  the  Chaushes,  an  Alai-Beg,  'and 
a  Cherî-bashî.  The  sanjaks  are  as  follows : — Kara-hiss<ir,  Akii,  Pussin,  Siper, 
Hassan,  Melazgerd,  Tekman,  Kûrûjân,  Tûrtûm,  Mujtekerd,  Mâmrevân,  and  Er- 
zerum.  The  khass  of  the  Defterdar  of  the  treasury  amounts  to  one  million  and 
fifty-two  thousand  nine  hundred  aspers  ;  that  of  the  kiaya  of  the  fiefs  to  fifty 
thousand,  and  that  of  the  Defterdar  of  the  fiefs  to  twenty  thousand  two  hundred. 
There  are  fifty-six  ziaraets,  and  two  thousand  two  hundred  and  nineteen  timars ; 
the  feudal  militia  number  five  thousand  two  hundred  and  seventy-nine  swords, 
and  the  Jebellîs,  in  time  of  war,  twelve  thousand  men,  besides  two  thousand  men 
who  are  furnished  by  the  khass  of  the  Pasha.  The  soldiers  of  Erzerum  are  stout, 
brave  fellows.  The  judge  is  a  Molla,  with  a  revenue  of  five  hundred  aspers,  with 
three  subordinate  Naibs  or  Vicars.  An  Agha  of  the  Janissaries,  an  Agha  of  the 
artillerymen,  and  one  of  the  armourers,  who  are  all  in  the  interior  fortress. 
Abasa  Pâshâ,  the  famous  rebel,  one  night  surprised  this  fortress,  and  put  the 
whole  garrison  of  Janissaries  to  the  sword,  except  the  Agha,  who  was  absent  that 
night  by  accident,  and  consequently  escaped.  Abaza  remained  in  rebellious  pos- 
session of  it  for  ten  years,  in  defiance  of  seven  Vezirs,  who  marched  against  him 
with  the  power  of  absolute  command,  such  as  Cherkess  Mohammed  Dishlin  Hos- 
sein  Pasha,  Timur  Kâzîk  Khalü  Pâshâ,  &c.  but  owing  to  the  strength  of  the 
fortress,  they  were  unable  to  reduce  the  rebel,  until  Khosrew  Pâshâ  assumed  the 
command  ;  he  took  Abaza  prisoner,  and  carried  him  with  him  into  the  presence  of 
Sultân  Murâd  IV.  He  obtained  a  general  pardon,  and  was  first  made  Governor  of 
Bosnia,  afterwards  of  Bude,  and  finally  of  Ozakov,  which  he  retained  up  to  the  time 
of  the  expedition  against  Erivan.  The  troops  rebelling  at  that  moment,  called 
loudly  for  Abaza  Pâshâ,  which,  coming  to  the  ears  of  the  Sultân,  he  ordered  him 
to  be  killed,  and  buried  in  the  tomb  of  Murâd  Pâshâ,  near  the  market  of  the  ink- 
makers.  He  escaped,  however,  and  wandered  for  some  time  in  Arabia  and  Persia, 
re-appearing  at  Erzerum  the  same  year  that  we  came  there.  I  saw  his  blood  even 
before  my  own  door,  because  Silihdâr  Suleiman  Pâshâ  cut  his  head  off  on  the 
arrival  of  our  Motesselh'm,  or  Pasha's  substitute.  Since  the  rebellion  of  Abaza,  the 
greatest  attention  has  been  paid  to  this  important  post  by  the  government ;  it  has 
been  strengthened  by  an  immense  artillery,  and  six  companies,  so  that  the  whole 
garrison  amounts  to  two  thousand  five  hundred  men,  a  commander  of  the  castle. 
Dizdar,  and  twelve  Aghas.  In  the  inner  castle  are  one  hundred  and  eighty  can- 
nons, and  at  the  gate  of  Tabriz,  in  the  centre  of  the  two  fortresses,  are  twelve 
large  cannons,  placed  there  by  Murâd  IV.    The  fortress  is  situated  at  a  gun's  shot 


no  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

from  Mount  Egorli ;  on  the  north  and  north-west  extends  the  plain  of  Erzeröm, 
two  miles  square,  a  fertile  flowery  field,  covered  with  villages. 

Description  of  the  great  river  Euphrates. 

The  great  river  Euphrates  flows  through  the  middle  of  the  plain  of  Erzerûm. 
Its  source  is  at  the  bottom  of  the  pilgrimage  of  Diimlibaba,  on  the  east  side  of 
Georgia ;  it  flows  towards  the  west,  causing  in  its  way  many  marshes  and  canals, 
passes  before  the  village  of  Kiân,  the  castle  of  Kemani,  through  the  Yaila  of  a 
thousand  lakes,  inhabited  by  the  Curds  IzuH,  joins  the  Murâd  (the  name  of  which 
it  assumes),  and  passes  like  a  sea  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Malatia  to  Samosat, 
Kala'ai  Ri'im,  Bireji'k,  the  bridge  Bûmbüja,  Bâlissa,  Ja'aber,  Rakie,  Rahbie,  Kar- 
kessia,  Ania,  Hita,  Ehyâr,  Takuk,  Helle,  and  Kufa ;  it  is  joined  at  Kaverna  by  the 
Shatt-ul-arab  (Tigris),  and  thus  becomes  an  immensely  large  river,  which  is  ascended 
by  Indian  ships  from  Bassra ;  the  whole  extent,  with  all  its  windings,  is  four 
hundred  farsangs ;  it  passes  four  hundred  towns  and  villages.  In  the  plain  of 
Erzerûm  its  water  is  very  sweet  and  palatable,  well  worth  being  recorded  in  the 
Koran  by  the  verse  : — "  And  we  gave  you  to  drink  of  the  water  of  the  Euphrates." 
Besides  the  Euphrates  no  less  than  seventy-two  rivers  descend  from  the  moun- 
tains of  Erzerûm  and  Diarbekr.  Makrisi  says,  that  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates 
were  dug  out  by  Daniel  with  the  assistance  of  Angels.  The  Tigris  is  the  Shatt, 
which  rises  east  of  Diarbekr,  between  Torjil  and  Miafarekein,  receives  an  infinite 
number  of  springs,  and  goes  to  Hossnî  Kaifa  and  Mossul.  This  river  unites  the 
upper  and  lower  Zarb,  and  becomes  a  tremendous  and  roaring  stream  which  is  called 
the  mad  Zarb.  It  was  of  the  river  Euphrates  that  the  prophet  is  reported  to  have 
said : — "  O  inhabitants  of  Cufa,  your  river  Euphrates  takes  up  two  channels  of 
Paradise."  Imam  Ja'afer  is  reported  to  have  said  in  praise  of  this  river : — "  If  the 
inhabitants  of  Irak  and  Rûm  were  acquainted  with  all  the  excellent  qualities  of 
the  Euphrates,  they  would  build  a  wall  on  each  side  of  it.  Whoever  bathes 
therein  three  times,  may  be  certain  of  being  cured  of  many  diseases."  Another 
tradition  on  the  Euphrates  is  reported  by  Abûhoreirî,  as  follows: — "The  last  day 
shall  not  arrive  till  the  Euphrates  flows  not  from  a  mountain  of  gold,  on  which 
men  are  killing  each  other ;  ninety-nine  shall  be  killed  out  of  each  hundred,  and 
yet  every  one  shall  say,  '  perhaps  it  is  I  who  may  be  saved.' "  The  Euphrates  and 
Orontis  (A'assi),  are  the  only  two  rivers  which  touch  the  frontier  of  the  Holy 
Land.  The  Euphrates  freezes  in  the  winter  so  that  during  two  months  many 
caravans  cross  it,  but  it  never  freezes  south  of  Erzerûm  ;  it  is  a  sweet  clear  water, 
and  a  great  comfort  to  the  inhabitants  of  Erzerûm,  though  they  have  the  spring, 
called  the  Source  of  Paradise,  within  their  walls. 


evliya  efendi.  Ill 

Of  the  Form  and  Size  of  the  Fortress  of  Erzerûm. 
It  consists  of  two  castles  of  a  square  form,  the  distance  between  the  two  walls 
is  seventy  paces ;  the  ditch  is  eighty  paces  broad,  and  twenty  deep,  but,  on 
the  side  of  the  Gurji  and  Erzenjân  gates,  the  ditch  is  not  so  deep  :  the  whole 
circumference  is  eighty  thousand  paces,  and  it  has  three  gates,  that  to  the  west  is 
the  gate  of  Erzenjân,  where  the  ditch  is  crossed  by  a  bridge ;  the  second  to  the 
east,  and  the  third  to  the  north,  are  likewise  entered  by  crossing  bridges.  The 
first,  which  is  the  Georgian  gate  (Gurji),  is  double,  like  that  of  Erzenjan  ;  but 
that  of  Tabriz,  as  it  is  close  to  the  walls  of  the  inner  castle,  is  only  a  single  one. 
The  guns  are  all  pointed  towards  the  quarters  of  the  town  Daraghaj  and  Gumishli 
Kunbed.  Within  the  outer  castle  is  an  immense  tower  reaching  to  the  skies, 
known  by  the  name  of  Kessik  Kulle,  on  the  top  of  which  is  a  high  wooden  Koshk  ; 
as  it  is  one  hundred  cubits  high,  ten  guns  pointed  from  thence  in  all  directions, 
intercept  even  the  flight  of  birds.  The  height  of  the  wall  of  the  inner  castle  is 
seventy  cubits  ;  the  other  walls  are  but  from  forty  to  fifty  cubits  high  ;  there  are 
two  hundred  and  ten  strong  towers,  and  two  thousand  and  eighty  battlements 
round  the  castle,  and  seventeen  hundred  houses,  all  covered  with  earth  (terrasses) 
in  the  ancient  style,  so  also  are  all  the  villages  which  I  saw  in  the  whole  govern- 
ment of  Erzerûm. 

Praise  of  the  Palaces  of  Erzerûm. 
The  palace  of  the  Pasha  has  no  less  than  one  hundred  and  ten  rooms  of  various 
sizes,  for  the  Divan  and  Koshks  ;  of  the  last,  the  two  finest  are  those  of  Tayâr  Pasha, 
and  of  Benlî  Pasha,  with  a  bath  and  a  fine  fountain.  On  the  outside,  above  the 
stables,  are  the  rooms  for  the  watchmen ;  the  court-yard  is  a  spacious  place  where 
they  play  the  jerid.  It  has  two  gates,  one  is  that  of  the  Divân,  opening  on  the 
great  road,  the  other  is  a  secret  gate,  always  kept  shut.  Erzerûm  contains  seventy 
quarters  of  Moslims,  and  seven  of  Infidels.  There  are  no  Armenians,  Copts,  or 
Jews  ;  if  any  make  their  appearance  they  run  the  risk  of  being  killed.  In  the 
quarter  called  the  Source  of  Paradise  the  houses  are  built  of  stone  ;  most  of  them 
are  only  one  story  high,  because  the  air  is  sharp  and  the  winter  severe.  It  has 
been  known  to  snow  here  for  ten  or  eleven  months  in  the  year,  which  is  the  reason 
that  the  greatest  part  of  the  houses  are  built  of  one  story,  like  a  bath,  with  win 
dows,  and  a  felt  door  on  the  top. 

Of  the  Mosques. 
There  are  seventy-seven  mihrabs ;  the  oldest  is  the  great  mosque  inside  the 
gate  of  Tabriz,  with  a  minareh  in  the  ancient  style,  built  by  the  Princes  of  the 


112  TIIETRAVELSOF 

Akche  Koyıınlî,  two  hundred  feet  square.     The  mimber  and  mihrâb  are  also  in 
the  ancient  style  ;  it  is  supported  by  two  hundred  columns  of  fir-tree,  and  the 
cupola  is  also  of  wood  ;  on  one  side  of  the  mosque  the  biscuit  for  the  garrison  of 
Erivan  is  kept.     On  the  east  side  of  this  mosque,  close  to  the  wall,  is  an  old  col- 
lege with  two  minarehs  ;  some  say  that  they  were  built  by  the  Princes  of  the  Akche 
Koyıınlî,  while  others  ascribe  tliem  to  Uzun  Hassan  ;  in  short,  it  is  an  old  prayer- 
place,  which  has  been  cruelly  damaged  in  the  different  sieges  of  Erzenim,  and 
never  been  repaired  because  it  was  never  endowed.  Within  the  gates  of  Tabriz  are 
two  tall  minarehs,  the  shining  porcelain  of  which  dazzles  the  eyes  of  beholders  ; 
tumblers  exhibit  their  skill  on  ropes  extended  between  these  two  high  minarehs. 
Sultân  Murad   IV.   converted  the  ruined   mosque  into  a  cannon  foundry.     God 
grant  it  may  be  repaired !     The  mosque  of  Ldle  Mustafa  Pâshâ,  before  the  gate  of 
the  Serai  on  the  great  road,  built  by  the  grand  Vezi'r  of  Sultân  Suleiman.     Its 
cupola  is  built  in  the  style  of  those  of  Constantinople,  eighty  feet  square,  and 
covered  with  lead.     Its  mihrab,  mimber,  and  mahfil  are  very  simple.     Outside  is  a 
stone  bench,  but  the  courtyard  is  narrow.     It  is  the  work  of  the  great  architect 
Sinan.     Its  sheikh  is  Warn'  Efendi,  one  of  the  most  learned  divines,  and  famed 
commentators,  a  second  Na'amân,  an  eloquent  man,  whose  renown  is  spread  all 
over  the  empire  ;  its  Imam  is  a  high-minded  priest,  who  knows  the  whole  Koran 
by  heart,  whose  reading  plunges  those  who  listen  into  the  depths  of  meditation. 
He  is  a  most  perfect  musician,  and  is  called  the  Imam  of  the  Janissaries ;  and  if 
the  Muezzin,  a  second  Belal  (the  Prophet's  Muezzin)  ascends  the  minareh,  and 
proclaims  with  David's  voice  Mahommed's  shout,  "  God  is  great,  God  is  great," 
all  hearers  begin  to  tremble,  every  person  leaves  his  business  or  repast,  and  hastens 
to  the  mosque.     All  the  inhabitants  of  Erzeriim  are  devout,  pious  men,     Jafer 
Efendi's  mosque  is  a  pleasing  new  built  mosque,  with  a  high  cupola  and  gate,  a 
courtyard  and  a  spouting  fountain  ;  the  windows  are  guarded  with  iron  gratings. 
In  the  inner  castle  is  an  old  mosque  much  frequented.     Outside  of  the  gate  of 
Erzenjân  is  the  Pasha's  mosque,  covered  with  lead,  and  outside  of  the  gate  of 
Tabriz,  on  the  edge  of  the  ditch,  is  the  mosque  of  Mohammed  Pâshâ,  with  one 
minareh,  and  with  a  terrace.     Besides  these  great  mosques  (Jami'i),  there  are  also 
seventy-seven  mesji'ds,  one  hundred  and  ten  schools    for    boys,   convents,   and 
houses  for  reading  the  Koran. 

Fountains. 
On  the  market-place,  is  the  Source  of  Paradise,  Jennet-bunâr ;  and  outside  of 
the  gate  of  Erzenjân  is  the  Camel  fountain  ;  on  the  fountain  of  Mustafa  Pâshâ  on 
the  edge  of  the  ditch,  outside  the  gate  of  Tabriz  is  this  inscription  from  the  Koran 


evli  YA    EFE  NDI,  113 

saying: — '<  there  are  flowing  fountains  in  it  (Paradise)."     There  are  seventy  Se- 
billchdneh,  or  places  where  water  is  distributed. 

Of  the  Baths,  Khdns,  Market-places  and  Markets. 

The  most  elegant  bath  is  that  of  Ja'afer  Efendi,  tliere  are  seventy  khans,  some  of 
them  for  Caravans  (Caravanserai)  ;  some  for  merchants  (Khîins,  jmr  excellence)  ; 
some  for  unmarried  workmen  (barracks)  ;  of  the  latter  there  are  ten,  where 
foreign  workmen  find  accommodation.  The  Bezestan  has  eight  hundred  shops, 
four  gates  and  a  stone  cupola.  The  markets  of  the  saddlers,  goldsmiths,  button- 
makers  and  tailors  are  very  elegant.     The  mint  is  near  the  gate  of  Erzenjan. 

Of  the  Inhabitants,  Climate,  Products,  8çc. 

The  inhabitants  are  all  Turkomans  and  Armenian  kurds,  of  lively  complexion, 
middle  size,  stout,  strong  in  youth,  and  vigorous  in  old  age.  From  ten  to  twenty- 
five  years  of  age  they  are  extremely  fine,  but  after  that  they  quickly  become 
hairy  men,  good  natured  and  brave.  The  principal  men  dress  in  sable  furs,  the 
Ulemâs  in  ferrâjis  of  cloth  and  caftans  of  Bogassin  ;  the  workmen  wear  abbas, 
and  sometimes  a  caftan  of  Bogassin.  During  three  months  the  air  is  mild  and 
pleasant ;  the  water  is  sweet  and  extremely  wholesome  for  the  women ;  whoever 
drinks  of  the  spring  called  the  Source  of  Paradise  in  the  summer,  understands  in 
its  full  sense,  the  verse  of  the  Koran,  "  Water  vivifies  all  things."  Seeds  ripen 
here  in  sixty  days,  and  bring  forth  fruit  from  eighty  to  one  hundred  fold  ;  there 
are  seven  sorts  of  corn,  one  of  which  is  as  white  as  camel's  teeth.  The 
workmanship  of  the  tailors  and  goldsmiths  is  very  skilful.  They  make  two  kinds 
of  pies  here,  one  of  chicken  and  the  other  of  a  sort  of  vegetable  called  Cheresh  ; 
white  and  excellent  pastry  (Chorek),  white  bread  called  Kolâj,  and  meat  roasted 
on  stoves,  &c.     Their  beverages  are  Sherbet  of  Ribbes,  and  excellent  Buza. 

The  walks  are  the  place  of  the  Jerid  ;  at  the  mills  in  the  meadow  ;  the  place 
of  Gumishli  Kunbed  (the  silver  vault),  and  the  Convent  of  Abd-ur-rahman  Ghâzî. 

Genealogies  of  Erzerûm. 
Outside  of  the  gates  of  the  fortress  on  the  east,  west  and  north  sides,  is  the 
suburb,  inhabited  by  more  than  thirty  thousand  Rayas  ;  on  the  south  side,  from 
the  gate  of  Tabriz  to  that  of  Erzenjan  a  wall  has  been  begun,  had  it  been 
finished,  it  would  have  made  Erzerûm  an  amazingly  strong  fortress.  Between 
this  wall  and  the  castle  is  the  suburb  divided  into  seven  quarters.  Tlie  suburb  of 
the  Tabriz  gate  extends  from  the  quarters  of  Daragach,  and  that  of  Duliikler  to 
Gumishli  Kunbed.     The  suburb  of  the  Georgians  on  the  north  side,  is  the  quarter 

VOL.  II.  Q 


114  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

of  the  rich  merchants ;  here  is  the  custom-house  where  I  was  employed  as  clerk  : 
round  it  are  the  houses  of  Persian,  Indian,  and  Chinese  merchants,  next  to  the 
custom-houses  of  Constantinople  and  Smyrna,  that  of  Erzerum  is  the  most  busy. 
The  suburb  of  Erzenjdn  extends,  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  castle-gate,  from  the 
Camel  fountain  to  the  mill  of  Alî.  This  suburb  being  mostly  inhabited  by  Ar- 
menians, there  are  thirteen  churches  here.  The  Infidels  wear  variegated  turbans, 
and  blue  coats,  and  the  lower  classes  wear  felt,  with  coarse  shoes  called  Chârk  ; 
their  women  wrap  white  sheets  round  their  heads,  and  the  Musselmân  women 
wear  pointed  caps  of  gold  and  silver  stuff,  velvet  trowsers  and  yellow  boots :  they 
are  extremely  pretty,  their  teeth  as  well  arranged  as  their  words;  with  their 
beautiful  hair,  dragging  a  thousand  lovers  after  them  as  slaves.  The  men  are 
long-lived,  in  society  may  be  found  many  men  past  seventy  years  of  age,  with 
full  use  of  all  their  faculties.  They  generally  speak  a  peculiar  dialect,  but  their 
divines  and  poets  speak  with  great  eloquence,  and  their  story-tellers  delight 
intelligent  people  by  their  tales  of  Hamza,  and  by  Chinese  shades.  There  are  also 
many  Santons  and  holy  men,  of  whom  Allahân-dede  was  famous  for  his  uxorious- 
ness.  Though  the  air  of  Erzerum  is  cold,  yet  its  vegetables  are  abundant,  its 
soil  being  extremely  fertile,  and  blessed  with  productions  of  all  kind,  which  makes 
Erzerum  one  of  the  cheapest  places  in  the  world.  Though  Erzerum  has  neither 
gardens  nor  vineyards,  yet  it  is  famed  for  roses  ;  some  winter  apples  and  pears  are 
the  only  fruits  which  are  found  here.  Plane-trees  and  willows  are  in  abun- 
dance in  all  the  walks  and  in  the  rose-gardens  ;  on  account  of  their  long  winter 
and  short  summer,  the  sowing  and  harvest  is  over  in  two  months.  At  the  time 
I  was  at  Erzerum  there  happened,  in  the  month  of  July,  when  the  horses  were 
out  at  grass,  such  a  storm  of  lightning,  thunder,  hail  and  snow,  that  all  the  horses 
broke  away  and  ran  half  mad  to  the  neighbouring  villages.  The  length  and 
severity  of  the  winter  here  is  explained  by  the  following  tale.  They  asked 
a  Dervish  "  from  whence  he  came  ?  "  he  said,  "  from  the  snow  of  Divine  Mercy  ;" 
they  asked,  "  what  was  the  naine  of  the  place  ; "  "  Erzerum,"  said  the  Dervish, 
which  may  be  spelled  Erezolura  (cruel  to  man)  ;  they  continued  to  ask  "  whether 
he  had  seen  any  summer  there."  The  Dervish  said,  "  By  God,  I  remained  there 
eleven  months  and  nine  and  twenty  days,  the  people  said  that  summer  was 
coming,  but  I  did  not  see  it.  It  happened,  however,  that  a  cat,  which  ran  over 
the  roofs  of  the  houses,  became  froze  there  while  in  the  act  of  running,  and 
remained  so  for  the  space  of  nine  months,  when  the  spring  arriving,  the  cat  began 
to  thaw,  cried  '  Miau ! '  and  fell  down:"  This  tale  has  become  a  common 
proverb.  It  is  really  a  fact,  that  if  a  man  touches  a  piece  of  iron  with  his  wet 
hand  during  winter,  they  freeze  together,  and  cannot  be  separated  without  tearing 


evliya  efendi.  115 

off  the  skin.  I  have  passed  forty  days  in  the  coldest  weather  at  Assov,  and  in 
the  desert  of  Kipchâk,  but  I  never  felt  cold  like  this ;  the  people  are,  however, 
very  healthy.  The  fruits  come  from  Isper,  Tortum,  and  Erzenjân  ;  peaches,  apri- 
cots, and  grapes  are  sold  at  the  weight  of  an  occa  for  a  para ;  a  waggon-load  o^ 
melons  or  water-melons  may  be  had  for  ten  paras.  Eatables  are  found  here  in 
great  perfection,  but  there  is  no  wood,  the  mountains  being  naked ;  wood  is 
nevertheless  very  cheap,  as  it  is  brought  from  mountains  at  two  journey's  dis- 
tance ;  a  mast  of  from  thirty  to  forty  cubits  length  is  sold  for  forty  aspers.  The 
Pasha's  wood  is  brought  to  the  town  by  the  camels  of  the  caravans,  which  arrive 
at  the  custom-house.  An  agha  has  the  inspection  of  the  wood  ;  the  poor  people 
burn  cow-dung.  The  Rayas  place  the  stove  in  the  middle  of  the  house,  on  the 
sides  of  which  the  cattle  stand ;  the  house  is  as  warm  as  a  bath,  and  they  cook 
their  bones  and  offal  on  the  fire. 

Description  of  Mount  Eğerli. 

This  is  a  high  mountain,  at  half  an  hour's  distance  on  the  south  side  of  Erzerum, 
its  name  is  derived  from  its  form,  which  is  like  a  saddle  (Eger) ;  its  top  is  bifur- 
cated, it  abounds  in  medical  herbs,  particularly  in  the  Tiitia  flower,  the  scent  of 
which  perfumes  the  air.  Oculists  come  here  to  collect  the  plant  Tutia,  and  with 
it  cure  people  who  have  been  diseased  for  forty  years.  The  odour  of  aromatic 
plants  and  scented  flowers  fills  the  atmosphere. 

Praise  of  Balaam,  the  son  of  Baür. 

I  once  played  Jerid  at  the  foot  of  this  mountain,  when  I  fell  from  the  horse,  and 
in  falling  said  to  myself,  "  Where  art  thou  now,  saddle-mountain  (Egerlîtâg)? " 
Having  recovered  my  senses  I  mounted  another  horse,  and  galloping  full  speed 
towards  the  mountain,  I  ascended  it.  I  saw  on  the  top  a  large  tomb,  on  which  I 
first  said  a  fatihah,  and  having  measured  it  by  my  steps,  I  found  it  eighty  paces  in 
length,  with  two  columns,  which  marked  the  situation  of  the  head  and  the  feet. 
I  was  looking  on  the  tomb,  when  a  a  bad  smell  arose,  very  disagreeable  both  to  me 
and  my  servants,  who  held  the  horses ;  I  looked  on  the  grave,  and  saw  that  the 
earth  within  it,  being  black  and  greasy,  was  boihng  like  gruel  in  a  pan.  I  then 
returned,  and  having  related  my  adventure  in  the  Pdsha's  company  in  the  evening, 
Ja'afer  Efendi  of  Erzerum,  a  learned  and  elegant  writer,  warned  me  not  to  visit 
this  place  any  more,  because  it  was  the  grave  of  Balaam,  the  son  of  Baür,  who 
had  died  an  Infidel  by  the  curse  of  Moses,  and  whose  grave  was  now  boiling,  both 
in  winter  and  summer,  by  subterraneous  fire.  At  the  foot  of  the  same  mountain, 
Abd-ur-rahman  Ghâzî,  the  standard-bearer  of  the  prophet,  lies  buried.    One  day  i 


116  THETRAVELSOF 

ascended  from  the  south  side  of  the  convent  about  two  thousand  paces,  when  I 
saw  on  the  second  top  of  this  bifurcate  mountain  a  tremendous  dragon  turned 
into  black  stone.  It  measured  seven  hundred  and  seventy  paces  from  the  head  to 
the  tail,  the  head  looks  to  the  field  of  Erzerûm,  the  tail  to  the  castle  of  Melaz 
Kerd.  If  snow  falls  on  the  mountains,  the  figure  of  this  black  dragon  is  easily 
distinguished  from  the  windows  of  the  Pasha's  palace  ;  the  circumference  of  its 
body  is  two  hundred  paces,  each  of  its  four  feet  is  as  large  as  ten  men  put  together, 
and  its  tail  is  raised  like  a  minareh.  It  remained  whole  until  the  reign  of  Selim  I. 
when  it  was  broken  by  an  earthquake,  so  that  its  fragments  now  lay  scattered 
about.  The  head  was  then  split  asunder,  and  one  of  the  eye-balls  rolled  down  on 
the  south  side  towards  Melazguerd,  where  it  lies  on  the  plain  like  a  cupola ;  the 
left  eye-ball  of  the  same  size,  yet  remains  in  the  petrified  head,  and  is  seen  very 
distinctly  with  its  ears,  tongue,  nose,  and  mouth  every  time  it  snows,  because  no 
snow  will  remain  on  this  black  stone,  but  melts  away,  and  renders  more  promi- 
nent the  black  colour  of  it.  In  winter  the  stone  becomes  hot,  and  emits 
vapour ;  in  summer  it  is  cold,  and  exhales  a  pleasant  odour.  The  legend  reports 
that  this  most  tremendous  dragon  was  changed  into  stone  by  the  Prophet's 
standard-bearer,  when  it  came  to  swallow  up  the  inhabitants  of  Erzerûm  as  food 
for  its  young,  who  were  shut  up  in  a  cave  of  Mount  Sijan,  on  the  borders  of  the 

lake  Van. 

Pilgrimages  ;   Tomb  of  Sheikh  Kdrzuni. 

His  name  is  Ibrahim,  his  surname  Abu  Ishak,  a  native  of  the  town  Kârzün, 
where  he  was  born  in  the  year  352  of  the  Hejira.  In  his  travels  he  visited  Brussa 
and  Adrianople  and  returned  to  Erzerûm,  where  he  settled  in  a  great  tower  within 
the  gate  of  Tabriz  ;  his  tomb-keeper  is  a  white-bearded  woman,  whom  I  saw  when 
I  visited  the  tomb.  Shehid  Murteza  Pasha,  who  was  shut  up  seven  months  in 
Erivan,  is  buried  at  the  foot  of  Abu  Ishak  Karzûnî,  with  Abaza  Pâshâ,  who  was 
killed  by  Dishlin  Hossein  Pâshâ.  Opposite  to  the  Pasha's  palace,  in  a  pointed 
vault,  lies  Sultân  Kâssim,  the  son  of  Mahmud  Gaznevi,  and  near  him  his  sister 
Fîrûzeh  Khânum.  Outside  of  the  gate  of  Erzenjân,  above  the  camel's  fountain, 
Jânpûland-zadeh,  lies  Mustafa  Pâshâ,  who  after  the  conquest  of  Erivan  was  killed 
by  the  grand  Vezir  Mohammed  Pasha.  He  was  a  protector  of  my  father  and 
myself.  Abd-ur-rahman,  the  standard-bearer  of  the  Prophet,  is  buried  at  the  foot 
of  Egerlıtâgh,  in  a  fine  convent.  Outside  of  the  gate  of  Tabriz,  at  the  place 
called  Gumishli  Kunbed  (the  silver  vault),  because  it  was  once  faced  with  silver, 
reposes  Sultân  Mahmûd,  the  Gasnevide,  on  whose  marble  coffin  is  written  only  the 
word  Mahmûd.  There  are  besides  many  other  pilgrimages,  which  I  had  no 
opportunity  of  visiting. 


evliya  efendi.  117 

Stations  of  our  military  expedition  to  the  Castle  of  Shnshik. 
Letters  of  complaint  arrived  from  Genj  Alî  Klıân,  the  Khdn  of  Erivan,  stating 
that  the  rebellious  Beg  of  the  Castle  of  Shushik  had  broken  the  peace  by  inroads 
into  the  Persian  districts  of  Erivan.     The  sanjak  Begs,  Timariots  and  Zaims  were 
summoned  to  take  the  field  with  half  of  their  contingents,  and  to  assemble  at  the 
Silver  vault.     The  Pasha  himself  fixed  his  tent  there,  with  seventy  banners  of 
Segbdn  or  Seimen  and  Sârija  (irregular  troops),  and  four  thousand  regulars.     The 
Beglerbegs  assembled  around  him,  pitching  their  tents  according  to  the  orders 
issued.     It  was  an  army  of  seventy-six  thousand  men.     When  the  Persian  Envoy 
saw  this  immense  army  collected,  he  repented  of  his  complaint  against  the  Beg  of 
Shushik,  because  he  was  afraid  that  this  army  might  receive  orders  to  lay  siege 
to  Erivan.     Alaja  Atlı  Hassan  Agha,  with  a  thousand  horse,  was  named  Quarter- 
master (Kondkji-bashi) ;  he  took  the  van  with  the  tails  and  tens.     Sîdî  Ahmed 
Pasha  was  named  Chârkajî,  or  leader  of  the  vanguard,  and  Bakî  Pâshâ,  Dûmddr, 
or  leader  of  the  rearguard.     The  army  set  out  from  the  Silver  vault  in  such 
order  that  the  Persian  Envoys  and  Khans  remained  quite  perplexed.     After  four 
hours  march  it  reached  the  place  called  the  Camel's  Neck  (Deve-boinî),  where  the 
Pasha,  commander-in-chief,  gave  an  entertainment  to  all  the  Begs  and  Beglerbegs, 
after  which  every  one  retired  to  his  tent ;  this  is  a  pleasant  meadow,  where  our 
horses  were  refreshed  with  excellent  trefoil,  it  is  also  the  commencement  of  the 
field  of  Passin.     In  winter  time  snow  lies  here  to  the  height  of  a  minareh,  and 
many  caravans  have  been  lost  in  it.     It  was  the  snow  that  prevented  Tabâni  Yassî 
Mohammed  Pâshâ  from  passing  the  Deve-boinî,  and  as  he  did  not  arrive  before 
Erivan  soon  enough,  that  fortress  was  taken  from  the  Osmanlî's  after  seven  months 
siege  by  the  Persians.     Three  hours  further  towards  the  east,  we  arrived  at  the 
vintage  Ja'afer  Efendî,  where  Ja'afer  Efendî,  its  owner,  gave  a  splendid  entertain- 
ment to  the  Pasha,  with   a   present  of  three  horses,   and  three  boys.     It  is  a 
well  cultivated  Armenian  village  of  three  hundred  houses.     We  marched  five 
hours  across  the  plain  of  Passin  to  the  strong  fortress  of  Rum  Hassan,  renovated 
by  Uzun  Hassan,  the  Sultân  of  Azerbeijan ;  it  is  a  lofty  castle  which  was  taken 
by  Sultân  Suleiman  out  of  the  hands  of  the  children  of  Kara  Yiissiif,  and  is  now 
the  seat  of  the  sanjak  Beg  of  Passin,  in  the  province  of  Erzerüm.     The  khass 
amounts,  according  to  the  canon  of  Sultân  Suleiman,  to  twelve  thousand  four 
hundred  aspers  ;  there  are  six  Zaims,  and  three  hundred  and  twenty-five  Timariots. 
An  Alai  Beg,  Cherî-bashî,  and  Yuz-bashî  (Colonel,  Captain,  and  Lieutenant),  are 
the  officers  of  the  feudal  militia.     In  the  time  of  war,  the  number  of  the  troops 
amounts  to  fifteen  hundred,  the  half  of  which  now  joined  the  Pasha  s  army.     The 
castle  saluted  the  Pasha,  as  soon  as  his  tent  was  fixed,  with  a  great  noise  of  guns 


118  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

and  muskets.  The  Pâshd  sent  an  order  to  the  commander  to  place  the  who. e 
garrison  under  arms  on  the  walls,  as  he  wished  to  enter  in  state.  When  we 
entered  it  shouts  of  Allah  rent  the  skies,  and  the  reports  of  the  guns  shook 
them,  so  that  the  Persian  Envoy  was  quite  perplexed,  putting  the  finger  of  asto- 
nishment to  his  lips.  In  the  inside  of  the  castle,  the  space  between  the  outer  and 
inner  gate  was  set  round  with  armour  and  different  kinds  of  weapons,  and  be- 
ginning from  the  hot-bath  gate,  both  sides  of  the  road  were  lined,  two  deep,  by 
armed  men,  who  gave  the  salute.  The  prayer  of  Friday  was  performed  in  the 
mosque,  and  when  we  left  it  all  the  walls  were  covered  with  flags  and  banners  of 
different  colours.  The  Pasha  entered  the  inner  castle,  where  the  guns  of  Sultân 
Suleiman,  of  forty  four  spans  length,  were  fired,  and  the  balls  were  thrown  as  far  as  the 
Bridge  of  the  Shepherds,  Shoban  Jissri.  Here  the  company  sat  down  to  a  splendid 
dinner,  after  which  the  Beg  and  Dizdar  were  invested  with  robes  of  honour.  The 
Pasha  returned  to  his  tent,  where  he  received  the  visit  of  the  judge  (appointed 
with  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers),  the  Serdâr  of  the  Janissaries,  the  Kiaya-yeri 
of  the  Sipâhîs,  of  the  Muftf,  the  Nakib-ul-ishraf,  and  other  principal  men  (Ayan.) 

Size  and  Form  of  the  Fortress  Hassan. 

It  is  situated  on  the  northern  side  of  the  field  of  Pâssin,  on  an  isolated  high 
cliff,  so  high,  that  to  look  down  from  the  side  of  the  hot-bath  makes  the  head 
giddy.  Inside  there  is  nobody  but  the  Imam,  the  Muezzin,  and  the  Dizdar,  or 
commander.  Horses  and  asses  cannot  get  up  to  this  place.  There  is  a  small 
Koshk  built  for  Murad  IV.  by  our  protector  Melek  Ahmed  Pasha,  who,  at  the 
time  of  the  expedition  to  Erivan,  was  the  imperial  sword-bearer,  having  succeeded 
the  former  sword-bearer,  who  was  removed  from  his  office  because  the  coverlet  of 
the  Sultan's  bed  was  set  fire  to  by  a  spark  one  night.  The  circumference  of  the 
castle  is  one  thousand  paces,  without  a  ditch  ;  an  iron  gate  opens  to  the  west.  On 
the  north  side,  below  the  upper  or  innermost  castle,  is  another  castle  with  two 
walls,  whose  circumference  is  six  thousand  paces.  It  is  an  oblong  square,  of  a 
shining  whiteness.  The  walls  are  but  eighteen  yards  high,  but  they  are  double, 
and  on  three  sides  the  ditch  is  very  deep,  so  that  there  is  no  fear  of  an  enemy ; 
the  ground  being  marshy,  no  trenches  can  be  opened.  Its  three  gates  are  :  on 
the  west  side,  the  gate  of  Erzerum,  a  great  gate  with  iron  wings  ;  the  gate  of  the 
hot-bath,  and  a  secret  gate,  shut  to  the  east  side ;  there  is  a  garrison  of  seven 
hundred  men,  with  a  well-filled  arsenal,  and  sixty  large  and  small  guns.  To- 
wards the  south  opens  the  plain  of  Pâssin,  which  is  seven  journies  long.  The 
houses,  five  hundred  and  ninety  in  number,  are  all  stone-built  winter  houses  :  the 
town  consists  of  nine  quarters,  with  as  many  mosques.     The  mosque  of  Suleiman 


evliya  efendi.  ]19 

is  a  low  terraced  mosque,  with  one  minareh  in  the  ancient  style ;  there  is  no  Be- 
zesttin  or  Medresse,  but  six  schools  for  boys,  a  khân,  and  a  bath.  The  inhabitants 
are  a  brave  set  of  people,  kind  to  foreigners.  There  are  some  men  of  wit  and 
learning.  The  great  poet  Nefii  Efendi  was  born  here ;  no  gardens  exist 
round  the  castle,  because  it  is  too  cold,  nevertheless,  vegetables  are  found 
here  in  abundance.  Bread  and  honey  are  rather  to  be  suspected,  for  I,  myself, 
poor  Evliya,  having  eaten  some  honey  in  the  commander's  house,  became  in  half 
an  hour  so  giddy  that  I  thought  of  throwing  myself  down  from  the  castle. 

Description  of  the  Hot-baths. 

On  the  south  side  of  the  lower  town  (Robath),  on  the  Kiblah  side,  are  several 
hot-baths ;  seven  of  them  are  covered  with  small  cupolas,  and  in  eight  other  places 
the  water  is  boiling  in  the  open  air,  each  place  being  used  for  different  animals, 
such  as  horses,  mules,  camels,  sheep,  and  others.  The  water  of  these  hot-baths 
is  carried  to  distant  places  on  camels,  and  those  who  are  afflicted  with  leprosy  are 
cured  if  they  drink  of  it. 

Three  hours  to  the  east  from  hence,  we  came  to  the  village  of  Sefer  Agha,  con- 
sisting of  one  hundred  Armenian  houses,  in  the  field  of  Passin.  Three  hours 
further  on,  is  the  great  Bridge  of  the  Shepherds  (Choban  Koprissi.)  It  is  called 
so  because  it  was  built  by  Melek  Sultân,  of  the  dynasty  of  the  shepherds  (Choban). 
It  is  vaulted  like  a  rainbow  over  the  river  Aras,  which  comes  from  the  great  Gok- 
yaila,  and  flows  to  the  east ;  passes  under  Melazjerd,  before  the  village  of  Artof, 
the  castle  of  Khinis,  beneath  the  bridge  of  Altun  Khalkali,  supplies  water  to  many 
hundred  villages  below  the  Bridge  of  the  Shepherds,  joins  the  Zengi  river  below 
Erivan,  which  falls  into  the  Kür  (Cyrus),  and  with  it  disembogues  into  the  Cas- 
pian Sea.  The  river  Aras  (Aranes)  is  an  impetuous  river,  which,  at  the  melting 
of  the  snow,  rages  like  the  sea.  The  army  passed  during  three  days  over  the 
bridge,  with  the  Pasha  himself  in  grand  state.  After  seven  hours  we  came  to  the 
village  of  Great  Artof,  in  the  sanjak  of  Khinis,  a  village  of  one  hundred  Armenian 
houses.  Eight  hours  further  to  the  east,  is  the  village  of  Küzûlî  Sultân  Baba, 
belonging  to  Khinis.  The  castle,  which  lies  six  hours  further  on,  was  built  by 
Shah  Shapur,  the  uncle  of  Uzun  Hassan,  the  Prince  of  Azerbeijan.  It  was  con- 
quered by  Sultân  Suleiman,  and  is  now  the  seat  of  a  sanjak  Beg  belonging  to 
Erzerum.  The  khass  is  forty -eight  thousand  four  hundred  aspers,  two  ziamets, 
and  four  hundred  and  twenty-five  timfirs,  with  the  Jebellis,  two  thousand  men, 
besides  one  thousand  men  of  the  Pasha's  troops,  all  Kurds  of  the  tribe  Mahmudi. 
The  judge  is  appointed  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers ;  there  is  no  Serdar, 
Kiaya-yerî,  Mufti,  or  Nakib,  but  there  is  a  Disdar. 


120  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

Size  and  Form  of  the  Castle  of  Khinh. 

It  is  three  journies  distance  (if  you  walk  fast)  from  Erzerûm,  and  is  a  square, 
strong  built  castle,  in  the  centre  of  a  piece  of  high  table  land,  surrounded  on  all 
sides  by  lofty  mountains.  The  height  of  the  castle  wall  is  ten  cubits,  it  is  six 
thousand  paces  in  circumference,  with  a  gate  to  the  north.  In  the  eastern 
quarter  of  the  castle  is  a  clear  fountain.  Below  the  castle,  at  the  foot  of  the 
wall,  is  an  iron  grating,  which  intercepts  the  stream,  and  distributes  its  water  into 
the  gardens.  The  gate  of  the  castle  is  near  this  spring ;  there  are  within  the 
castle  twelve  hundred  Kurdish  houses,  and  seven  mosques,  a  khân,  a  bath,  and  some 
small  streets  ;  the  houses  are  all  covered  with  earth,  and  no  bricks  are  to  be  seen. 
The  inhabitants  are  all  Mahmûdî  Kurds,  rich  in  sheep  and  goats  ;  every  year 
they  repair  with  their  cattle  to  the  mountains  of  Boyuk-gol-yaila.  Here  the  Beg 
of  Melazjerd,  in  his  quality  of  sanjak  Beg  of  Erzerûm,  came  with  three  thousand 
well-armed  Mahmûdî  Kurds.  He  was  invested  with  a  robe  of  honour,  and  pre- 
sented with  a  Chelenk,  and  took  the  van  of  the  army.  Ghazî  Sîdî  Ahmed  Pâshâ, 
commanding  an  army  of  fifty-three  thousand  men,  with  twelve  guns  and  two 
culverins,  directed  his  march  from  Khinis  to  Shûshîk,  and  the  Pasha,  our  master, 
remained  with  twelve  hundred  men  on  the  field  of  Khinis.  We  now  marched  to 
the  east,  through  precipices,  for  six  hours,  till  we  came  to  Khdssîk,  a  Kurdish 
village  of  two  hundred  houses,  and  I,  poor  Evliya,  advanced  with  two  hundred 
horse  to  the  castle  of  Zia-ud-din,  nine  hours  further  ;  it  is  a  strong  castle  in  the 
territory  of  Azerbeijan,  built  by  the  Princes  of  that  name.  It  is  the  frontier  of  the 
sanjak  of  Khinis  ;  its  keys  were  surrendered  to  the  Ottomans  after  the  conquest 
of  Van,  and  the  inhabitants  were  exempted  from  all  duties.  There  is  no  Serdâr 
and  Kiaya-yeri ;  there  is  a  mosque  and  six  hundred  houses,  with  terraces  and 
lower  stories  only,  a  khân,  a  bath,  and  from  forty  to  fifty  shops.     The  inhabitants 

are  brave  and  honest. 

Description  of  the  Hot-bath. 

Between  the  river  Aras,  the  lake  of  Van,  and  the  castle  of  Arjesh,  is  a  famous 
hot-bath,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  castle  Zia-ud-din.  It  is  a  curious  fact  that 
the  springs  rise  in  five  or  six  different  places ;  at  some  of  them  the  water  is  as 
cold  as  ice,  in  others  it  boils  like  gruel.  Here  is  a  spring  so  cold  that  the 
hand  cannot  bear  it,  and  close  to  it  one  in  which  eggs  and  sheep's  feet  are 
cooked.  Only  one  of  these  hot  springs  is  covered  with  a  cupola,  the  rest  are 
exposed  to  the  open  air ;  every  one  is  large  enough  to  drive  a  mill.  We  now 
turned  to  the  west,  along  the  mountains  of  Sûnjâb-Ainî,  and  arrived  after  nine 
hours  at  the  castle  of  Atik,  built  like  the  former,  by  Zia-ud-din,  the  Prince  of 
Azerbeijan ;  it  is  a  square  castle  on  a  rock. 


evliya    efendi.  121 

Description  oj  the  Castle  of  Shûshek  or  Shûshlk. 

It  was  built  by  Zia-ud-din,  the  son  of  Sultcin  Hassan,  and  is  a  square  castle,  on 
the  top  of  a  high  rock.  The  camp  was  fixed  at  the  distance  of  a  gunshot  from 
the  castle,  and  the  siege  began  immediately.  As  soon  as  the  Mussulman  victors 
opened  the  trenches,  all  the  guns  were  fired  from  the  castle,  and  seventy  men 
fell  to  the  ground  as  martyrs.  The  Commander,  Sidi  Ahmed  Pasha,  exhorting 
the  Begs,  Beglerbegs,  and  other  officers,  with  sweet  words  and  presents  and  him- 
self making  all  possible  exertions,  brought  four  cannons  on  to  the  heights  opposite 
the  eastern  side  of  the  castle,  which  being  fired,  killed  Chenddn  Beg,  the  nephew 
of  the  Beg  of  the  castle.  At  the  same  moment  a  great  lamentation  arose  in  the 
castle,  and  the  Ottoman  victors  began  to  ascend  the  breaches  by  ladders  ;  in  short, 
the  siege  lasted  twenty-four  hours,  and  the  next  day  the  flags  of  truce  were 
planted  on  the  battlements,  and  all  the  Kurds  were  crying  Aman  !  Aman !  O 
chosen  family  of  Osman !  The  commander,  Sidi  Ahmed  Pasha,  with  his  first 
Colonel,  went  to  the  gates  of  the  castle,  from  which  came  out  seven  Kurdish  Begs 
as  hostages  ;  they  said,  "  On  this  night  Mustafa  Beg,  our  Beg,  deserted  the  castle 
and  fled  to  the  Persians."  Sidi  Ahmed  Pasha  gave  no  credit  to  this  report,  and 
told  them  to  find  their  Beg,  lest  they  might  have  their  hands  cut  like  sheeps'  feet ; 
he  fettered  them,  put  seven  hundred  men  into  the  castle,  confiscated  all  the  goods 
found  in  the  palace  of  the  Beg,  disarmed  the  Kurds,  collected  three  thousand 
muskets  and  six  thousand  swords  and  other  arms,  and  sent  the  merry  news  to  my 
Lord,  Mohammed  Piishâ.  The  same  day  the  Mohammedan  shout  (Allah)  was  pro- 
claimed in  the  castle  ;  two  thousand  muskets  and  many  guns  were  fired  as  a  salute  ; 
the  whole  district  of  Shushik,  up  to  the  Persian  frontier,  was  ravaged  and  pillaged, 
and  the  Moslim  victors  enriched  with  the  booty  of  some  hundred  thousand  sheep, 
oxen  and  mules.  Men  were  sent  into  the  interior  of  the  country  in  search  of  the 
Beg,  but  only  found  a  spy,  whose  nose  and  ears  were  in  the  first  place  slit,  but  at 
the  moment  the  executioner  was  about  to  cut  off  his  head,  he  implored  the  Pasha's 
mercy,  saying  that  he  had  something  of  importance  to  communicate  to  him.  He 
said  that  the  Beg  of  Shushik  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  Persian  Khan  of 
Magu,  and  was  imprisoned  there.  Bdki  Pasha,  Katgâj  Pâshâ,  and  Dilawer  Pâshâ, 
with  the  Beg  of  Melazjerd,  Mohammed  Beg,  with  three  thousand  men,  were 
ordered  to  go  in  search  of  the  Beg  of  Shushik  at  the  castle  of  Magu.  I,  poor 
Evliya,  was  also  in  the  expedition.  We  marched  across  the  Minvaldereh  amidst 
the  mountains,  and  at  the  end  of  eight  hours,  reached  the  tomb  of  Tahmurass 
Khan,  a  Persian,  who  was  killed  in  the  war  of  Cighalezadeh,  and  buried  at  this 
spot ;  here  are  two  hundred  Armenian  houses,  which  pay  tribute  to  the  Beg  of 
Shushik,  and  to  the  Persians.     We  advanced  for  seven  hours  through  a  woody 

VOL.  ir.  R 


122  THETRAVELSOF 

country,  and  for  two  more  through  flowery  fields,  and  arrived  at  the  castle  of 
Magu,  built  by  Nûshirvân.  The  Kurds  submitted  to  Suleiman,  who  made  a  pre- 
sent of  this  castle  to  the  Beg  of  the  Mahmudi  tribe.  The  Persians  took  it  from 
them,  and  it  is  now  subordinate  to  the  governor  of  Melâzjerd.  In  the  time  of  the 
grand  Vezir  of  Sultan  Murad  IV.  Kara  Mustafa  Pasha,  after  the  conquest  of 
Baghdad,  went  to  Derne  and  Derteng,  in  order  to  settle  the  boundary ;  my  lord, 
Melek  Ahmed  Pasha,  my  gracious  protector,  was  then  Governor  of  Diarbekr,  and 
named  on  this  commission  for  settling  the  frontiers  and  renewing  the  peace.  The 
Ottomans  had  laid  waste  the  castle  of  Zalim,  in  the  province  of  Shehrzol,  and 
the  Persians  that  of  Kotur,  in  the  province  of  Van.  The  Ottomans  also  took 
possession  of  Magu,  and  transferred  the  Beg  and  the  garrison  to  Meldzjerd. 
Under  the  pretext  of  the  rebellion  of  the  Beg  of  Shûshîk,  the  Persians  laid  hold 
of  Magu,  which  is  a  fortress,  like  the  castles  of  Van,  Mardin,  Shuban  Kara,  Afiun 
Kara  Hissâr,  A'adil  Jiwas,  Tokat,  and  Amasia. 

Size  and  Form  of  Magu. 

It  is  situated  on  a  high  and  steep  rock,  the  base  of  which  is  thin  and  narrow, 
and  towers  into  the  skies,  being  inaccessible  on  all  sides.  There  is  but  one  gate  to 
which  you  ascend  by  a  small  staircase  cut  in  the  rock  like  a  minareh.  Seven  hun- 
dred houses  afford  lodgings  to  two  thovisand  musketeers  of  Mazenderan,  com- 
manded by  a  Sultân  (Beg)  subordinate  to  the  Khân  (Pasha,  governor)  of  Erivan. 
The  drawbridge  which  leads  over  the  river,  to  the  Castle,  is  raised  every  night, 
and  it  thus  becomes  entirely  isolated ;  the  water  is  raised  by  ropes  of  one  hundred 
fathoms  length.  The  Khân  descended  with  one  thousand  of  his  serving  men  (Diz- 
choken  Tülünkî),  and  gave  a  grand  entertainment  to  Bakf  Pasha,  who,  after 
dinner,  requested  that  the  Beg  of  Shûshîk  might  be  given  up  to  him :  this  was 
done  accordingly,  and  he  was  carried  to  Sidi  Ahmed  Pasha,  who  came  on  the  seventh 
day  to  Khinis,  and  delivered  him  to  Mohammed  Pâshâ  the  governor  of  Erzerum, 
who  spared  his  Hfe,  but  put  him  into  prison.  Forty  thousand  sheep,  forty  horses, 
seventeen  strings  of  mules,  twenty  Georgian  slaves,  and  fifty  purses  were  taken 
from  him,  he  was  afterwards  released,  but  his  castle  was  given  to  Mohammed  the 
Beg  of  Melazjerd,  who  furnished  twenty  purses,  twenty  strings  of  mules,  a  great 
number  of  furs  and  skins  of  lynxes  and  leopards  ;  the  Moslim  victors  returned  in 
safety  with  their  booty  to  Erzerum.  On  the  same  day  after  seven  hours,  we 
reached  the  village  of  Alajalar ;  it  is  situated  on  the  border  of  Aras,  under  the 
command  of  the  castle  of  Bayazid,  and  consists  of  three  hundred  Armenian 
houses.  Here  our  gracious  Lord  gave  a  grand  entertainment  to  the  Persian 
Envoys  of  the  Khans  of  Erivan,  Nakhshivân  and  Tabriz,  and  gave  each  of  them 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  123 

letters  of  amity,  with  a  couple  of  Arabian  horses,  beads  of  coral,  bow  and  arrows, 
and  Genoese  and  Venetian  cloth.  He  told  them  in  his  speech,  that  in  order  to 
satisfy  the  Khdn  of  Erivan  he  had  reduced  the  Beg  of  Shûshîk,  but  that  he  hoped 
now  that  the  Persians  on  their  side  would  fulfil  with  equal  faithfulness  the  con- 
ditions of  the  peace,  and  therefore  evacuate  the  castle  of  Shushi'k,  and  give  it  back 
to  the  Ottomans,  if  not,  that  he  as  Commander-in-Chief  would  ravage  the  districts 
of  Erivan  and  Nakhshivan.  The  three  envoys  kissed  the  ground  and  were 
invested  with  Persian  sable  pelisses.  The  Keldrji  Velî  Agha  was  sent  with  the 
Envoy  to  Erivan  ;  Alaja  Atlı  Hassan  with  the  second  to  Nakhshivan,  and  I  poor 
Evliya  in  quality  of  Clerk  of  the  Custom-house  was  named  to  go  with  letters  and 
presents  in  the  third  Envoy's  company  to  Tabriz,  to  arrange  the  commercial 
affairs.  I  took  two  horses  richly  caparisoned  to  the  Khân,  handkerchiefs,  beads 
of  pearl,  and  a  magnificent  quiver.  I  received  myself,  on  setting  out  on  my 
journey,  a  purse  of  money,  and  a  robe  of  honour,  and  was  accompanied  by  ten 
servants,  and  ten  men  of  all  arms,  altogether  forty-five  men.  I  took  leave  of  the 
Pâshâ,  and  set  out  trusting  in  the  Lord  for  Nakhshivan  and  Erivan. 

Description  of  our  journey  along  the  Aras  to  Persia. 
On  the  first  day,  we  travelled  for  the  space  of  eight  hours  along  the  Aras, 
towards  the  east,  and  arrived  at  the  village  Yailajak,  partly  Armenian  and  partly 
Moslim,  subordinate  to  the  Castle  of  Anek.  Further  eastward  we  came  to  Bariid 
Khâneh  belonging  to  the  Castle  Shûshîk,  consisting  of  three  hundred  houses  ;  salt- 
petre is  produced  here.  Sixteen  hours  further  is  the  station  of  Kendush  Kia,  on 
the  banks  of  a  torrent  called  Okhdere ;  we  pitched  our  tents  here  in  a  flowery 
meadow  amidst  beds  of  tulips.  Twelve  hours  further  on  is  the  station  of  Chaghla 
ghurna,  the  inhabitants  are  Kurds.  We  saw  the  castle  of  Shûshîk,  on  our  left  on 
high  rocks,  and  were  saluted  by  it  with  seven  guns.  The  new  Beg  also  sent  us  a 
quantity  of  provisions.  Here  we  parted  company  with  Kassim  Khân,  the  Envoy 
of  Erivan,  who  went  to  the  left,  while  I  poor  Evliya  took  the  road  on  the  right 
to  Nakhshivan.  After  having  travelled  thirteen  hours  through  a  mountainous 
tract,  we  came  to  Karish,  the  first  town  in  Persia.  It  was  built  by  Sharokh,  the 
son  of  Timur,  and  then  came  into  the  power  of  Uzun  Hassan  the  Prince  of  Azer- 
beijân.  Its  castle  is  situated  on  a  high  peak,  is  square  and  built  of  stone,  an 
elegant  yet  strong  fortress,  garrisoned  by  one  thousand  Dizchoken  Tûlünkî.  They 
saluted  us  contrary  to  our  wishes,  by  firing  eighteen  guns,  the  report  of  which  was 
re-echoed  among  the  neighbouring  hills.  We  encamped  at  the  foot  of  the  castle, 
and  visited  the  town  at  our  leisure.  It  was  formerly  a  large  town,  but  is  now  in 
ruins,  in  consequence  of  the  pillage  it  suffered  at  the  time  of  the  expedition  to 


]24  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

Eiivan  by  Sultdn  Murad  IV.  when  the  troops  of  Erzerum,  Achika  and  Karrs 
revolted,  and  plundered  this  town  of  Karish.      There  are  seven  mosques  with 
minarehs,  three  baths,  and  gardens  and  vineyards  in  abundance.     The  town  is 
situated  on  the  banks  of  tlie  river  Karish,  which  issues  from  Mount  Sükûn,  and 
flows  to  the  Aras.     The  Agha  of  the  Castle  invited  me  with  the  envoy  to  a  feast, 
and  our  horses  with  difficulty  ascended  to  the  castle  in  half  an  hour.     The  Agha 
of  the  garrison  dressed  in  an  odd  way,  and  giving  us  welcome,  invited  us  to  his 
house,  from  which  a  beautiful  view  may  be  enjoyed.     He  treated   us  to  eleven 
sorts  of  pilaw  and  a  great  number  of  other  good  dishes  ;  he  presented  me,  the 
envoy,  and  Alaja  Atli  Hassan,  with  leopard  skins,  and  sent  after  us  when  we  had 
returned  to  our  tents,  a  present  of  fifty  sheep,  one  thousand  loaves  of  white 
bread,  and  from  seven  to  eight  mule-loads  of  delicious  fruits,  with  several  sorts  of 
sherbet.     We  kept  the  great  feast  (Bairâm)  here,  remained  a  couple  of  days,  and 
were  then  entertained  with  a  sumptuous  dinner  in  a  garden.     Returning  from  the 
garden  we  took  a  view  of  the  outside  of  the  mosque  of  Evhad  Allah,  it  is  an 
incomparable  mosque  with  a  well-proportioned  minareli  ;  near  it  is  the  bath  of 
Tâj-ud-dîn  Munshî,  and  seven  Khans.      The  beautiful  women  of  the  place  have 
such  fine  and  brilliant  eyes,  that  one  glance  from  them  delights  the  heart  more  than  a 
thousand  from  others.  The  next  morning  three  hundred  Persian  horsemen  joined  us, 
and  accompanied  us  on  our  way,  which  led  through  a  monntainous  tract,  thirteen 
hours  towards  the  east,  to  the  station  of  the  village  of  Kend  Massir ;  Kend  is  the 
Persian  word  signifying  the  same  as  the  Turkish  Kassaba  (small  town).     It  is 
situated  on  the  border  of  Mount  Massîr,  and  consists  of  one  thousand  houses 
with  earthen  roofs,  surrounded  with  gardens,  seven  mosques,  three  baths,    and 
three  hundred  shops.     It  is  the  seat  of  a  Kelenter  (provost)  subordinate  to  Eri- 
van.    We  advanced  fourteen  hours  to  Kend  Ziih  Khân,  on  the  frontier  of  Nakh- 
shivan  belonging  to  its  khass,  it  is  a  flourishing  small  town.     Here  we  took  two 
Persian  boys,  who  delighted  us  with  their  songs.     We  now  proceeded  for  seven 
hours  through  a  wide  valley,  where  we  saw  immense  trees,  to  Uch  Kilisse.     On 
the  top  of  a  mountain  are  three  great  convents,  in  each  of  which  lodge  a  couple 
of  hundred  priests  and  monks.     Fine  youths  serve  the  strangers  who  divert  them- 
selves here.     One  of  these  three  convents  was  built  by  Nürshirvân,  the  second  by 
the  Greek  Emperor,  the  third  by  an  Armenian  lady,  which  is  now  inhabited  by 
more  than  five  hundred  nuns,  who  eat  nothing  but  dry  roots;  but  they  serve 
milk,  dates  and  sweetmeats  to  strangers,  and  take  care  of  their  goods  and  horses. 
These  three  Armenian  convents  are  celebrated  amongst  all  Christians,  and  are 
therefore  well  endowed.     In  each  of  them  are  from  five  to  ten  guest-masters,  and 
from  forty  to  fifty  cooks.     The  Abbot  of  these  convents  gave  to  me  and  the 
envoys,  a  grand  entertainment,  and  presents  after  dinner. 


evliya  efendi.  125 

Curiosities  of  Uch  Kilisse. 

At  the  grand  convent  built  by  Nûrshirvdn,  every  year  forty  or  fifty  thousand 
Infidels  assemble  from  all  countries  of  Christianity,  to  witness  the  solemnity  of  an 
old  carpet  being  spread  on  the  top  of  the  mountain.  They  collect  all  useful  and 
medical  herbs  growing  on  these  mountains,  and  throw  them  into  a  boiling  kettle 
which  stands  upon  this  carpet ;  these  herbs  remain  boiling  more  than  an  hour  in 
the  kettle  on  the  carpet,  wliich  receives  no  harm,  to  tlie  great  astonishment  of 
many  thousand  spectators.  The  herbs  are  then  distributed  amongst  the  people, 
some  of  whom  carry  them  to  their  own  countries,  others  eat  them  on  the  spot. 
I  talked  with  the  monks  about  this,  who  assured  me  that  the  carpet  was  the  same 
on  which  Jesus  fell  when  issuing  from  Mary's  womb ;  when  shut  up  in  a  cave 
with  his  twelve  disciples  for  fear  of  the  Israelites,  they  cooked  their  herbs  on  this 
carpet,  which  to  witness  the  miraculous  power  of  Jesus,  restored  a  dead  man  to 
life.  It  is  the  same  carpet  on  which  Jesus  gave  a  dinner  to  the  Israelites.  The 
carpet  then  passed  into  the  hands  of  Nûrshirvân,  who  when  building  the  Convent 
gave  it  to  it  as  an  endowment.  When  Sultân  Suleiman  went  to  the  siege  of 
Erivan  he  performed  a  double  prayer  on  this  carpet.  It  is  neither  cotton  nor  silk, 
but  of  variegated  colours  and  very  heavy.  I,  poor  Evliya,  am  of  opinion  that  it  is 
of  asbestos,  a  stone  which  is  found  in  the  island  of  Cyprus,  and  worked  into  Hnen 
and  paper,  handkerchiefs,  shirts,  &c.,  which  are  brought  as  presents  to  the  great 
men  of  Constantinople.  Sultân  Murâd  said  to  his  sister  Kia  Sultân  (Kia  signifies 
rock)  the  Lady  of  my  gracious  Lord,  Melek  Ahmed  Pâshâ.  "  Lady  Rockby !  as 
your  name  is  rocky,  I'll  give  you  a  shirt  of  stone,"  and  really  gave  her  a  shirt, 
which,  when  dirty,  was  cleansed  by  throwing  it  into  the  fire.  Great  men  have 
abundance  of  asbestos  linen  ;  Captain  Hassâm-zadeh  gave  me  such  a  handkerchief, 
which  having  become  dirty,  in  the  presence  of  Melek  Pâshâ,  I  threw  into  the  fire, 
when  it  became  as  pure  as  a  white  rose,  God  knows  whether  this  carpet  is  not 
also  made  of  this  Cyprian  stone.  We  left  Uch  Kilisse  and  passed  towards  the 
east  through  cultivated  fields  and  populous  villages,  so  that  we  did  not  see  a  cubit 
of  ground  which  was  not  productive  or  cultivated,  and  arrived  after  eight  hours 
march  at  a  well  cultivated  village  on  the  border  of  Mount  Sokiin,  like  a  small 
town.  We  counted  no  less  than  eleven  minarehs,  but  as  I  was  indisposed  I 
did  not  examine  it  well. 

Pilgrimage  to  Mohammed  Shdh's  Tomb. 

It  is  a  great  Convent  of  Begtâshîs  ;  more  than  three  hundred  came  with  drums 
beating  and  banners  flying  to  give  us  welcome  :  a  crowd  of  poor  fellows  all  in 
raptures  of  divine  love,  by  the  prayers  of  whom  I  was  restored  to  health.     Next 


126  THETRAVELSOF 

day  we  crossed  a  plain  for  thirteen  hours,  and  halted  three  times  on  it.  At  the 
southern  end  of  this  field  we  pitched  our  tents  on  the  bank  of  the  great  river 
Zengi,  where  the  people  of  all  the  Kents  of  the  neighbourhood,  flocking  together, 
brought  us  abundance  of  provisions  as  presents,  so  that  our  servants  feasted  as 
if  they  were  as  many  Ma'adî  Karbs,  and  our  horses  feasted  on  trefoil  and 
other  luxuriant  herbs,  so  that  their  bellies  swelled  like  wine-skins.  The  river 
Zen"i  issues  on  the  south  from  the  mountains  of  Khârân,  flows  to  the  North, 
supplying  water  to  many  thousand  Kents,  and  then  joins  the  Aras,  which  falling 
into  the  Kuf  (Cyrus)  runs  into  the  Caspian  sea.  We  continued  our  journey 
hunting  hares,  and  came  at  the  end  of  ten  hours  to  the  Kent  Sidreghi,  a  Wakf  of 
Imam  Riza  in  the  territory  of  Nakhshivan.  It  is  a  flourishing  Kent  of  about 
one  thousand  houses  surrounded  with  gardens.  The  inhabitants  are  all  Shi'is. 
The  hot-spring  of  Sîdreghî  is  outside  of  the  town  close  to  the  vineyards ;  this 
hot-spring  is  covered  with  a  large  cupola,  and  in  the  large  basin  the  Persian 
youths  swim  like  silver  fishes ;  they  amuse  themselves  by  disporting  in  the  water, 
and  singing  with  melodious  voices.  Fourteen  hours  further  to  the  east,  we  came 
to  Zaviei  Ahmed  Beg,  consisting  of  five  hundred  houses,  in  the  territory  of 
Nakhshivan.  Here  are  three  mosques,  one  of  which  was  built  by  Zâl  Pâshâ-zadeh 
Ahmed,  when  governor  of  Nakhshivan,  in  the  style  of  the  mosques  at  Constan- 
tinople. This  is  the  reason  why  the  Persians  called  this  Kent  (borough)  the  cell 
(zavie)  of  Ahmed  Pasha ;  the  whole  borough  is  appropriated  to  the  endowment 
of  this  mosque.  We  passed  during  sixteen  hours  through  many  cultivated  Kents 
(boroughs)  until  we  reached  the  large  town  Kara-bâghlar,  first  built  by  Menu- 
chehr,  it  is  the  seat  of  a  Sultân  (Beg)  in  the  territory  of  Nakhshivan,  it  was 
wrested  from  the  Ottomans  by  the  Persians  in  the  time  of  Mohammed  III.  and 
laid  waste  by  the  army  of  Sultân  Murâd  IV.,  so  that  now  ruins  are  only  to  be 
seen.  Timur  passed  a  winter  in  perfect  quietness  at  Karabaghlar ;  Suleiman  Khan 
and  other  commanders-in-chief  were  stationed  here  at  different  times  for  five  or 
six  months  in  the  greatest  affluence.  This  place  is  now  recovering  from  the 
havoc  made  by  Sultân  Murad  IV.,  but  in  comparison  with  its  former  state,  it  is 
not  as  an  atom  in  the  sun,  nor  a  drop  in  the  ocean.  Our  servants  counted  forty 
minarehs,  and  according  to  the  report  of  our  Mihmandar  it  consisted  of  ten  thou- 
sand houses  with  gardens  and  vineyards,  and  seventy  mosques  (forty  of  which 
have  minarehs),  a  great  number  of  Khans,  baths  and  markets.  The  mildness  of 
the  air  contributes  to  the  beauty  of  the  inhabitants  ;  the  variety  of  fruits  which 
abound  here,  is  no  where  else  to  be  met  with.  Taking  a  walk  with  the  Envoy  in 
a  garden,  the  gardener  brought  us  twenty-six  different  kinds  of  pears,  the  best 
are  the  Meleje,  Abbâssî,  Ordûbaî,  which  when  eaten,  inundates  the  mouth  and 


evliya  efendi.  127 

hands  with  rich  juice,  like  jelly  or  sirup ;  there  are  also  ruby-coloured  pome- 
granates. In  the  cleanly  cookshops  you  find  pilaw  of  Erivdn,  with  excellent 
hen'sse  (fricassee).  The  cooks  are  extremely  clean  because  they  are  all  Moslims, 
and  in  the  whole  of  Persia  eatables  are  never  sold  by  Armenians  or  Greeks  ;  indeed 
there  are  no  Greeks  at  all  in  Persia,  except  a  few  travelling  merchants,  but  there 
are  a  great  many  Shi'ites  and  Jews  being  the  sect  of  the  Teberraites  and  Karaites. 
There  are  also  Mulhads  (impious) ;  Zindiks,  (atheists) ;  Ja'aferites,  Jeberites, 
Kadrites,  Hunifites,  Zimi'nites,  and  other  such  heretics.  After  having  taken  a 
good  view  of  the  gardens  at  Karabâgh  we  departed,  and  in  seven  hours  reached 
the  fortress  of  Nakhshivan,  which  by  some  is  spelt  Nakhjîvân,  (the  cosmetic  water 
of  all  the  towns  of  Iran ;)  it  is  the  seat  of  a  Khan  (answering  to  the  Turkish 
Pasha)  on  the  frontier  of  Azerbaijan  and  Avjdn.  Its  officers  are  an  Itimad-ud- 
devlet  (minister)  ;  Kelenter,  (provost,  in  Turkish  Sııbashî)  ;  a  Mûnshî,  (secretary, 
otherwise  Kiatib) ;  a  Darogha,  an  Agha  of  the  Dizchoken  (the  troops)  a  judge 
and  a  mufti.  It  was  originally  built  by  Shah  Efrasiab,  and  the  cupolas  are  shewn 
where  his  ancestors  are  said  to  be  buried ;  in  their  times  it  was  extremely 
populous  and  cultivated :  it  was  then  pillaged  by  the  Moghols,  who  levelled  the 
castle  with  the  dust ;  Shah  Ismail  rebuilt  it,  and  in  the  reign  of  Mohammed  III. 
it  was  taken  possession  of  by  Zûltakâr  Khân,  and  again  conquered  in  the  time  of 
Sultân  Murad  IV.  by  Taban  Yassî  Mohammed  Pasha.  Such  is  the  state  of  the 
world  where  nothing  remains  unchanged,  but  every  thing  perishes  except  His 
(God's)  face.  After  Sultân  Murad's  conquest  it  consisted  of  twelve  thousand 
houses  with  terraces,  seventy  mosques,  forty  mesjids,  twenty  khans,  seven  baths, 
and  one  thousand  shops.  The  air  is  mild,  but  as  it  has  few  gardens,  it  has  also 
but  few  fruits,  one  of  its  best  products,  is  cotton  of  seven  colours,  black,  yellow, 
ruby-colonred  and  of  the  purest  white.  The  corn  and  wheat  of  Nakshivân  is 
praised  every  where.  Above  all  its  painted  linen  and  its  Chit  (chintz)  deserve  to  be 
recommended.  Its  barley  is  so  rich,  that  if  a  horse  eats  four  grains  of  it,  it  is 
satiated ;  its  gardens  are  repositories  of  melons  and  water-melons.  The  youth 
are  all  fair  and  white  on  account  of  its  excellent  air,  they  wear  the  Persian  turban, 
Taj,  and  robes  of  painted  cotton  and  Chit  (chintz)  breeches  of  different  colours, 
and  green,  red  and  orange -coloured  papushes.  The  women  wear  pointed  caps  on 
which  they  wrap  white  muslin,  and  boots  of  various  colours.  The  fashionable 
young  men  wear  pelisses  of  Isfahan,  and  walk  with  great  pomp  and  dignity, 
but  they  are  wholly  attached  to  women.  The  people  pretend  to  be  of  the 
orthodox  sect  of  Shâfiî  although  they  are  Persians,  but  this  is  a  foul  lie,  they  are 
Ja'aferites,  who,  however,  keep  the  regular  prayer  hours  five  times  a  day,  but 
never  in  company.     They  have  some  very  fine  mosques,  every  one  of  which  may 


128  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

be  compared  to  Eden,  they  are  lined  with  painted  pottery,  and  at  some,  the  cu- 
polas are  covered  in  the  same  manner,  there  are  thirty-three  minarehs  in  the  style 
of  those  of  Constantinople  ;  that  of  Ahmed  Pâshâ  exactly  resembles  that  of 
Rostân  Pâshtl  at  Constantinople.  The  bath  of  Jenânî  is  very  pleasant,  the  walls 
are  faced  with  porcelain,  and  the  floor  is  paved  ;  the  waiters  are  black-eyed 
youths  from  Khoten,  whose  crystal  white  bodies  are  set  off  by  the  dark  blue  of  their 
aprons.  Near  the  house  where  we  lodged,  as  guests,  is  the  bath  of  Zâl  Pâshâ, 
which  is  also  a  soul -delighting  bath,  owing  to  its  fine  water  and  excellent  at- 
tendance ;  the  walls  are  faced  with  porcelain,  and  the  floor  paved  with  jasper, 
marble,  and  granite  of  various  hues.  In  the  large  basin  ten  feet  square,  which  is 
underneath  the  cupola,  the  young  people  swim  like  angels  of  the  sea  :  the  bath- 
keeper  every  day  pours  into  tlie  basin,  a  basket  of  rose-leaves,  which  attaching 
themselves  to  the  bodies  of  the  bathers  forms  a  kind  of  veil  which  is  very  be- 
coming ;  thus  they  sport  and  play  like  peacocks  and  doves,  their  nakedness  being 
covered  by  rose-leaves ;  in  short  this  bath  is  so  delightful  that  such  poets  as 
Hassan  and  Selman  could  not  sufficiently  praise  it,  how  then  could  it  be  possible 
for  me,  poor  Evliyd^  to  succeed. 

Rich  merchants  are  established  in  the  market,  who  trade  by  land  and  sea,  each 
of  whom  is  as  rich  as  Karun  ;  the  inhabitants  are  all  given  to  pleasure,  and 
pass  part  of  every  day  in  each  other's  gardens.  The  Khan  of  Nakhshivan,  Risa- 
ud-din,  after  having  met  us,  carried  us  directly  to  one  of  his  gardens,  where  he 
read  our  letters  to  the  principal  men  of  Nakhshivan,  and  gave  us  an  entertain- 
ment, attended  by  so  many  singers  and  mvisicians,  that  it  was  equal  to  the  feast 
of  Hossein  Bikara.  The  Khân,  a  person  of  great  repute,  had  been  the  treasurer 
of  Sultân  Sifî,  who  had  delivered  the  castle  of  Baghdad  to  Sultân  Murad ;  he  was 
a  man  of  great  judgment,  of  Georgian  extraction,  and  his  name  was  Devlet  Murâd 
Khân.  After  dinner  he  gave  to  Alaja  Atli  Hassan,  who  came  as  envoy  from 
the  Pâshâ,  and  to  me,  brilliant  robes  of  honour,  ten  tomans  of  Abbâssî,  and  a 
horse,  investing  his  own  envoy  also  with  a  caftan.  He  has  from  forty  to  fifty 
delightful  companions  excelling  in  various  arts.  The  inhabitants  of  this  town 
generally  speak  the  dialect  Dihkani,  or  of  peasants,  but  they  have  poets  who 
speak  the  Pehlevi  and  Moghol  languages  with  elegance.  The  languages  that  are 
spoken  here,  are  the  Dihkânî  or  rough  Persian  ;  the  Deri,  or  court  language  ;  the 
Farsi,  or  pure  but  less  elegant  Persian  ;  the  Ghâzî  and  the  Pehlevî,  two  ancient 
dialects. 

In  the  commentary  of  Dilemi,  it  is  reported  that  the  Prophet  asked  Michael 
"  whether  God  ever  spoke  any  thing  in  Persian  ; "  and  Michael  replied,  "  yes, 
that  there  were  some  passages   in   the   books   which   Abraham   received   from 


evli  YA  efendi.  129 

Heaven  :  "  and  the  Prophet  answered,  "  whoever  ridicules  the  Ghâzî  dialect  is  an 
Infidel." 

Tlie  Turkomans,  Gokdülâk  and  Moghols,  who  are  settled  in  the  different  dis- 
tricts, again  speak  other  dialects.  All  these  districts  are  defended  by  strong 
castles,  some  of  which  I  passed  on  hunting  parties,  without  having  leisure  to 
examine  them  properly.  The  names  of  these  castles  are  :  —  Alanjak  Van,  built 
by  Molla  Kotb-ud-di'n  ;  Seran,  Sersu,  and  Semaravân,  built  by  Mervan  Ibn-al- 
himar.  The  names  of  Persian  towns  almost  all  terminate  as  follows  :  —  in  Tar- 
tary  the  castles  are  named,  Cherkers  Kermdn,  Kiresh  Kerrnan,  Shahin  Kermân, 
Irbât  Kermân,  In  Kerman,  Ghâzı  Kermân,  Uzî  Kermân,  and  Ak  Kermdn.  The 
names  of  Polish  fortresses  are  Kamanija  (Kaminiuk),  and  Alunjissa.  The  names 
of  fortresses  in  Transylvania  terminate  in  âr,  as  Sakmdr,  Saksvvar,  Oivâr,  &c. 
The  German  fortresses  are  Iran,  Comoin,  Tata,  Papa,  Santmarton,  Posonium,  Bedj 
(Vienna),  the  latter  is  the  residence  of  the  German  Emperor.  Amongst  the 
names  of  Ottoman  towns,  those  of  the  Holy  land  are  the  most  sounding.  The 
whole  Ottoman  Empire  consists  of  seventy  seats  of  Begler-Begs,  three  hundred 
and  sixty  sanjak  Begs,  and  thirteen  hundred  and  eighty  strong  castles.  May 
they  all  remain  in  the  power  of  the  Ottoman  family  until  the  end  of  the  World. 
Amen  !     The  names  of  Persian  castles  will  be  given  in  the  course  of  our  travels. 


JOURNEY    FROM    NAKHSHIVAN    TO    TABRIZ. 

From  Nakhshivân  we  proceeded  for  eight  hours  towards  the  Kiblah,  and  arrived 
at  the  place  Kessik  Kunbed,  containing  one  thousand  houses  with  gardens,  three 
mosques,  a  Khân  and  Hamam. 

Pilgrimage  of  Rıza,  the  Son  of  Hossein  Bikara. 
The  inhabitants  of  the  kent  told  us,  that  it  was  the  tomb  of  the  son  of  Hossein 
Bikara,  but  on  the  marble  coffin  was  written  Murâd  Ibn  Behâder  Shefâd  Ibn 
Hossein  Bakara.  It  is  a  high  cupola,  and  the  tomb-keeper  is  one  of  the  de- 
scendants of  Hossein  Bikara.  We  continued  our  journey  from  hence  seven  hours 
along  the  Arash,  which  rises  in  the  mountains  of  the  Curds  Bînpânshî,  in  the 
province  of  Van,  flows  to  the  North  and  joins  the  river  Zenghi,  It  may  be 
crossed  on  horseback.  We  now  advanced  for  some  time  amongst  gardens,  and 
arrived  at  Karabâgh,a  town  of  Azerbeijân,  which  was  built  by  one  of  the  princes  of 
this  country,  and  ruined  by  Koja  Ferhâd  Pasha  one  of  the  Veziis  of  Sultân  Moham- 
med the  conqueror  of  Erla.      The  traces  of  havock  are  still  to  be  seen. 

VOL.  II.  S 


130  THETRAVELSOF 

When  Sultîîn  Murad  IV.,  on  his  expedition  to  the  conquest  of  Erivan,  came  to 
this  country,  he  again  pillaged  the  town,  which  is  just  now  rising  from  its  ruins. 
It  is  the  seat  of  a  Sultân,  who  commands  one  thousand  men.  Its  officers  are  a 
Kelenter,  Darogha,  Mûnshî,  Bınbâshı,  and  Dizchoken-agassî.  The  town  is 
situated  on  a  beautiful  wide  plain,  and  consists  of  three  thousand  houses,  seven 
mosques,  seven  baths,  three  khans,  and  six  hundred  shops.  The  youth  of  both 
sexes  are  pretty ;  the  products  good  and  plentiful ;  the  air  salubrious  and  the 
water  excellent ;  it  is  adorned  and  surrounded  with  gardens.  Among  the  fruits 
deserve  to  be  mentioned  twelve  different  sorts  of  ruby-coloured  grapes,  and 
eighteen  sorts  of  cherries ;  some  of  its  quinces  are  of  the  size  of  a  man's  head. 
Its  waters  are  carried  in  some  places  through  subterraneous  conduits,  and  are 
most  refreshing  in  summer  time.  The  cupolas  of  the  mosques  are  built  in  the  old 
style  of  architecture,  that  is  to  say,  pointed,  and  are  covered  with  china  of 
different  colours ;  eleven  minarehs  are  conspicuous,  but  there  are  altogether 
seventy  mihrâbs.  The  inhabitants  have  been  exempted  from  the  payment  of  all 
gifts  and  duties,  on  condition  that  they  would  rebuild  the  town ;  they  only  con- 
tribute annually  to  the  Shah  of  Iran  an  hundred  camel-loads  of  dried  fruits.  In 
short,  there  are  three  towns  in  Azerbeijan  called  Karabâgh,  each  of  which  is  a 
garden  resembling  Paradise.  We  went  from  hence  turning  towards  the  Kiblah, 
and  arrived  at  the  place  where  the  river  Irs  joins  that  of  Shan.  We  crossed  it 
amidst  a  thousand  difficulties ;  it  collects  its  waters  from  the  mountains  of 
Punyanshi  (Bînpânshî  ? )  Biredos,  and  Baghassi.  Three  stations  below  the  plain 
of  Nakhslıivân  the  Irs  runs  into  the  Zenghi,  the  Zenghi  into  the  Aras,  the  Aras 
into  the  Kür,  the  Kiir  into  the  Terek,  (  ?  )  and  the  Terek  into  the  Caspian  Sea. 
After  having  crossed  the  river  we  came  in  six  hours  to  Kent  Kerken,  which  is 
situated  in  the  province  of  Tabriz  on  the  frontier  of  Merend,  consisting  of  three 
hundred  houses,  a  mosque,  a  khan,  and  a  bath ;  but  the  inhabitants  are  extremely 
uncivil  Persians  ;  they  are  all  cotton  weavers,  of  which  their  plain  produces  a  large 
quantity  ;  bogassins  of  various  colours  are  manufactured  here. 

After  a  march  of  nine  hours  towards  the  Kiblah,  we  arrived  at  the  kent  of 
Zeneves,  one  thousand  well-built  houses,  ten  mosques,  a  khân,  and  bath.  Ten 
hours  further  on,  towards  the  Kiblah,  is  the  town  of  Tessûî ;  it  is  situated  on  the 
frontier  of  Merend  and  the  bank  of  the  Irs,  and  has  three  thousand  houses  with 
terraces,  seven  mosques,  three  baths,  and  six  khans.  Its  Sultân  commands  one 
thousand  armed  men  ;  there  is  a  Kelenter  and  Darogha,  a  Mûnshî  and  Kadhi.  It 
was  also  destroyed  by  Murad  IV.,  and  is  now  recovering  from  its  ruins ;  it  is 
twelve  farsangs  distant  from  the  town  of  Merend  ;  the  fruits  of  Tessüî  are  cele- 
brated.   The  inhabitants  are  Shiites,  who  live  by  gardening.     We  now  passed  to 


EVL  I  YA    efendi.  131 

the  south,  drinking  fresh  water  from  wells,  because  the  greatest  part  of  the  water 
is  here  subterraneous,  and  at  the  end  of  twelve  farsangs  we  reached  the  town  of 
Merend,  the  residence  of  the  Khtln  of  Elvend,  and  the  seat  of  a  Sultân  command- 
ing one  thousand  men.  Its  authorities  are  a  Kelenter,  Darogha,  Munshi,  and 
Dizchoken  Agha.  The  interval  of  fourteen  farsangs  between  here  and  Tabriz  is 
all  well  cultivated  ground.  Merend  lies  to  the  east  of  Tabriz,  It  was  formerly 
a  hunting  place  of  Shahrokh,  the  son  of  Timur,  and  was  in  a  flourishing  state,  but 
Sultân  Murad  IV.  laid  it  waste ;  there  are  now  three  thousand  houses,  seven 
mosques,  three  khans,  five  baths  and  six  hundred  shops,  but  no  Bezestdn,  no 
colleges  nor  abecedarian  schools ;  but  praise  must  be  given  to  its  seventy  fine 
walks  and  gardens,  each  of  which  outrivals  those  of  Eden.  Its  youth  of  both 
sexes  are  pretty  and  eloquent.  The  inhabitants  are  for  the  most  part  military 
men,  all  the  sect  of  the  Shiites  ;  on  the  Kiblah  side  of  the  town  is  the  tomb 
of  Hossein  Teftazânî,  one  of  the  ancestors  of  the  great  Teftazânî,  also  of  Alî 
Khândî,  Sheikh  Süsemâri,  and  Alî-ud-dîn.  We  received  presents  from  the 
Sultan  of  this  town,  and  went  on  seven  hours,  on  the  Kiblah  side,  through  roads 
planted  on  both  sides  with  willows  and  planes,  so  that  we  always  travelled  in  the 
shade,  sheltered  against  the  rays  of  the  sun.  We  halted  at  the  wells,  and  arrived 
at  Kent  Kuhen'n,  belonging  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Khân  of  Tabriz,  of  one  thou- 
sand houses,  six  mosques,  three  baths,  and  two  great  palaces.  It  is  an  extremely 
flourishing  kent.  May  God  destroy  it !  because  they  are  all  Shiites,  and  because 
I  heard  here  for  the  first  time,  curses  uttered  against  Omar.  Allah  confound 
them !  I  was  obliged  to  listen  quietly  to  those  obloquies,  though  I  had  a  great 
mind  to  kill  the  rascal,  which  I  might  have  done  without  incurring  much  respon- 
sibility, because  envoys  travelling  from  Rum  to  Persia  are  free  in  all  their  actions, 
even  if  they  should  kill  a  Persian. 

We  now  marched  six  hours  further  to  Kent  Şehlân,  which  is  the  khass  of  the 
Khân  of  Tabriz,  situated  in  a  plain,  consisting  of  one  thousand  houses,  seven 
mosques,  a  khân,  a  bath  and  some  small  markets  (Siik).  Its  streets  are  all 
planted  with  willows  and  planes.  The  inhabitants  of  Tabriz  have  their  koshks 
and  pleasure-houses  in  this  kent ;  the  inhabitants  of  the  place  pretend  to  be 
Shâfiîtes,  but  are  all  cursed  Rafedites  ;  the  young  people  and  the  air  of  the  place 
is  praiseworthy.  As  we  continued  our  journey,  we  saw  on  our  right,  the  high 
cupola  of  Ghazân  Mohammed  Shah  towering  into  the  skies,  conspicuous  at  six 
hours  distance.  We  said  a  Fâtihah  to  his  memory,  halted  on  a  fine  meadow,  and 
sent  a  messenger  to  Tabriz.  After  three  hours  we  mounted  our  horses  for  the 
solemn  entry,  I  and  the  Envoy  of  Tabriz  side  by  side  ;  before  the  envoy  marched 
his  soldiers  well  dressed,  and  before  me  forty  persons  composing  my  train ;  the 


132  THETRAVELSOF 

Kiaya  of  the  Khdn  of  Tabrfz  came  to  meet  us  in  solemn  pomp  (istikbâl),  and 
accompanied  by  him  we  made  our  entrance  into  the  town  of  Tabriz,  where  many 
thousand  persons  in  the  market  were  collected  to  stare  at  us ;  our  march  from  the 
town-gate  to  the  palace  of  the  Khdn  at  the  other  extremity  of  the  town  lasted 
for  two  hours.  The  Khdn  received  us  in  his  Divân,  where  a  great  Council  was 
assembled,  the  Persian  music  consisting  of  kettle-drums  and  trumpets  were  three 
times  sounded,  and  the  troops  paraded.  After  the  music  was  over,  I  got  up,  and 
drew  forth  from  my  breast  the  letter  of  Defterdar-zadeh  Mohammed  Pâshd,  the 
governor  of  Erzerum,  giving  it  into  the  hand  of  the  Khan,  who  got  up  and  kissed 
it,  and  put  it  on  his  head.  The  Ishek  Aghâ  (master  of  the  ceremonies)  then 
shewed  me  my  place,  where  I  stood  in  the  Mohammedan  fashion.  The  Khan 
gave  the  letter  to  his  secretary  (Mıînshî),  who  kissed  it  respectfully,  and  read  it 
with  a  loud  voice.  At  the  mention  of  God's  name,  and  the  Prophet's  name,  all 
stood  up  praising  the  Prophet,  but  at  the  mention  of  his  four  friends,  some  looked 
askance  (not  liking  to  hear  Omar  mentioned  amongst  them.) 

The  reading  being  finished  the  Khan  said  :  "  With  the  aid  of  God  I  will  send 
to  my  honourable  brother  the  Vezir  of  the  Emperor,  before  a  month  elapses,  a 
caravan  of  a  hundred  horses,  and  one  of  a  hundred  camels.  Then  adding  different 
kind  greetings  and  words,  he  made  us  sit  down  close  to  him,  and  ordered  the 
repast  to  be  brought  in.  After  dinner,  I  delivered  the  pearl  beads,  the  quiver 
and  the  Venetian  stuffs,  which,  said  I,  "  the  Pasha  has  furnished  me  with,  that 
I  may  not  appear  before  your  Excellency  with  empty  hands ;  he  has  added  to 
these  two  Arabian  horses  of  high  breeding,  which  shall  now  make  their  appear- 
ance, if  your  Excellency  would  be  pleased  to  see  them."  He  rose  up,  and  we 
came  to  the  end  of  the  room ;  the  horses  richly  caparisoned  were  on  the  signal 
given  by  me  led  into  his  presence  :  they  came  dancing  and  capering  to  the  great 
astonishment  of  all  the  gentlemen  of  the  Divân  ;  saying,  "  Bismillah  ! "  I  gave  the 
bridle  of  the  horse  into  the  hands  of  the  Khan,  adding  "  Mobarek-bâd  "  (Be  it 
prosperous ! )  The  Khân  took  some  turns  on  the  horse,  riding  withoijt  stirrups 
in  the  fashion  of  Persian  horsemanship.  I  then  presented  him  with  the  second 
horse  (Yelkendiz),  with  which  he  was  no  less  satisfied,  and  sent  it  to  his  stable. 
At  a  signal  by  the  Khân  all  our  servants  were  served  with  sherbet,  rosewater 
and  incense  was  repeated  ;  and  we  were  then  given  in  to  the  care  of  the  Mih- 
mandar, Kûrûjî-bâshî,  Darogha,  and  Kelenter.  The  latter  conducted  us  to  his 
garden,  where  we  remained.  The  Khân  sent  me  forty  tomans  bath-money,  a 
caparisoned  horse  (Karajabuk),  with  an  elegant  saddlecloth,  and  seven  camel- 
loads  of  provisions.  The  pubUc  cryers  now  published,  throughout  the  town,  an 
order  of  the  Khân  to  make  known  that  an  Ottoman  embassy  of  Sunnis  having 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  I33 

arrived,  every  body  should  be  cautious  of  insulting  them,  lest  they  might  be  killed 
by  the  Sunni's.  They  curse  neither  Abubekr  nor  Osman,  but  Omar  gives  them  a 
terrible  head-ache,  and  they  cannot  refrain  from  injuring  him  by  slanderous  words. 
The  same  day  the  Khân  sent  us  ten  fine  youths  all  dressed  in  embroidered  cloth. 
They  were  led  by  our  Mihmandar  to  kiss  our  hands,  according  to  the  ancient 
etiquette  by  which  the  Khans  of  Persia  used  to  send  ten  fine  youths  as  servants 
to  the  Ottoman  Envoys.     We  now  began  to  take  a  view  of  the  town. 

Descriptioti  of  the  Capital  of  Azerbeijdn,  the  ancient  town  of  Tabriz. 

In  the  Moghol  language  it  is  called  Tûris ;  in  the  Derî  dialect,  TîCrız ;  in  the 
Dihkânî,  Tabriz  ;  and  in  the  Farsi,  Tabriz  :  in  all  these  dialects,  tab  signifies 
fever,  and  ri%  pouring  [dispersing],  because  the  air  is  so  salubrious,  and  the  water  of 
Ajan  so  good,  that  people  who  come  from  regions  where  fever  prevails,  completely 
recover  here  ;  the  fortress  of  Cairo  is  also  a  place  where  no  fever  is  to  be  found. 
Tabriz  was  founded  by  Zobeide,  Hariin  Rashid's  wife,  who,  when  pregnant  with 
Mamun,  built  a  pleasure-house  here  on  account  of  the  excellent  air.  Afterwards 
a  large  town  was  built  at  an  immense  expense,  and  of  such  extent  that  it  took 
three  days  to  go  round  it.  In  the  time  of  Calif  Motevekel,  it  was  ruined  by  an 
earthquake  which  destroyed  forty  thousand  men.  Motevekel  came  himself  from 
Baghdad  to  rebuild  the  town  at  the  expense  of  immense  treasure.  It  rests  on 
one  side  upon  mount  Ajan,  on  another  side  upon  mount  Şehlân,  on  a  third  side 
upon  mount  Senjan,  and  on  the  fourth  upon  the  Maiden's  mount  (Kiztagh).  The 
actual  circumference  of  Tabriz,  is  six  thousand  paces,  there  are  three  hundred 
towers,  three  thousand  battlements,  and  six  gates,  viz.,  that  of  Ajan,  of  Berservân, 
of  Serzud,  and  of  Shâmnemâzân,  each  of  which  is  guarded  by  five  hundred  watch- 
men. The  third  builder  of  Tabriz  was  Hulagii,  who  resided  here  seven  years,  and 
embellished  it  wonderfully  :  Mohammed  Khodabende  Ibzârgıîn  Shah  transferred 
the  whole  palace,  built  by  Hûlagü,  on  camels  to  his  new  built  town.  The  timber 
used  in  the  buildings  was  all  cypress  and  aloe  wood,  and  they  have  been  faced 
with  china  ever  since.  The  fourth  builder  was  Mohammed  Shah  Ghazân,  who 
extended  the  boundaries  to  the  mountains  of  Senjan,  Ajan,  and  Şehlân,  and 
surrounded  it  with  a  wall,  which  required  four  days  to  make  a  tour  of  it.  The 
town  formerly  built  by  Motevekel  became  then  the  inner  castle  or  citadel  of  the 
new  town.  In  the  year  959,  it  was  taken  by  Sultân  Suleiman,  who  did  not  ravage 
it,  but  made  a  present  of  it  to  Shah  Elkass  Mirza.  In  the  year  994  (1585),  it 
was  taken  by  the  Persians.  In  the  reign  of  Murad  III.,  Uzdemir-oghli  Murad 
Pasha  undertook  the  expedition  into  Persia  with  an  immense  army,  the  van 
of  which  was  led  by  Jighâla-oghlî  Sinâm.  Osman  Pâshâ,  one  of  his  generals,  took 
the  town  of  Tabriz  out  of  the  hands  of  the  Shah. 


134  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

To  defend  this  town  a  strong  citadel  was  then  built  of  twelve  thousand  seven 
hundred  cubits,  which  seems  as  though  it  had  been  built  by  Ferhâd,  and  on  the 
gate  of  which  the  name  of  Uzdemir  is  inscribed.  Uzdemir  Pasha,  the  fifth  builder, 
finished  the  castle  in  thirty-six  days,  and  filled  it  with  all  necessary  stores,  and  a  gar- 
rison of  forty  thousand  men.  But  he  was  not  so  happy  as  to  perform  the  Friday's 
prayer, having  died  before  it;  the  whole  army  proclaimed  Jighala-zadeh  Sinâm  their 
commander,  who  was  not  however  confirmed  in  his  place  by  the  Porte,  which  when 
made  acquainted  with  the  news,  named  Khandin  Ja'affer  Pasha,  formerly  Governor 
of  Tripolis;  under  whose  government  the  flourishing  state  of  Tabriz  excelled  even 
that  at  the  time  of  Sultdn  Ghâzdn.  According  to  the  description  made  in  his 
time,  Tabriz  reckoned  eighty  thousand  houses,  and  three  hundred  thousand 
inhabitants.  During  the  troubles  which  took  place  soon  afterwards  by  the 
rebellion  of  the  troops,  it  happened.,  that  the  Persians  became  masters  of  Genje, 
Shirvân,  Shamâkhf,  Erivdn,  Nakhshivân  and  Tabriz,  until  the  time  of  vengeance 
arrived  in  the  reign  of  Sultân  Murad  IV.  He  conquered  the  fortress  of  Erivan 
in  seven  days,  ransacked  the  towns  of  Nakhshivân,  Merend  and  Karabâgh, 
remained  a  week  at  Tabriz,  levelled  the  palace  of  Shah  Abbas,  and  set  fire  to  all 
the  wooden  houses,  so  that  only  stone  buildings,  such  as  mosques  and  baths, 
remained ;  after  which  havock  he  returned  to  Constantinople.  Shah  Abbas 
returned,  conciliated  the  inhabitants,  and  began  to  restore  it  to  its  former 
splendour.  It  is  now  the  capital  of  Azerbeijân,  and  the  seat  of  the  Khan  its 
Governor,  who  commands  ten  thousand  men.  Its  officers  are  the  Mufti,  Nakib 
or  head  of  the  Seids  (Emirs),  the  INIolla  (Judge),  Kelenter  (Lieutenant  of  police), 
Mûnshî,  (Secretary),  Darogha  (Provost),  Kürûjî-bâshî  (chief  of  the  guards  of  the 
woods  and  heaths),  Dîzchoken  Aghâ,  (commander  of  the  garrison),  Chiyek- 
yeyen  Aghâ  (another  officer  of  the  troops),  Yassul  Aghâ  (Inspector  of  the 
sentinels),  and  Ishek  Aghâ  (Master  of  the  Ceremonies)  Mihmândeir.  These 
public  officers  keep  good  order  in  the  town  of  Tabriz,  so  that  justice  prevails 
as  it  did  in  the  time  of  Nûrshîrvân,  and  no  person  can  take  a  grain  of  mustard- 
seed  from  another. 

Description  of  the  Mosques  of  Tabriz. 

There  are  altogether  three  hundred  and  twenty  mihrâbs,  nineteen  of  which 
are  Imperial  mosques.  The  first  is  the  old  mosque  of  Zobeide,  the  cupola  and 
walls  of  which  are  all  inlaid  with  china  (fayence ;)  the  mortar  of  the  Mihrâb  having 
been  mixed  with  musk,  exhales  the  sweetest  perfume ;  its  minareh  is  also  entirely 
inlaid  with  china.  The  mosque  of  Motevekel  is  a  mosque  in  the  old  style,  with 
one  minareh,  which  like  the  former  is  faced  with  china.  In  the  course  of  time 
the  builder's  name  has  been  lost,  and  it  is  now  called  Meshkieh.     The  mosque  of 


evliya  efendi.  135 

Sultân   Mohammed   Shâm  Ghazân,  which  was  formerly  a   splendid   mosque,    is 

now  falling  into  decay  in  an  obscure  place ;    the  mosque  of  Jihan  Shah  Emin 

is  a  high  building  with  a  dome  vying  with  that  of  Tak  Kesra,  like  the  mosque 

of  Tâher  Bibars,  at  Cairo ;    its  walls  are  white  polished  like  Chinese  paper,  and 

before  the  Mihrab  is  a  fine  garden,  the  scent  of  which  perfumes  the  air.     The 

name  of  this  fine  mosque  is  Dihshetf-Behesht  (terror  of  Paradise).     The  mosque 

of  Sultân  Hassan,  the  Prince  of  Azerbeijan,  the  same  who  built  the  fortress  of 

Hassan   Kala'a   to   the   east   of  Erzerum,   and   who    was    defeated    by   Sultân 

Mohammed  II.  in  the  field  of  Terjân.     He  is  buried  at  this  mosque,  the  cupolas 

of  which  are  inlaid  with  china  inside  and  out ;    it  is  quite  equal  to  the  mosque  of 

Sultân  Hassan  at  Cairo.      The  minber,  mihrâb  and  mahfil  are  adorned  with  such 

elegant  sculptures  and    carving,  that  the  greatest  masters    of  the   present   day 

would  not  be  able  to  finish  it  in  that  style  ;    the  windows  shine  with  unparalleled 

splendour,  but  the  greatest  masterpiece  is  conspicuous  in  the  arabesques  and 

ornaments  of  the  great  gate.     Above  all  the  gates  and  windows  are  inscriptions  in 

the  character  of  Yakut  Mostea'assemi.     On  the  side  of  the  altar  are  two  columns 

of  a  yellow  stone,  each  of  which  is  worth  the  revenue  of  Iran  and  Turan  :  these 

two  columns  have  no  equal,  either  in  Egypt,  Syria,  Arabia,  or  Persia.     The  other 

Imperial  mosques  are  also  faced  with  china,  paved  with  marble  and  adorned  with 

paintings  and  suspended  ornaments,   so  that  each  is    quite  a  Chinese   gallery. 

These  five  mosques  are  not  however  so  much  frequented  as  those  in  Turkey, 

because  prayers  are  not  performed  in  community,  but  singly  by  persons,  who 

enter  and  leave  abruptly.     Opposite  to  the  mosque  of  Uzun   Hassan  is  that  of 

Shah  Ismail,  and  near  it  that  of  Shah  Makssud,  the  son  of  Sultân  Hassan ;  the  old 

mosque  of  Chârmenân,  the  mosque  of  Abbas  the  first,  and    the  great   mosque, 

so  large  that  from  the  great   gate  to  the  mihrâb   opposite,  a  man  can  hardly 

be  distinguished. 

Colleges  of  Tabriz. 

There  are  forty-seven  large  Colleges,  where  lectures  are  held  on  all  sciences ; 
the  first  is  that  of  the  lady  of  Shah  Jihan  :  and  twenty  rooms  for  reading  the 
Koran  (Dar-ul-kira)  but  they  read  it  wrong  throughout  all  Persia.  There  are 
seven  houses  for  reading  tradition  (Dâr-ul-hadîth),  but  the  doctors  of  tradition 
are  not  much  renowned,  because  they  confine  themselves  to  the  tradition  of  Alî 
and  the  twelve  Imams,  and  have  some  thousand  books  on  the  traditions  of  Alî 
alone ;  six  hundred  schools,  where  boys  are  taught  to  spell  and  read  the  Koran,  and 
are  clothed  once  a  year  ;  one  hundred  and  sixty  convents  of  dervishes  ;  six 
fountains,  which  all  issue  from  mount  Semendan.  The  town  is  besides  furnished 
with  seven  canals  of  water,  and   there  are  one  thousand  and  forty  Sebils,   or 


136  THETRAVELSOF 

places  for  distributing  water,  which  are  well   covered.     The  town  is  divided  into 

one  thousand  and  sixty  quarters  which  are  called  Derveze.     The  water  magazine 

(serdab)  which  was  cleaned  by  Uzdemir  Pâshâ  furnishes  the  water  of  the  canals. 

One  thousand  and  seventy  palaces  of  great  men,   two    hundred  caravanserais, 

seventy  khans   for   merchants  and  one  hundred  and  ten  for  single  workmen  ; 

seven  thousand  market  streets  (Siik)  many  of  which   are  vaulted  like  those  of 

Haleb ;  and  a  great  Bezestan,  which  is  the  seat  of  the  richest  merchants,  with 

four  iron  gates. 

Praise  of  the  Air  and  Climate. 

By  the  mildness  of  the  climate  the  inhabitants  are  all  healthy  and  stout,  with 
red  cheeks  and  black  beards,  merry  faces,  and  lips  like  rose-buds  ;  the  women  are 
pretty,  and  conscious  of  the  fairness  of  their  skins  are  extremely  proud ;  those 
advanced  in  age  are  of  sweet  company,  so  that  the  proverb,  "  the  old  is 
sweeter  than  the  young,"  may  well  be  applied  to  them.  The  inhabitants  are  all 
Shii's  or  Mulhad  (impious),  a  great  number  are  Dumbûlî,  Khaljânî,  Turcomans, 
and  Gokdûlâk.  There  are  two  thousand  Ulemds,  amongst  whom  are  excellent 
doctors,  surgeons  and  oculists.  There  are  more  than  seven  thousand  pious 
Sheiks,  who  are  much  esteemed  in  this  town,  the  inhabitants  never  do  any  thing 
without  consulting  them,  but  their  sect  is  not  exactly  known.  Eighty-two  most 
eloquent  poets,  authors  of  Divans.  Yârı  and  Shâbî  are  the  Saîb  and  Unfi  of 
their  time.  Of  the  Mujazib  or  Santons  (Saint  fools)  we  saw  Sherimî,  whom  no 
person  ever  saw  eating,  drinking,  lying  down,  sleeping,  or  performing  any  of  the 
natural  offices  of  life  for  seventy  years.  The  Persians  are  generally  called  Kizil- 
bash  or  red  heads,  because  they  wrap  red  sashes  round  their  heads,  though  many 
of  them  also  wear  the  Mohammedan  white  turban ;  but  the  cap  is  always 
pointed,  and  that  of  the  Ulemas,  which  is  called  Taj,  or  crown,  is  more  than  two 
yards  long.     The  great  men  wear  sable. 

Account  of  the  Persian  Crown  {Tcij). 

The  shape  is  founded  on  a  dream  of  Ibrahim,  the  founder  of  the  dynasty  of 
Sefî ;  he  dreamt  that  he  bore  a  child  to  an  ass,  that  had  seventy  fingers.  This 
dream  having  been  interpreted  as  foreshadowing  the  Empire,  he  swore,  that  if  it 
should  be  fulfilled,  he  would  commemorate  the  circumstance,  by  wearing  an 
asinine  phallus  in  his  turban,  and  by  imitating  the  cries  of  the  animal  in  music. 
This  is  the  reason  why  the  Persian  crown  and  head-dress  have  the  present  shape, 
and  why  their  music  resembles  the  braying  of  an  ass. 

The  purity  of  the  air  drives  away  all  fevers,  and  prolongs  life  to  the  age  of  one 
hundred  and  seventy  years.     The  water  issues  from  mount  Semenden,  and  is 


evliya  efendi.  137 

distributed  into  more  than  nine  hundred  conduits  and  pipes,  which  furnish  the 
town  with  water.  The  water  aids  digestion,  and  Hke  the  air  is  rather  cold.  There 
is  also  good  water  in  wells,  but  the  water  of  the  canals  is  better ;  some  of  the  wells 
are  from  forty  to  fifty  cubits  deep,  in  the  summer  their  water  is  cold,  and  in  the 
winter  it  is  warm.  Astrologers  say  that  Tabriz  was  built  by  Zobeide,  under  the 
influence  of  the  sign  of  the  scorpion  when  ruled  by  Mars,  and  that  for  this  reason, 
it  has  been  so  many  times  disturbed  and  ruined  by  rebels  and  by  conquerors,  such 
as  Timur,  Gengfz,  Hûlagü,  and  Murad  IV. 

There  are  twenty-one  pleasant  baths  each  with  one  or  two  basins,  a  half  sofFa, 
and  fountains  (jets  d'eaux).  The  attendants  are  fine  youths,  the  water  and  air 
are  excellent.  Besides  the  public  baths  there  are  seven  hundred  private  ones, 
where  the  silver-bodied  youth  swim  like  angels  of  the  sea.  On  the  china  or 
fayence  of  these  baths,  is  written  the  famous  poem  of  Foziili,  called  the  poem  of 
the  bath  (Kassidei  Hamam).  There  are  seven  sorts  of  corn  growing  at  Tabriz, 
besides  an  abundance  of  barley.     There  are  also  seven  sorts  of  cotton. 

Arts  and  Handicrafts,  Provisions,  Fruits,  Beverages,  Gardens,  8^c. 

Painters,  architects,  goldsmiths,  and  tailors  are  nowhere  to  be  found  so  perfect 
as  here.  Precious  stuffs  manufactured  here  go  all  over  the  world;  the  velvet 
is  much  renowned.  The  provisions  consist  of  the  white  bread  called  Kerde, 
and  Sumun,  cracknels,  pastry,  roasts,  chicken  pies,  forty  different  kinds  of  pilaw 
with  spices,  the  Herisse  and  sweetmeat,  Palûde.  Among  the  abundance  of  deli- 
cious fruits  are  particularly  the  pears  and  exquisite  apricots,  they  are  not  found 
in  such  perfection  even  at  Constantinople.  The  beverages  consist  of  seven  sorts 
of  Muscat  wine,  the  common  wine  of  the  Royal  grape,  the  pomegranate,  the 
cherry  wine,  and  oxymel ;  and  for  the  common  people  buza  of  millet  and 
rice. 

There  are  some  dining  establishments  for  the  poor,  such  as  the  imaret  of  Shah 
Yakiib,  of  Sultân  Motevekel,  of  Lady  Zobeide,  and  of  Sultân  Hassan,  large 
buildings  with  kitchens  worthy  that  of  Keikavus,  but  in  the  hands  of  the  Persians 
they  have  all  decayed. 

The  principal  walk  is  the  mount  Surkhab  (Red-water)  near  Tabriz ;  at  noon 
the  sea  of  Rumie  may  be  distinguished  from  the  top  of  it ;  it  is  at  a  farsang  dis- 
tance from  Tabriz. 

The  number  of  gardens  amounts  to  forty-seven  thousand,  the  finest  is  that  of 
Shah  Yakub,  where  the  Khân  gave  me  a  splendid  entertainment.  Eleven  times 
in  the  day,  seventy  dancers  and  singers  exerted  themselves  in  the  practice  of  their 
art,  so  that  it  resembled  an  evening  party  of  Hossein  Bikara.     This  garden  owes 

VOL.  II.  T 


138  THETRAVELSOF 

its  origin  to  Koja  Ferhâd  Pâshii,  Governor  of  Tabriz  under  Sultân  Murad  III., 
who  adorned  it  with  numerous  koshks,  bowers  and  pleasure-houses ;  and  at  the 
time  of  the  pillage  of  the  town  by  Murad  IV.,  this  garden  was  preserved  by  the 
care  of  Osmîın  Aghâ.     The  Chronostic  of  the  koshk  where  we  dined,  alluding  to 
the  name  of  the  builder,  says  that,  Ferhâd  built  this  sweet  (Shirin)  palace.     The 
walk  of  Shah  Sefi  cannot  be  praised  enough.     It  is  the  place  of  the  Ma'il ;  in  the 
centre  of  it  two  immense  columns  lift  their  tops  up  to  Heaven ;  on  one  of  them 
every  Friday  a  silver  plate  is  put,  which  is  aimed  at  by  all  the  bowmen,  who 
shoot   at  it,  encouraged  by  the  presence  of  the  Khân.     On  New   Year's  day 
(Nevruz)  or  the  beginning  of  spring,  battles  are  fought  in  this  place  by  horses 
trained  in  the  dark  during  forty  or  fifty  days,  by  camels,  buffaloes,  sheep,  asses, 
dogs,  and  cocks.     These  fights  are  peculiar  to  Persia.     Every  year  on  the  tenth  of 
the  month  Moharrem,  being  the  feast  of  A'ashura,  all  the  population  of  the  town 
assemble  under  tents  in  this  large  place,  and  during  three  days  and  nights  cook 
many  thousand  dishes  of  A'ashura  (a  kind  of  hotch-potch),  in  remembrance  of  the 
martyrs  of  Kerbela ;  these  dishes  are  distributed  with  an  abundance  of  sugar- 
sherbet,  which    is   carried  round  in    crystal    vases,  and  cups  of  cornelian   and 
turquoise  :  at  the  same  time  singing  certain  verses,  such  as  "Their  Lord  gave  them 
of  the  purest  beverage,"  Some  of  the  great  men  on  this  day  carry  cans  and  tankards 
round  their  necks,  and  go  about  distributing  water  like  common  porters.     But  the 
finest  show  is  in  the  variegated  tent  of  the  Khân,  where  all  the  great  men  of 
Tabriz  are  assembled,  and  where  a  Hymn  on  the  death  of  Hossein  is  recited, 
in  the  same  manner  as  the  Hymn  on  the  Prophet's  birthday  is  in  the  Turkish 
mosques.      The   hearers   listen,  sighing  and  lamenting,   but   when   the   reciter 
arrives  at  the  passage  where  Hossein   is  killed   by   accursed   Shabr,   a   curtain 
opens  behind  him,  and  a  severed  head  and  trunk  of  a  body,  representing  that  of 
the  Imam  when  dead,  is  thrown  on  the  ground,  when  there  rises  such  an  uproar 
of  cries  and  lamentations  that  everybody  loses  his  wits.     At  this  moment  some 
hundred  men  mingle  in  the  crowd  with  razors,  with  which  they  cut  the  arms  and 
breasts  of  all  loving  behevers,  who  desire  to  shed  their  blood  on  this  day  in  re- 
membrance of  the  blood  shed  by  the  Imam  ;  they  make  such  deep  incisions  and 
scars,  that  the  ground  appears  as  if  it  was  blooming  with  tulips.     Some  thousands 
brand  the  marks  and  names  of  Hassan  and  Hossein  on  their  heads,  arms,  and 
breasts.     They  then  carry  Hossein's  body  away  from  the  ground  with  much  pomp, 
and  finish  the  ceremony  with  great  bowlings. 

The  town  has  numerous  fine  walks  and  pleasure  grounds,  each  of  which  may  be 
compared  to  the  gardens  of  Ispuze  and  Meram.  The  beautiful  koshks  worthy  to 
be  the  seats  of  Sherin  and  Ferhâd,  of  Wamik  and  Azra,  are  every  where  renowned  ; 


evliya  efendi.  139 

but  I  must  refrain  from  their  praise  and  description,  as  I  have  yet  so  many  other 
things  to  mention.  God  be  thanked  !  I  remained  here  two  months,  which  I  spent 
in  full  pleasure  and  delight,  and  I  shall  now  give  the  description  of  the  districts 
and  castles,  which  I  visited  in  the  Khan's  company.  Round  Tabriz  are  seven 
districts,  which  furnish  military  men,  whose  office  is  to  train  birds  and  dogs  for 
hunting. 

The  first  is  the  district  of  Mehrânrûd,  five  farsangs  to  the  east  of  Tabriz,  the 
three  places  Koraükendrüt,  Isfenj-kent,  and  Sa'âd-abâd  are  like  large  towns, 
with  numerous  mosques,  khans  and  baths.  The  second  district  is  that  of  Sera- 
vurûd  on  the  west  side  of  Tabriz  ;  containing  eighty  well  cultivated  villages.  The 
third  district  is  that  of  Dideher,  four  farsangs  south-west  of  Tabriz,  twenty-four 
kents  with  mosques,  khans,  baths  and  gardens.  The  fourth  district  is  that  of 
Ardenik,  on  the  west  side  of  Tabriz  at  only  a  farsang's  distance ;  thirty  well 
cultivated  villages.  The  fifth  district  is  that  of  Rûdkât  behind  mount  Sorkhab, 
and  north  of  Tabriz,  at  a  farsang's  distance  from  it ;  a  hundred  great  kents  with 
gardens,  mosques,  markets,  &c.  The  sixth  district,  that  of  Khânumrûd ;  twenty 
elegant  villages.  The  seventh,  that  of  Bedostan  behind  Rûdkât ;  seventy 
villages.  If  I  were  to  describe  minutely  all  the  hunting  and  pleasure  parties  on 
which  I  accompanied  the  Shah  for  the  space  of  twenty  days,  it  would  alone  fill  a 
book,  because  Tabriz  is  hke  Isfahan,  one  of  the  finest  towns  in  the  world.  God 
gi-ant  its  possession  to  the  Ottomans^  and  keep  it  from  ruin  ! 

Account  of  a  curious  Conversatmi. 

One  day  being  in  company  with  the  Shah  he  presented  me  with  the  purest 
vnne.  I  said,  "  By  God  !  with  God  !  through  God  Î  and  by  All's  purest  spirit, 
since  I  was  born  I  never  drank  wine  or  any  other  spirituous  liquor,  and  since  our 
great  ancestor  Khoja  Ahmed  Yessûî,  none  of  our  family  have  ate  or  drank  any 
thing  of  an  intoxicating  quality.  I  beg,  therefore,  to  be  excused  by  you."  The 
Khân  said,  "  My  beloved  and  darling  brother,  what  are  you  afraid  of ;  if  it  is  of 
your  Emperor,  he  is  five  months  journey  from  you ;  if  it  is  of  your  Khan  (the 
Pâshâ),  it  is  forty  days  distance  from  Erzerum  to  Tabriz.  The  Khân  of  the 
Shah  of  Iran  and  the  dog  of  Alı,  my  Shah,  has  expressly  forbidden  me  to  drink 
a  drop  of  wine ;  what  do  I  care  for  that,  I  drink  it  secretly  and  delight  in  it ; 
follow  my  example."  I  said,  "  Very  well,  my  Khan,  if  your  Shah  has  prohibited 
it  to  you,  it  is  prohibited  to  nie  by  the  express  command  of  the  Shah  of  Shahs, 
the  Lord  of  Lords,  who  says  in  the  Koran,  '  wine,  gaming  and  fortune-telling  are 
Satan's  work  : '  it  is  of  this  Lord,  that  I  am  afraid."  "  You  are,"  said  the  Khân, 
"  a  rigorous  Methodist  (Mutea-assib)."    "  By  God  ! "  replied  I,  "  I  am  no  Me- 


140  THETRAVELSOF 

thodist  but  only  a  true  follower  of  the  orthodox  sect  of  Na'amân  Ben  Thdbet,  and  a 
true  lover  of  the  Prophet's  family."  At  this  reply  the  whole  company  became 
silent,  the  Khân  rose  up  with  all  his  youthful  attendants,  and  sitting  down  close  to 
me,  he  said,  "  My  dear  Evliya  Aghd,  which  of  these  my  favourite  servants  would 
you  like  to  have,  I  will  make  you  a  present  of  him  if  you  drink  a  cup  of  wine  out 
of  his  hand.  Come  drink  a  glass,  if  you  love  red  Alî  and  the  twelve  Imams  ;  let 
us  be  warm  of  head  and  tender  of  heart,  let  us  enjoy  a  moment  of  delight  in  this 
perishable  world."  So  saying,  all  the  youths  came  to  salute  me,  and  I  returned 
their  salutes ;  yet  did  I  implore  at  the  same  time  Heaven's  assistance,  and  then 
said,  in  answer  to  his  further  pressing  requests ;  "  You  drink  wine  to  get  into 
good  humour,  but  the  first  thing  is  to  be  good-humoured  in  God ;  I  beg  you  will 
let  me  have  a  half-drum  to  accompany  my  own  song,  in  order  to  show  you  how 
people  get  good-humoured  in  God."  "  Be  it  so,"  said  he,  "  for  Ali's  sake  bring 
a  half-drum  to  Evliya,  my  brother ;  "  I  took  it,  and  sang  three  tetrastichs  on  Divine 
Love,  in  the  tune  Sigâh,  which  made  all  the  hearers  appear  as  though  they  were 
drunk.  The  Khân,  being  extremely  pleased,  invested  me  with  his  own  sable 
pelisse,  gave  me  a  thousand  praises,  and  a  Georgian  slave  as  a  present,  ten  tomans 
of  Abbâssf,  and  a  racehorse  (Karajubiik).  "Now,"  said  he,  "  I  will  not  plague 
you  any  more  with  a  request  to  drink  wine,"  and  I  continued  to  enjoy  his  con- 
versation undisturbed  during  a  whole  month,  feasting  every  night.  I  spent  this 
time  observing  all  that  was  worth  seeing  at  Tabriz,  the  good  order  and  govern- 
ment of  which  is  worthy  of  all  possible  recommendation.  The  inhabitants  are 
merry,  but  orderly  people,  and  I  never  saw  a  drunkard  in  the  streets.  It  is  in 
their  praise  that  the  verse  was  composed,  which  says,  "  The  people  of  Tabriz, 
though  given  to  pleasure,  are  as  pure  as  the  glass  of  a  mirror ;  and  if  you  say 
they  are  not  true  to  friends,  you  must  know  that  the  mirror  only  reflects  the 
object  before  it  as  it  really  appears. " 

General  Praise  of  Tabriz. 

The  first  and  most  agreeable  properties  of  Tabriz  is  the  abundance  of  water,  by 
which  means  the  streets  are  washed  and  cleansed  from  all  dust,  as  though  it  was 
continually  New  Year's  day.  The  second  praiseworthy  circumstance  is,  that  the 
Sherifs  or  descendants  of  Mohammed  do  not  give  their  daughters  indiscriminately 
to  servants,  but  only  to  their  equals.  They  proposed  the  following  nice  point  to 
me,  saying :  —  "  You  take  Infidel  girls  as  women,  because  you  say  that  the  man 
plants  the  seed,  and  that  is  very  well ;  but  you  also  give  your  own  daughters  to 
Moslims,  who  were  first  Infidels  and  afterwards  converted ;  now  if  this  new 
Moslim  relapses  into  his  former  error,  what  then  becomes  of  the  children,  who 


evli  YA   efendi.  141 

though  their  mother  be  a  true  descendant  of  the  Prophet,  may  become  apostates 
and  fly  into  the  land  of  the  Infidels  ?  "  I  answered,  with  the  tradition  of  the 
Prophet,  which  says,  "  that  even  the  children  of  Christians  and  Jews  are  born  true 
Moslims,  but  that  they  are  afterwards  seduced  into  error  by  their  parents."  There 
was  no  reply  to  that.  The  third  good  thing  is  that  all  sales  are  transacted  with 
Persian  money  coined  in  the  country,  and  that  no  foreign  coin  is  received. 
Money  is  coined  in  seven  towns,  viz.  at  Erdebil,  Hamadân,  Baghdad,  Isfahan, 
Tiflis,  Nehâvend,  and  Tabriz.  The  inscription  on  one  side  is,  "  There  is  no  God, 
but  God,  and  Mohammed  is  the  Prophet,  and  Alî  the  friend  of  God  ; "  on  the 
reverse  is  the  name  of  the  Shah,  with  the  epithet  of  Alfs  dog  :  their  small  coins 
or  pennies  are  called  Kaziki,  they  bear  only  the  place  of  the  coinage  on  one  side, 
and  the  date  of  the  year  on  the  other  :  on  their  measures  and  weights  are  also 
written  the  words,  "  There  is  no  God  but  God,"  and  who  dares  to  cheat  in  the 
name  of  God  is  blinded  by  a  heated  stone  drawn  over  his  eyes.  Before  their 
shops  and  markets,  scales  of  yellow  brass  are  suspended,  which  are  never  taken 
away,  but  always  remain,  and  all  eatables  and  drinkables  are  sold  by  weight  ac- 
cording to  the  fixed  market  prices ;  even  corn  and  wheat  are  sold  by  weight.  The 
fourth  good  things  are  the  cookshops,  fitted-up  with  china  and  furnished  with 
plates  of  the  same  material ;  they  are  opened  with  prayer  as  usual  in  the  morn- 
ing, and  then  filled  with  all  kinds  of  pilaws,  and  stewed  meat  (Herisse),  which  are 
also  sold  by  weight.  The  waiters,  clean  and  smart,  stand  with  pewter  dishes  under 
their  arms,  on  which  are  inscriptions  like  the  following  :  "  No  nobility  above  the 
Islam  ; "  "  The  nobility  of  the  place  depends  upon  who  occupies  it ;  "  "  The 
nobility  of  the  house  depends  upon  its  inhabitants;  and  the  nobility  of  the  in- 
habitants upon  their  generosity."  After  dinner  these  waiters  bring  clean  basins 
and  cans  for  washing,  but  vulgar  people  (Tolûnkî  and  Tokir)  wipe  their  right  hand 
under  their  left  shoulder,  and  their  left  hand  under  the  right. 

Bad  and  reprehensible  things  in  Iran. 

It  is  a  bad  custom  in  Persia  that  only  twelve  classes  of  the  troops  and  as  many  of 
the  Ulemâs  and  the  other  ranks  of  society  are  allowed  to  have  regular  kitchens  in 
their  houses ;  all  the  rest  eat  from  the  market,  therefore,  although  their  dinner  is 
cheap  it  is  very  bad.  The  army  has  its  cooks,  who  cook  in  that  way  at  a  fixed 
price,  so  that  they  are  are  not  allowed  to  take  a  grain  more  or  to  furnish  a  grain 
less  than  the  established  quantity.  When  the  army  takes  the  field,  the  kitchen  is 
estabhshed  in  tents  made  of  felt. 

Another  bad  thing  in  Persia  is  that  they  do  not  kill  or  hang  their  delinquents, 
but  the  Darogha  and  Mohtessib  (two  officers  of  police),  bring  them  to  the  public 


142  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

place,  where  the  executioners  torment  them  in  a  most  cruel  manner  ;  during  three 
days  and  nights,  they  inflict  on  them  three  hundred  and  sixty  different  kinds  of 
torture.  They  first  give  them  three  hundred  strokes  of  the  whip  and  Korbaj,  press 
their  knees,  introduce  reeds  under  their  nails,  cauterize  the  whole  body  with  fire, 
force  them  to  swallow  greasy  rags  with  a  rope  attached,  which  if  dragged  out 
again  brings  the  stomach  and  bowels  with  it ;  nail  their  hands  and  feet  down, 
bore  holes  in  the  elbows  and  knees,  and  then  pour  melted  lead  in  the  holes  so  that 
the  lead  runs  out  with  the  marrow  :  they  tie  the  four  first  fingers  and  toes  tight 
together,  suspend  the  delinquent  and  perfume  him  with  sulphur  and  asses'  urine, 
so  that  the  poor  mens'  cries  pierce  the  skies  ;  they  cut  pieces  out  of  the  back,  and 
attach  burning  candles  to  the  shoulders ;  they  squeeze  the  testicles,  tickle  the  nose 
with  pointed  thorns,  put  iron  kettles  on  the  head,  and  blind  the  eyes ;  and  inflict 
even  more  horrible  tortures  than  those  already  described.  God  forgive  us  our 
sins  !  They  paralyse  thieves  by  cutting  the  sinews.  They  cut  off"  the  ears,  noses, 
and  hands  and  feet  of  false  witnesses,  and  fasten  other  delinquents  to  seven 
different  kinds  of  gibbets  and  pales,  and  leave  them  so  exposed  during  three  days 
and  nights.  The  Khan  having  one  day  glorified  himself  with  these  cruel  tortures, 
in  my  presence,  I  asked  him,  "  What  was  the  object  of  such  manifold  cruelties ; " 
he  said,  "  That  death  being  pronounced  on  these  culprits,  the  tortures  were  added, 
in  order  to  terrify  others  by  the  example."  I  said,  "  That  it  was  not  lawful, 
because  the  text  of  the  Koran  states  no  other  punishment  for  thieves  but  cutting 
off"  the  hand,  and  retaliation  in  cases  of  murder ;  and  that  this  was  quite  sufficient 
to  keep  the  people  in  terror  and  awe."  He  was  obliged  to  acknowledge  that  I 
was  right.  These  additional  tortures  have  been  contrived  by  them,  because  their 
people  are  all  riotous  and  heretical,  that  they  may  be  kept  in  order  the  easier. 
So  they  established  it  as  law. 

Pilgrimages  and  Visits  in  the  town  of  Tabriz. 

In  the  cemeteries  are  many  places  of  pilgrimage  of  great  and  holy  men.  In 
the  cemetery  of  Sürkhâb  are  the  tombs  of  poets,  such  as  Enwerl,  Khakânî, 
Zahîr-ud-dîn  Faryâbî,  Felekî  of  Shîrâz,  and  Felekî  of  Shirvân. 

Of  Saints  buried  in  the  neighbouring  villages,  there  are,  in  the  village  of 
Gûchûchân  the  Saint  Khoja  Mohammed  Gûchûchânî;  in  the  village  of  Sabad- 
abdd,  no  less  than  seven  hundred  learned  writers.  Essâma  Ben  Sherik,  the 
Prophet's  companion  is  buried  near  Tabriz  on  the  martyrs'  mount ;  and  Sarut-ul 
Jebel,  the  brother  of  Hamza,  who  was  carried  wounded  from  the  battle  of  Nehâ- 
vend  to  Tabriz,  died  here.  The  Sheikh  Sejid-jan  Memi,  a  writer  deeply  versed  in 
ancient  and  modern  sciences  and  in  mystics.     On  mount  Sûrkhâb,  two  children  of 


evliya  efendi.  143 

Ali  are  buried  ;  in  the  quarter  of  Serde  the  place  is  shown  where  Efasidb's  head 
is  buried.  Sheikh  Nassr-allah,  the  son  of  Ak-Shems-ud-din.  It  would  be  too 
long  to  describe  all  the  monuments  which  exist  at  Tabriz,  and  we  contented 
ourselves  with  these. 

Description  of  the  Expedition  we  undertook  with  the  Khdn  to  Shdm  Ghdzdn. 

We  left  Tabriz  accompanied  by  one  thousand  horse,  and  after  a  march  of  five 
hours  through  flowery  gardens  came  to  Kent  Ajisû,  half  way  to  Kumla^  two  hundred 
houses  with  gardens  belonging  to  the  Khan's  khass,  a  mosque  and  three  convents. 
The  waters  of  this  plain  are  subterraneous,  flowing  from  village  to  village,  and 
there  are  some  thousand  wells  on  the  great  roads,  this  place  is  called  A'jisû 
(bitter  water)  because  its  water  is  a  little  brackish.  We  continued  our  road  next 
day  to  the  burying-place  of  Mohammed  Sham  Ghazdn ;  it  is  called  so  because 
this  country  bears  great  resemblance  to  Damascus  (Sham).  Mohammed  Ghâzân 
Shah  built  this  castle,  and  peopled  it  with  from  ten  to  twelve  thousand  subjects 
free  from  all  duties  and  gifts.  He  then  built  this  monument,  which  has  no  equal 
either  in  Arabia  or  in  Persian  Irak,  it  is  a  tower  lifting  its  head  to  the  skies 
like  that  of  Galata.  When  I  saw  it,  it  was  a  little  damaged  on  the  side  of  the 
gate  by  an  earthquake  ;  it  is  a  monument  well  worth  seeing.  I  entered  it  with 
the  Khan,  said  a  Fatihah,  and  read  the  inscription  on  the  marble  cofiin.  More 
than  two  hundred  Dervishes  inhabit  the  convent ;  outside  of  the  gate,  piles  of 
sheep's  heads  are  erected,  many  thousand  sheep  being  immolated  here  by  the 
inhabitants  of  Persia,  who  have  great  confidence  in  this  place  ;  a  well  ten  yards 
deep  affords  refreshing  water  in  summer. 

The  name  of  Sham  Ghâzân  is  a  corruption  of  the  Moghol  language,  in  which 
this  Prince  is  called  Shanb,  whence  Sham  originated.  The  castle  which  bears 
his  name  on  Mount  Welian  is  now  in  ruins.  At  the  foot  of  it  is  the  Kent-WeUan 
consisting  of  three  hundred  houses  with  a  fine  mosque,  khan  and  bath,  founded 
by  the  Vezir  Rashîd-ud-dîn  Dembolf.  We  reached  after  five  hours  from  hence, 
the  Castle  of  Kûmla,  built  by  Koja  Ferhâd  Pâshâ,  the  Vezir  of  Sultân  Murad  III. 
in  the  year  998  (1589),  it  is  a  square  castle  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Wehan.  It  is 
eighty  paces  in  circumference,  has  seven  towers,  and  two  gates,  one  to  the  east 
and  one  to  the  west ;  the  eastern  one  is  that  leading  to  Tabriz.  It  was  from 
this  place  that  Ja'afer  Pasha,  when  beseiged  by  the  troops  in  rebellion,  made  a 
sally  at  night,  and  completely  routed  the  rebels.  He  afterwards  built  this  gate. 
Within  the  castle  are  seven  hundred  houses  and  a  mosque  ;  the  suburb  forms  the 
town  of  Kûmla,  which  abounds  in  gardens ;  the  grapes  and  pears  of  Kûmla 
are  much  celebrated.     There  are  seventy  mosques,  eleven  of  which  are  Jamiis 


144  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

(wherein  Friday  prayer  is  said),  the  best  is  that  of  Ferhdd  Pasha.     It  is  the  seat 
of  a  Sultân  subordinate  to  Tabriz.     A  Kelenter  and  Darogha  keep  public  order; 
a  Sultân  is  here  the  same  as  in  Turkey  a  Sanjek  Beg,  and  a  Begler  Beg  is  called 
a  Khan  ;  a  Vezir  of  three  tails  is  called  Itimâd-ud-devlet ;    a  Commander-in-chief 
(Serdâr)  is  here  named  Sipehsalâr  ;  Mûnshî  answers  to  the  Turkish  Reis  Efendî ; 
Kelenter  is  the  same  as  Alai    Beg,  that  is  to  say  Colonel  of  the  Militia,  and 
Darogha  is   the  same   as   Sûbashî   or   Lieutenant  of  police ;    the  head  of  the 
Chaushes  or  ushers  here  takes  the  name  of  Yessaiil  Aghd,  and  the  Aghâ  of  the 
Dizchoken  is  the  same  as  an  Aghâ  of  the  janissaries  in  Turkey.     The  names  of 
Kûrûji,  chief  of  the  forest  guards,  and   Mihmandar  or  travelling  commissary,  are 
common  both  to  Turkey  and  Persia.     We  advanced  from  hence  five  hours  to  the 
district  of  Serawerd,  a  great  Kent  north-west  of  Tabriz,  with  a  mosque,  khân, 
and  bath.     We  were  entertained  here  during  a  whole  night  by  the  Kelenter,  and 
continued  our  journey  next  day,  hunting  along  the  river  Serawerd  to  the  Kent- 
Dusht,  where  we  dined  and  halted  a  little.     We  proceeded  for  six  hours  to  the 
Kent-Jevlân  Doruk  in  the  district  of  Serawerd  on  the  river  of  that  name,  with 
one  thousand  houses,  a  bath  and  mosque.     Further  on  is  the  Kent  of  Kânidlis, 
three  hundred  MosUm  houses  and  a  mosque ;   the  Armenians  have  three  churches 
and  three  thousand  houses.     Three  hours  further  is  the  Kent-Lakid,  the  khass  of 
Rokhshâh's  Lady  ;  the  inhabitants  are  Armenian  weavers,  there  are  two  thousand 
houses,  a  mosque,  a  khân,  and  three  convents  ;  on  the  mount  of  Serawerd  stands  a 
ruined  castle.     The  Kent  of  Kujabâd  has  five  hundred  houses,  a  khân,  a  mosque 
and  a  bath.     We  now  went  eastward  to  the  district  of  Rudkât  on  the  north  of 
Tabriz  behind  mount  Sorkhâb,  a  district  of  a  hundred  Kents,  which  we  passed  in 
hunting  during  three  days. 

Description  of  Merdgha. 

It  is  the  seat  of  a  Sultân  commanding  a  thousand  troops,  and  has  a  Judge, 
Kelenter,  Darogha  and  Munshi ;  it  was  built  in  the  earliest  time  by  Hûshenk- 
shâh,  and  is  the  first  town  of  Azerbeijan  and  its  ancient  capital,  surrounded  with 
fruitful  gardens,  eleven  farsangs  distant  from  Tabriz  ;  eleven  mosques,  forty  khans, 
sixty  mesjids,  forty  convents  of  Dervishes,  eleven  baths  and  three  thousand 
shops.  The  inhabitants  are  all  weavers,  who  manufacture  excellent  Bogassin. 
The  beautiful  youth  of  both  sexes  at  Merâgha  are  everywhere  renowned.  The 
town  has  risen  from  its  ruins  since  the  havoc  it  suffered  from  the  army  of  Sultân 
Murad  III.  Its  builder  in  the  time  of  Islam  was  Mervân  Ibn  Mohammed  Al- 
Himâr,  in  whose  time  it  extended  to  Mount  Sehend  and  comprised  seventy  thou- 
sand houses  ;  but  since  it  was  destroyed  by  the  Moghols  in  Hülagü's  time,  the 
buildings  are  at  some  distance  from  Mount  Sehend,  which  as  it  intercepted  the 


evliya  efendi,  145 

north  wind,  was  the  reason  that  the  air  of  its  former  situation  was  so  heavy. 
The  water,  however,  issues  from  the  mountain,  and  abundantly  furnishes  the 
houses  and  gardens.  Its  pomegranates  and  cotton  are  famous,  the  inhabitants 
are  white  and  gazelle-eyed,  of  sweet  words  and  shining  faces  ;  a  great  part  of 
them  secretly  follow  the  orthodox  rite  of  Hanefî.  They  mostly  speak  Pehlevi ; 
the  whole  country  is  divided  into  eight  districts,  viz. :  Serajûn,  Penajun,  Jeriit, 
Kaodul,  Hestrud,  Behsând,  Engûrân,  and  Kizilorân  ;  each  district  containing  from 
eighty  to  one  hundred  cultivated  kents;  altogether  five  hundred  and  sixty  kents, 
sixty  towns,  and  seven  castles  ;  the  description  of  which,  if  we  could  undertake  it 
in  detail,  would  alone  fill  a  volume.  We  left  Meragha  and  entered  the  district 
of  Tûrnachairî,  wherein  the  town  of  Ajan  is  situated ;  the  kent  of  Petiker  of  one 
thousand  houses  is  situated  in  this  district. 

Description  of  Ajdn. 

On  the  east  side  of  mount  Ajan  a  large  town  was  built  by  Peshen  the  son  of 
Keiumerth,  and,  being  ransacked  by  Hûlagû,  fell  into  decay,  so  that  all  its  inhabi- 
tants were  transferred  to  Tabriz ;  it  was  rebuilt  by  Ghâzân,  who  also  built  a  castle 
of  two  thousand  paces  in  circumference  on  the  edge  of  the  mountain,  with  an 
iron  gate  opening  to  the  east ;  within  it  are  one  hundred  houses,  but  no  garason, 
outside  there  are  three  thousand  houses,  seven  mosques,  three  baths,  seven  khans, 
and  six  hundred  shops.  The  water  comes  from  mount  Ajdn  ;  the  inhabitants 
are  Shâfiîtes,  but  keep  their  doctrine  secret,  they  are  merry  fellows  (Ehl  mesh- 
reb),  and  no  rigourists  (Ehl  mezheb).  The  Armenians  have  two  convents.  After 
having  seen  the  town  we  continued  our  journey,  hunting,  to  the  district  of  Meh- 
rânberûd,  five  farsangs  to  the  east  of  Tabriz,  of  sixty  great  kents.  We  passed  those 
of  Werd,  Isfej  and  Saîdabâd,  built  by  a  Vezir  of  that  name  in  the  time  of  Sultan 
Tahmurass,  a  large  kent  of  two  thousand  houses,  seven  mosques,  a  khân  and 
bath,  which  was  ransacked  by  Sultân  Suleiman  in  his  way  to  Baghdad,  but  es- 
caped the  havoc  of  Sultân  Murad.  We  remained  one  night  here  and  next  day 
proceeded  seven  hours  towards  the  south-east  to  the  Kent  of  Mân,  built  by 
Mâhkür  the  daughter  of  Khodabende  ;  nine  hours  further  we  arrived  at  the  castle 
of  Kehrevân  built  by  Shah  Tahmâss,  out  of  fear  of  Sultân  Suleiman.  At  the 
time  of  the  expedition  of  Kojâ  Ferhâd  Pâshâ,  as  soon  as  he  arrived  at  Baghdad,  he 
sent  the  General  Solak  Ferhâd  Pâshâ  against  this  place,  who  besieged  the  castle 
in  vain  during  seventeen  days.  This  Khân  Meimendî  made  continual  inroads, 
till  at  Tabriz  he  was  completely  routed  by  Ja'afer  Pâshâ  of  Tabriz,  who  took  seven 
thousand  heads  and  five  thousand  prisoners  from  him.  The  next  day  Ja'afer  set 
out  with  seventy  thousand  men  for  the  siege  of  Kehrevân,  which  was  taken  on 

VOL.  II.  u 


146  THETRAVELSOF 

the  third  day.  Meimendf  being  brought  into  the  presence  of  Ja'afer  Pashd,  his 
ear  was  cut  off,  his  property  confiscated  and  himself  hanged  at  the  gate  of  the 
castle,  the  keys  of  which  were  sent  to  Sultân  Murad ;  there  is  even  now  a 
mosque  named  after  Sultdn  Murad  :  it  remained  eleven  years  in  the  hands  of  the 
Ottomans.  It  is  situated  on  a  hill  on  the  road  to  Baghdad ;  it  is  six  thousand 
paces  in  circumference,  and  has  two  gates,  one  to  the  south,  and  one  to  the 
north  ;  its  Sultân  commands  one  thousand  men.  The  suburb  consists  of  seven 
thousand  well-terraced  houses,  and  sixty  mosques,  in  eleven  of  which  public 
prayer  is  performed  on  Friday,  seven  baths,  eleven  khans,  and  eight  hundred 
shops  ;  the  sheets  and  blankets  manufactured  here  are  celebrated.  We  advanced 
seven  hours  further  eastward,  to  a  large  kent  embellished  by  a  mosque  of  Jîghâla's 
son  ;  and  nine  hours  further  on  we  arrived  at  the  large  town  of  Erdebil,  the  first 
residence  of  the  Persian  Shahs  of  the  Safî  dynasty.  It  has  been  taken  and 
retaken  several  times  by  both  Ottomans  and  Persians,  and  is  now  the  seat  of  a 
Khân,  who  commands  three  thousand  men ;  it  is  a  day's  journey  from  mount 
Seilân,  and  is  surrounded  by  high  mountains  at  the  same  distance ;  it  Ues  in  a 
fertile  valley  close  to  a  lake.  It  was  built  by  an  Armenian  King  in  fear  of 
Omar's  power,  in  the  same  year  that  Sâriet-ul-jebel  was  sent  to  Nehavend ;  this 
is  one  of  the  principal  reasons  why  Omar  is  so  much  hated  by  the  Persians,  who 
do  not  show  so  much  dislike  to  Abubekr  and  Osman.  This  town  formerly  ex- 
tended as  far  as  mount  Seilân,  from  which  it  is  now  two  farsangs  distant ;  the 
farsang  is  equal  to  twelve  thousand  ordinary  paces,  so  that  two  farsangs  are  equal 
to  twenty-four  thousand  paces.  The  top  of  Seilan  is  always  covered  with  snow, 
which  shines  like  silver  in  the  middle  of  summer,  and  furnishes  all  the  water  of  the 
town ;  it  is  a  very  digestive  water,  which  enables  the  inhabitants  to  feast  hke 
Ma'adikarb.  The  inhabitants  pretend  to  be  Shâfiîtes ;  they  are  great  hars.  The 
distance  between  Tabriz  and  Erdebil  is  twenty-five  farsangs,  which  with  a  good 
horse  may  be  gone  over  in  two  days.  The  chmate  much  resembles  that  of  Erze- 
rûm  ;  hard  winter,  and  a  fruitful  soil,  the  corn  multiplying  eighty  fold  :  there  are 
no  fruit-trees  and  vines,  but  gardens  for  vegetables    and  rosebeds. 

The  lake  near  Tabriz  on  the  east  side  is  covered  with  many  hundred  fishing- 
boats,  on  the  west  it  is  but  a  farsang's  distance  from  Rumie  ;  between  Erdebil  and 
the  lake  the  country  is  covered  with  wood,  and  villages  are  interspersed  in  the 
forest ;  there  are  seventy  sorts  of  fish ;  the  boats  on  the  lake  also  trade  to 
Rumie,  Dûmdûraî  and  Dûmbûlı ;  the  circumference  of  this  lake  is  greater  than 
that  of  Wan,  a  man  may  go  round  it  in  ten  days  ;  the  water  of  the  lake  of  Wan 
is  bitter  as  poison,  but  this  is  sweet  as  the  water  of  life.  Its  depth  is  seventy 
cubits.     This  lake  was  produced  on  the  birthnight  of  the  prophet,  when  the  vault 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  I47 

of  Chosroes,  and  that  of  Ayd  Söfiyah,  and  the  idols  of  Mecca  fell  down  by  an  earth- 
quake ;  forty-five  large  and  small  springs  flow  into  it ;  the  river  Seilan  which 
affords  water  to  Erdebîl,  the  river  Kuherân  and  others  fall  into  this  sea.  On  the 
banks  of  the  river  Seilan  lies  a  large  round  mass  of  iron,  three  quintals  in  weight, 
extremely  well  polished,  on  which  ancient  philosophers  have  written  a  kind  of 
Hebrew  inscription  with  a  figure  lifting  its  two  arms  up  to  Heaven ;  if  rain  is 
wanted  this  stone  is  carried  in  procession  into  the  town,  and  it  never  fails  to  rain 
day  and  night  without  ceasing  till  the  stone  is  replaced.  The  basis  on  which  this 
marvellous  stone  reposes  is  a  large  rock,  covered  with  strange  inscriptions ;  it 
also  has  twelve  holes,  from  which  as  soon  as  the  iron  mass  is  rolled  away,  water 
begins  to  rush  forth,  and  ceases  not  until  the  stone  is  returned  to  its  place. 
Some  persons  assert  this  to  be  the  stone  which  Moses  struck  in  the  desert,  others 
believe  that  this  miracle  is  performed  in  favour  of  Sheikh  Safî ;  be  it  as  it  may,  it 
is  a  great  talisman.  Erdebü  is  famous  for  its  immense  number  of  mice  which 
are  great  destroyers  of  cloth.  Cats  are,  therefore,  so  dear  that  they  are  sold  in 
cages  by  public  auction  ;  some  of  Dîvrîgui  fetch  the  price  of  a  hundred  piastres, 
but  they  are  short-lived  like  all  cats  of  Erdebfl.  The  cryers  at  the  auction  call 
out ;  "  A  good  hunting  cat,  well  bred,  a  good  companion,  an  enemy  to  rats, 
which  steals  not ! " 

Places  of  Pilgrimage  at  Erdehil. 

The  first  of  all  is  the  tomb  of  Sheikh  Safî,  the  son  of  Sheikh  Khoja  Alî,  the 
son  of  Sheikh  Sadr-ud-dîn  Mûssa,  the  son  of  Sheikh  Safr-ud-din  Abu  Ishâk  of 
Erdebfl,  the  founder  of  the  dynasty  of  the  Safis.  His  tomb-keepers  are  some 
hundred  dervishes,  a  large  foundation.  Sheikh  Safî  governed  only  in  a  spiritual 
sense ;  his  son  Hyder  was  his  successor,  and  Ibrahim  the  son  of  Hyder  having 
dreamt  of  concubinage  with  an  ass,  his  possession  of  the  Empire  was  foretold  by 
his  grandsire  Sheikh  Safî ;  indeed  Sheikh  Ibrahim  was  the  first  who  enjoyed  the 
rights  of  sovereignty  ;  from  Sheikh  Safî  to  Shah  Abbas  are  five  Shahs  who  coined 
money.  We  left  Erdebfl,  marched  nine  hours  further  to  the  north,  and  came  to 
Kent  Rarâm,  a  kent  of  six  hundred  houses  with  gardens  ;  eight  hours  further  we 
came  to  the  Kent  Yâr  Alî,  three  hundred  houses,  a  mosque,  no  khan  or  bath,  but  a 
large  number  of  shops  and  a  weekly  market ;  six  hours  further  to  the  north,  the 
Kent  of  Merzdde  Amâd  in  the  district  of  Dîdher,  eight  hundred  houses.  After 
eight  hours,  we  arrived  at  Tabriz  again,  where  I  remained  some  days  more,  pass- 
ing from  one  entertainment  to  another.  Letters  were  now  written  for  the 
khans  and  commanders  of  the  places  I  was  to  pass  through  on  my  return,  and  the 
letter  of  the  Khân  to  the  Pasha  made  ready.  The  presents  sent  to  him  consisted 
of  ten  camel  loads  of  rice,  dried  raisins,  dried  pears,  pomegranates,  and  two  race- 


148  THETRAVELSOF 

horses  of  the  breed  Karajubuk,  four  trotting  horses,  and  two  boys  dressed  in 
precious  cloth  perfumed  with  musk.  To  me  he  gave  ten  tomans  Abbassi,  a 
Georgian  slave,  a  Persian  pelisse,  a  Persian  dress,  six  turbans,  and  a  string  of 
camels,  loaded  with  rice,  a  black  horse  of  the  race  Karajubuk,  a  trotting  one 
(Chapâr-âtî),  with  Persian  bridle  and  saddle.  I  took  leave  of  all  my  friends,  and 
next  day  left  Tabrfz  in  grand  procession  with  the  khân,  accompanied  by  the  Royal 
music  of  trumpets  and  kettle  drums.  We  halted  at  the  place  Ain  Alî,  where  a 
grand  dinner,  and  five  tomans  Abbâssî  more,  were  given  to  me  for  the  expenses  of 
the  journey.  My  suite  received  twenty  tomans  of  aspers,  a  piece  of  velvet,  three 
of  Alas,  and  six  turbans.  The  Khdn  recommended  me  to  the  care  of  a  Yessavûl 
Aghd,  who  was  to  escort  me  with  three  hundred  men,  embraced  me,  and  returned 
to  Tabriz,  while  we  took  the  road  to  Erivan. 


JOURNEY    FROM    TABRIZ   TO    ERİVAN. 

In  God's  name  we  set  out  from  Tabriz  to  the  north,  and  reached  the  Kent  Haji 
Harâmî,  of  three  hundred  houses  surrounded  with  rose  gardens ;  a  foundation  of 
Sham  Ghazân,  whose  tomb  may  be  seen  from  hence.  The  next  day  the  Kelenter 
took  leave,  and  we  continued  our  way  to  Kent  Safian,  which  was  formerly  a  great 
kent,  but  has  since  been  ruined  by  the  Mogols  and  still  more  by  Sultân  Miirad  IV., 
it  is  a  delightful  place  on  the  territory  of  Tabriz.  Some  learned  men  and  writers 
are  buried  here,  but  I  don't  know  their  names ;  there  are  more  than  twenty 
cupolas.  In  the  month  of  Moharrem  on  the  day  of  A'ashura,  the  feast  in  com- 
memoration of  the  murder  of  Hossein  is  celebrated  here  vdth  great  pomp,  the 
people  are  all  Shâfiıtes.  Further  to  the  north  we  reached  Mezîdkhân  on  the 
frontiers  of  Tabriz  ;  five  hundred  houses  covered  with  terraces,  two  mosques,  a 
very  spacious  khân,  a  bath  and  royal  market-place.  Seven  hours  more  to  the 
northward  is  the  station  of  Kent  Keremish,  on  the  frontier  or  Nakhshivân ;  a 
thousand  houses,  seven  mosques,  a  khân  and  bath.  Our  way  now  led  northward 
through  marshy  grounds,  and  we  pitched  our  tents  on  the  borders  of  Wishlechai. 
This  river  issues  from  the  mountains  of  Nahkshivan  and  joins  the  Aras.  We 
suffered  much  from  dust  here,  and  after  two  hours  travelling  reached  the  castle  of 
Khui,  a  fine  town  of  Azerbeijan,  the  seat  of  a  Sultân,  who  commands  a  thousand 
men ;  the  public  authorities  are  a  judge.  Mufti,  Darogha,  Kelenter,  Nakib, 
Mûnshî,  Kürüjı  and  Dfzchoken  Aghâ.  The  castle  is  built  in  a  square  form  on 
the  plain,  its  circumference  is  seven  hundred  paces  ;  the  ditch  is  not  very  deep. 
Of  its  two  gates  one  leads  to  the  south,  the  other  to  the  west ;  it  contains  a  hun- 


evli  YA    efendi.  149 

dred  houses  and  a  mosque.  Its  builder  was  Ferhâd  Pâshd,  but  the  old  town  was 
built  by  Shdh  Haider,  and  it  has  been  sacked  more  than  once  since.  This 
suburb  or  outer  town  consists  of  seven  thousand  houses  with  terraces,  seventy 
mosques,  eleven  of  which  are  Jamis,  two  baths,  seven  khans,  and  a  thousand 
shops  with  gardens.  I  and  my  boys  measured  the  circumference,  which  is  ten 
thousand  paces.  The  air  is  rather  warm  and  favorable  therefore  to  the  culture 
of  rice.  The  river  issues  from  Mount  Selmâs,  and  flows  into  the  Araxes.  The 
fruits  are  famous,  above  all  the  Prophet-pears,  which  have  no  equal  in  sweetness 
and  delicious  taste.  Owing  to  the  mildness  of  the  climate,  the  inhabitants  are  all 
white,  and  the  women  are  innumerable.  Some  historians  call  this  town  Ashâristân, 
Irânistân  or  Türkistan.  Its  districts  reckon  one  hundred  and  eighty  villages,  the 
inhabitants  of  which  are  for  the  most  part  Sunnites,  Shâfiîtes,  who  paid  a  capita- 
tion tax  to  Shah  Ismail  for  the  privilege  of  letting  their  beards  grow  (Sakal 
Tiih),  but  have  been  exempted  since  the  time  of  Shah  Seff. 

Pilgrimage  to  the   Tomb  of  Shems  Tahrizi. 

He  died  in  the  year  495  on  his  way  from  Antiochia  to  Isfahan,  in  this  town  of 
Khûî.  After  a  stay  of  two  days,  we  continued  our  journey  with  two  hundred 
armed  guards  to  the  north,  and  arrived  at  the  end  of  nine  hours  at  the  town 
of  Behestdn,  the  seat  of  a  Kelenter.  It  was  anciently  a  town  of  the  size  of 
Tabriz  but  was  ruined  by  Hûlagû  ;  it  is  now  a  small  place  of  a  thousand  houses, 
three  mosques,  a  khân,  bath  and  small  market,  with  innumerable  gardens.  Three 
hours  further  northward,  we  reached  the  castle  of  Joris  on  the  frontier  of  Nak- 
shivan  ;  the  seat  of  a  khan,  who  commands  two  thousand  troops,  a  judge  and 
twelve  public  officers  in  honour  of  the  twelve  Imams.  The  castle,  a  pentagon,  is 
situated  on  a  hill,  simply  walled  and  therefore  not  very  strong.  It  was  first  built 
by  Uzun  Hassan  the  Shah  of  Azerbeijan  and  was  ruined  by  Murâd  IV.  its  ruined 
parts  are  now  chalked  off  [fenced  off?]  like  a  Palanka.  Though  situated  on  a  hill, 
yet  the  hill  itself  is  at  the  foot  of  a  high  mountain.  It  has  a  gate  looking  to  the 
south-east ;  within  the  castle  there  is  no  remarkable  building  but  the  mosque  of  Rus- 
hen  Hassan  Pâshâ.  The  outer  town  consists  of  seven  thousand  houses,  and  eleven 
mosques,  of  which  that  of  Uzdemir  Osman  Pâshâ  and  Ferrûkh-zadeh  Shah  Ibn 
Timur  are  the  best ;  there  are  three  mosques,  seven  khans,  and  two  hundred  shops. 
The  young  people  are  extremely  pretty,  with  eyes  like  the  roes  of  Khoten,  sweet- 
tongued  with  merry  faces,  who,  if  they  walk  dressed  in  red  embroidered  dresses, 
like  peacocks  of  Paradise,  make  all  their  lovers  lose  their  wits,  and  by  half  a  look 
make  as  many  Mejnuns  of  them.  We  spent  three  days  and  nights  here  with 
Eyub  Khan  the  Khan  of  the  town,  continually  entertained  by  music.  On  the  fourth 
day  we  continued  our  journey,  after  having  been  overwhelmed  with  presents. 


150  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

We  now  passed  on  towards  the  east  where  the  river  of  Karajubûk  issues  from 
the  mountains  of  Joris,  and  then  joins  the  Araxes ;  in  the  summer  months  this 
river  may  be  crossed  by  sheep  and  goats.  We  advanced  to  the  north  amidst 
Kents  for  four  hours  to  Kent  Halh',  on  the  frontier  of  Erivan  ;  five  hundred  houses 
with  gardens,  a  mosque  and  a  bath,  on  the  banks  of  the  Halli  river,  which  issues 
from  the  mountains  of  Sepend  and  joins  the  Aras,  Passing  on  to  the  north 
through  woods,  we  came  after  eight  hours  march  to  the  pleasant  meadow  of  Tuto- 
lümî,  where  there  are  some  hundred  shady  trees,  but  no  village.  The  Daroghas 
and  Kelenters  of  the  neighbouring  kents  flocked  together  to  furnish  us  with 
necessary  provisions.  We  passed  one  night  here,  and  next  day  continued  our 
journey  along  the  Aras,  crossed  it,  and  came  to  Kent  Kagâj  situated  on  the 
eastern  bank  of  the  Aras ;  it  has  a  mosque,  a  khân,  a  bath,  and  three  hundred 
houses,  with  a  great  number  of  rice  fields.  We  passed  through  sandy  ground 
with  great  dust,  nine  hours  to  the  north,  and  reached  Kent  Ashdrli  in  the 
territory  of  Erivan,  with  a  thousand  houses,  a  mosque,  a  khan,  and  a  bath ;  its 
product  is  rice  ;  it  takes  its  name  from  the  inhabitants,  who  belong  to  the  tribe 
Ashârlî.  Travelling  along  the  Aras  through  well  cultivated  fields  and  gardens,  we 
reached  after  seven  hours  the  town  of  Shüreglî,  the  seat  of  a  Sultân,  who  com- 
mands one  thousand  horsemen  ;  there  is  a  mosque,  a  khân  and  a  bath.  After  ten 
hours  we  came  to  Sherab  Khân  with  five  hundred  houses,  a  mosque  and  a  khân  ; 
then  to  Kent  Seif-ud-din  on  the  frontier  of  Erivan,  and  on  the  banks  of  the  Aras,  it 
was  built  by  Seifkülî  the  Khân  of  Erivan,  and  belongs  to  the  khass  of  Erivan,  there 
are  a  hundred  and  eighty  houses,  a  mosque,  and  some  plantations  of  rice.  Five  hours 
further  to  the  north  along  the  Aras  is  the  Kent  Tîlfirâk,  of  a  thousand  houses,  a 
mosque,  a  convent,  a  khân,  a  bath,  and  plantations  of  rice.  At  the  time  of  the 
sie^e  of  Erivan,  Murad  IV.  cut  down  seventy  thousand  trees  which  were  used  as 
bulwarks,  but  since  that  time  an  immense  number  of  trees  have  grown  again.  We 
sent  a  message  from  hence  to  the  Khân  of  Erivan,  next  day  crossed  a  lively  river, 
halted  on  a  meadow,  and  met  a  great  procession  (Alai,)  which  was  the  Kiaya  of 
the  Khân  of  Erivan  who  was  sent  to  meet  us  (istikbâl)  ;  we  made  our  entrance 
into  Erivan  with  him,  were  saluted  by  twenty  guns,  and  lodged  in  a  palace  of  the 
Khân.  Hassan  Beg  went  on  from  hence  with  the  letters  and  presents  of  the  Khân 
of  Tabriz  to  Erzerum,  and  I  occupied  myself  in  delivering  those  for  the  Khân  of 

Erivan. 

Description  of  the  Town  of  Erivdn  (Revdn). 

In  the  year  810  (1407)  Khoja  Khân  Lejchânı,  a  rich  merchant  of  Timor's  suite 
settled  here  with  all  his  family  and  servants,  cultivating  plantations  of  rice,  by 
which  means  a  great  Kent  was  soon  formed.     Five  years  later  Shah  Ismail  gave 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  151 

to  Revân  Kul,  one  of  his  Khans,  an  order  to  build  a  castle  here,  which  being 
finished  in  seven  years,  was  named  after  him.  Revân  or  Erivan.  It  is  situated  on 
the  eastern  bank  of  the  Zenghi  river,  and  is  of  brick  and  stone.  In  the  year  995 
(1586)  Suleiman  Khân,  having  undertaken  the  expedition  against  Nakhshivan, 
pillaged  Erivan,  and  returned  to  his  residence  with  immense  booty.  In  the  reign 
of  Murad  III.  Ferhâd  Pâshâ,  his  general,  pillaged  Kenje,  Revân,  Shamdkhî  and 
Nakhshivan,  destroyed  the  palaces  of  the  son  of  the  Shah,  killed  a  great  number 
of  Persians,  fixed  his  camp  before  the  castle,  and  assembled  a  council  of  war  to 
deliberate  on  the  siege,  and  begun  it  by  digging  a  ditch  on  the  bank  of  the 
Zenghi  from  south  to  north.  By  the  exertion  of  all  the  siege  was  finished 
in  forty  days.  Jigâlazadeh  Yüssûf  Pâshâ,  who  had  been  bred  in  the  Turkish 
Han'm,  was  named  the  first  Commander  of  Erivan  with  a  garrison  of  seventy 
thousand  men.  Ferhâd  Pâshâ  took  care  of  the  repair  of  the  castle  of  Shûreglı 
and  Karss,  and  filled  them  with  Moslira  troops.  In  the  same  way  the  castle  of 
Erdehân  and  Akhichka  were  garrisoned,  and  Ferhâd  Pâshâ  returned  to  Constanti- 
nople. Under  the  government  of  Jigâlazadeh  Yûssiif  Pâshâ,  the  town  of  Erivan 
was  even  in  a  more  flourishing  state  than  in  Suleiman's  time,  and  the  neighbour- 
ing villages  grew  thereby  populous.  In  the  year  101 1  (1602),  the  Persians  having 
usurped  the  possession  of  the  castles  of  the  Genge  and  Shirvân,  forced  the  gar- 
rison of  Erivan,  which  had  received  no  succour  from  Erzerûm,  to  surrender  to 
Tokmak  Khân,  after  a  siege  of  seven  months  ;  in  the  year  1037  (1627),  the  Khân 
of  Erivan,  Emîrgûneh,  having  infested  the  districts  of  Kâghzemân,  Karss,  Cheldir, 
Akhichka  and  Erdehân,  and  complaints  having  arrived  from  the  Begs  of 
Georgia  and  from  the  Governor  of  Erzerûm,  ambassadors  were  sent  from  the 
Khân  of  Persia,  and  at  the  same  time  the  Imperial  tails  fixed  at  Scutari  as  the 
signal  of  Asiatic  war.  In  the  following  year  1044  (1634)  Sultân  Murad  IV. 
completed  his  Imperial  camp  of  Scutari  according  to  the  canons  of  the  Empire, 
with  the  greatest  splendour  and  pomp,  heaped  presents  upon  his  forty  thousand 
janissaries  and  twenty-two  thousand  sipâhîs,  left  Bairâm  Pâshâ,  Kaima  Khâm 
at  Constantinople,  and  moved  on  the  5th  of  Shewal  from  Scutari,  marching  over 
Konia  and  Kaissarie  to  Sivas  ;  at  which  place  he  appointed  his  sword-bearer  Mus- 
tafa to  the  office  of  Second  Vezir,  and  the  sword-bearer  Mussa  Pâshâ  to  the  post 
of  Quarter-master  General.  The  Nishanji  was  made  Silihdâr,  and  Melek  Ahmed, 
Chokadâr  (First  Lord  in  waiting).  When  he  entered  Erzerûm  report  was  made 
to  him,  that  his  army  then  amounted  to  two  hundred  thousand  men :  Jâtıpıılâd- 
zadeh  Mustafa  Pâshâ,  the  governor  of  Rumelf,  alone  mustered  thirty-one  thousand 
men,  with  seventeen  hundred  excellent  horses ;  Khalil  Pâshâ  the  Governor  of 
Erzerûm   fell   into   disgrace,   to    the   joy    of  his  enemies,    the    Silihdâr   Pâshâ 


152  THETRAVELSOF 

and  Murteza  Pâshâ  ;  the  government  of  Erzerum  was  conferred  on  the  Governor 
of  Damascus,  Kııchök  Ahmed,  but  the  revenues,  as  barley-money,  were  given  to 
SiHhdar  Mustafa  Pdshâ.  The  army  marched  in  three  days  to  Hassan  Kala'assi,  and 
from  thence  by  Karss  to  Erivan.  On  the  21st  day  after  having  left  Erzerum,  the 
army  of  two  hundred  thousand  men  fixed  its  camp  before  Revân.  The  river 
Zenghi  was  crossed  in  spite  of  the  long  guns  of  the  Persians,  with  which  they 
endeavoured  to  annoy  the  Ottoman  army.  On  this  occasion  it  happened  that 
one  of  the  Solaks  (bowmen)  of  the  the  Sultan's  guard,  crossing  the  river  on  foot 
by  the  side  of  the  Sultan's  horse,  was  carried  away  by  the  water,  the  Sultân  having 
observed  it  rode  after  him,  caught  hold  of  him  by  the  necklace  and  dragged 
him  out  of  the  river ;  this  anecdote  is  much  celebrated  in  Persia.  The  river  being 
crossed,  the  trenches  were  opened,  and  Janpülâd-zadeh  Pâshâ  entered  them  with 
the  Rumelian  troops  from  the  side  of  the  gate  of  Tabriz ;  on  the  right  Gûnjî 
Mahomed  Pâshâ  with  the  Asiatic  troops  entered  the  trenches,  and  in  the  midst 
of  them  the  grand  Vezir  Tabanı  Yassı  Mohammed  Pâshâ  took  his  station ; 
the  Aghâ  of  the  janissaries  Kara  Mustafa  Pâshâ,  with  his  Kiaya,  battered  the 
castle  day  and  night  with  a  battery  of  twenty  guns,  and  similar  batteries  were 
prepared  on  five  sides.  One  day  Sultân  Murad  himself  entered  the  trenches  of 
the  Rumelian  troops,  and  fired  a  good  shot  at  the  Khan's  palace  from  the  gun 
called  Karabali.  The  governor  of  Erzerum,  Kuchuk  Ahmed,  battered  the  castle 
from  the  north  side,  and  the  Kapûdân  Pâshâ,  Delî  Hossein,  from  the  hill  of 
Mohana-depeh. 

Murteza  Pâshâ,  with  the  Sipâhîs,  were  placed  as  sentinels  on  the  side  of  the 
earth  castle,  while  Mussa  and  Cana'an  Pâshâ  with  the  Moteferrika  kept  guard 
over  the  Imperial  tent.  The  castle  was  surrounded  by  troops  in  the  space  of 
five  hours,  and  every  day  many  thousand  Sunnis  came  to  claim  mercy.  On  the 
ninth  day  they  asked  to  capitulate,  and  Emirguneh  brought  the  keys.  The  next 
day  the  Persian  Aghâ  of  the  Fusileers,  Mir  Fettâh,  was  allowed  to  kiss  the  Em- 
peror's feet,  and  to  return  with  the  garrison  to  Nakhshivân.  Emirguneh,  by  birth 
a  Georgian,  and  Aded  Khan  kissed  the  Emperor's  feet,  and  each  received  an 
Imperial  tent  as  a  present.  The  Islamitic  prayer  was  proclaimed,  all  the  banners 
and  standards  waving  during  seven  days  and  nights  on  the  walls ;  after  each 
prayer  the  Mohammedan  shout  (Allah)  was  repeated  three  times,  and  at  night  a 
great  number  of  candles  and  lamps  were  lighted.  The  castle  was  repaired  in 
forty  days,  and  Mustafa  Pâshâ  appointed  Governor  of  Erivan,  with  forty  thousand 
men  as  garrison.  Sultân  Murad  appointed  the  Khân  Emirguneh  first  governor 
of  Haleb,  but  afterwards  removed  him  and  gave  the  government  to  Kuchuk  Ahmed 
Pâshâ.  Emirguneh  remained  the  favourite  of  Sultân  Murad  IV.  until  the  death 
of  the  Sultân,  when  he  was  killed  by  Kara  Mustafa  Pâshâ. 


evliya  efendi.  153 

The  towns  of  Shıucglî,  Joris,  Behestân,  Khûî,  Ordûbfiıî  and  Tabriz  were  pil- 
laged during  seven  days  and  nights,  together  with  the  castles  of  Bâgjenân,  Ajan, 
Kuherân,  Kûmla,  Merend,  and  Selmâs,  after  which  havoc  he  returned  by  Betlis, 
and  Diarbekr  to  Constantinople.  The  Shdh  then  laid  siege  to  Erivan  for  the  space 
of  seven  months,  which  received  no  relief  on  account  of  the  enmity  existing 
between  the  Grand  Vezir  Tabanı  Yassı  and  Murteza  Pasli^,  who  was  shut  up  in 
Erivan.  The  latter  having  no  subsistence  left,  killed  himself  by  swallowing  his 
diamond  ring,  and  the  next  day  the  whole  garrison,  half  naked  and  starved,  threw 
themselves  on  the  mercy  of  the  Persians  and  were  killed  by  them,  a  great  num- 
ber being  driven  into  the  Aras,  of  whom  a  few  being  saved  by  charitable  Sunnis 
fled  to  Karss  and  Bayazid.  Sultân  Murad  IV.  hearing  this  sad  account,  girt 
himself  on  two  sides  with  the  sword  of  religious  zeal  and  high  enterprise,  with  the 
intention  to  conquer  Baghdad,  and  to  deliver  the  tomb  of  the  great  Imam  Na'amân 
Ben  Thâbet  out  of  the  hands  of  the  Infidels. 

Erivan  meanwhile  remained  in  the  hands  of  the  Persians,  who  increased 
its  flourishinir  state ;  it  could  not  however  resist  an  assault  of  the  Ottoman 
army  for  seven  days,  because  it  is  only  surrounded  by  a  simple  wall.  It  is 
situated  on  the  bank  of  the  Zenghi,  extending  from  the  south  to  the  north, 
having  so  little  breadth,  that  the  balls  fired  on  it  by  Sultan  Murad  bounded  from 
one  extremity  of  the  town  to  the  other  ;  many  of  these  balls  are  even  now  seen 
fixed  in  the  towers.  The  walls  built  by  Ferhâd  Pâshâ  are  forty  royal  cubits  high  ; 
those  built  by  Tokmak  Khân,  fifty  cubits  high  and  twenty  broad  ;  it  has  no  ditch 
on  the  side  of  the  Zenghf,  but  it  has  a  wall  on  the  south,  north  and  east  sides,  which 
however  is  not  deep,  being  a  marshy  ground.  It  has  three  iron  gates ;  to  the 
south,  the  gate  of  Tabriz  ;  to  the  north,  the  gate  of  the  Meidan  called  Yaila 
Kapussi,  on  this  spot  they  play  Mail ;  to  the  west,  the  gate  of  the  bridge ;  there 
are  seven  hundred  cannons  large  and  small,  which  remained  from  the  time  of  the 
Ottomans,  and  an  immense  number  of  other  stores,  because  it  is  the  frontier  of 
Azerbeijan.  It  is  garrisoned  by  three  thousand  men  of  the  fortress,  three  thou- 
sand men  of  the  Khân,  and  seven  thousand  men  of  the  province.  Sometimes  its 
Khân  enjoyed  the  title  of  Khân  of  Khans.  A  judge,  Nakib,  Kelenter,  Darogha, 
Mûnshî,  Yessaûl-aghâ,  Kınujî,  Ishek  Aghâ,  Dîzchoken  Aghâ,  seven  Mihmandârs 
and  Shâhbenders,  keep  public  order.  The  town  consists  of  one  thousand  and 
sixty  elegant  bouses  covered  with  earth,  the  best  is  the  palace  of  the  Khân  much 
embellished  by  Emîrgûneh.  Near  it  is  the  mint  where  large  and  small  silver  coins 
(Abbâssî  and  Besti)  are  coined.  The  suburb  outside  of  Yaila  Kapûssî  is  called 
the  old  town  ;  at  the  head  of  the  biidge  is  the  Khan's  garden,  and  a  suburb  with 
mosque  and  bath.     In  the  year  1015   (1635),  when  the  Persians  conquered  this 

VOL.  II.  X 


154  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

fortress,  they  also  built  a  castle  on  the  east  side,  with  walls  of  clay  and  straw, 
which  is  even  more  solid  than  stone.  At  the  time  I  was  looking  at  all  the  cu- 
riosities of  Erivan,  I  received  an  invitation  from  the  Khân  to  assist  at  the  cere- 
mony of  the  circumcision  of  his  sons.  His  Kiaya  gave  me  ten  tomans  of  Abbâssî, 
for  the  expenses  of  the  journey,  and  I  began  my  journey  from  Erivan  to  Shirvan, 
by  Shamakhi,  Tiflis,  Termîs,  Araş  and  Baku.  We  first  travelled  to  the  north 
through  cultivated  fields  of  rice,  along  the  river  Zenghi  to  Kent  Khoja,  the  khass 
of  the  Khân  of  Erivdn,  with  five  hundred  houses,  a  mosque  and  a  bath;  then 
fourteen  hours  further  to  Kent  Demiji  Hassan,  which  was  anciently  a  town  of  the 
Turcomans,  and  is  even  now  inhabited  by  a  Turcoman  tribe.  It  was  destroyed 
by  Murâd  IV.     We  arrived  at  last  at  Genje. 

Description  of  the  important  town  of  Genje. 
It  was  wrested  from  the  hands  of  Shah  Tahmâs,  in  the  year  1014  (1605),  by 
Koja  Ferhâd  Pasha.  At  the  time  when  Mohammed  Pasha  the  Kiaya  of  Sari  Ahmed 
Pasha  was  governor  of  Genje,  the  Shah  besieged  it  for  seven  months,  and  killed 
the  whole  garrison.  Since  that  time  it  remained  in  the  possession  of  the  Persians, 
a  large  town,  but  the  Shah  destroyed  its  castle;  it  is  now  an  elegant  town 
of  six  thousand  houses  with  gardens  and  vineyards,  a  khdn,  a  bath,  and  imaret, 
situated  in  a  large  plain.  Its  gardens  are  watered  by  the  Kürek,  which  joins  the 
Kür ;  the  Kiblah  side  of  the  town  is  a  mountainous  tract,  and  the  foot  of  the 
mountains  is  cultivated  in  gardens  and  vineyards  ;  the  silk  of  Genje  is  famous. 
On  the  plain  round  Genje  are  seven  districts  of  Infidel  villages,  where  cotton, 
silk  and  rice  are  cultivated  ;  here  are  rich  Moghs  (ancient  Persians,  worshippers 
of  fire)  and  beautiful  youth  of  both  sexes  ;  the  horse-shoes  of  Genje  are  not  less 
famous  than  the  silk.  The  town  is  governed  by  a  Khân,  who  commands  three 
thousand  men.  The  public  oflBcers  (the  Khân  included)  are  twelve  in  number, 
in  honour  of  the  twelve  Imams.  Its  first  Ottoman  governor  was  Khâdim  Hassan, 
who  conquered  Berda'a. 

Pilgrimages  {or  Tombs)  of  Martyrs. 

Twelve  thousand  Moslims,  who  had  surrendered  the  castle  by  capitulation  to 
the  Shah,  were  unmercifully  killed,  and  are  now  buried  outside  the  town  in  a  place 
called  Shohedai  Ervam  (martyrs  of  Rum).  We  remained  three  days  as  guests 
in  the  khân  of  the  town,  and  continued  our  journey  with  about  fifty  companions 
to  the  north  ;  on  our  right  was  the  Khânlik  of  Loristân.  After  seven  hours  march 
we  arrived  at  Gilkzâr  Ahmedf,  formerly  a  town,  but  now  a  kent  of  seven  hundred 
houses,  the  khass  of  the  Khân  of  Genje,  with  a  mosque,  a  khân,  and  a  bath  ;  fine 


evliya  efendi.  155 

silk  is  manufactured  here.  Nine  hours  further,  is  the  Kent  of  Megûchûr  of  seven 
hundred  houses,  with  a  mosque,  and  a  fine  garden.  On  the  opposite  shore  of  the 
Kiir  is  a  great  kent  called  Kendere  ;  we  passed  in  boats  to  Megûchûr,  the  frontier 
of  Genje,  and  after  eight  hours  we  reached  the  great  town  of  Aras. 

The  town  of  Aras  was  built  by  Keyiimertli,  and  conquered  in  the  year  985 
(1577),  by  Kara  Mustafa  Pasha,  the  Vezir  of  Murad  III.  Emir  Khân  arrived 
with  forty  thousand  men  to  succour  the  town,  and  finding  it  taken  he  fought 
a  battle,  which  terminated  in  his  being  made  prisoner,  and  all  his  troops  consisting  of 
Turcomans,  Koks,  Dolaks,  and  Georgians  were  dispersed.  They  were  routed  for 
the  second  time  by  the  Kiaya  of  Uzdemir-oghli  on  the  banks  of  the  Kur  river 
which  swallowed  up  a  great  number  of  them,  the  bridge  having  broken  down  under 
the  weight  of  the  fugitives  ;  their  bones  are  yet  seen  in  heaps,  and  the  bridge  still 
lies  in  ruins.  The  Turkish  general  having  convinced  himself  of  the  importance  of 
the  town  of  Aras,  situated  between  Genje  and  Shirvdn,  collected  masons  and  work- 
men, and  enclosed  the  town  with  a  wall,  including  the  garden  Shah  Khiaban,  which 
was  outside  of  the  town  ;  three  gates  led  through  this  wall  of  clay,  the  circum- 
ference of  which  is  nine  thousand  six  hundred  paces.  It  was  finished  in  forty 
days,  and  the  governorship,  with  the  rank  of  a  Begler  Beg,  conferred  on  Kaitass- 
Beg,  who  had  been  brought  up  in  the  Harım  of  Sultân  Murad.  From  its  situa- 
tion at  the  foot  of  a  mountain,  the  town  resembles  that  of  Brussa,  surrounded 
with  gardens  of  fruits  and  flowers,  vineyards  and  rosebeds.  It  consists  of  ten 
thousand  houses  with  terraces,  and  forty  mosques  ;  in  the  castle  are  those  of 
Murad  III.,  of  Ferhdd  Pasha,  and  of  Kara  Sinan.  The  Turkomans  and  Komiiks 
of  Dâghistân,  pronounce  the  name  of  this  town  Arash.  In  the  beginning  of  the 
reign  of  Sultân  Mustafa,  this  town  like  that  of  Merend  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
Persians.  Forty  quarters  may  now  be  reckoned,  and  as  many  mosques,  sixteen 
baths,  eight  hundred  shops,  and  seven  coffee-houses.  The  youth  are  gazelle-eyed, 
with  faces  shining  like  the  sun,  because  their  women  are  Georgians,  Dadiâns, 
Achikbâsh,  and  Shûshâd.  The  air  is  mild  and  the  water  of  the  royal  mountain 
(Shâhkûh)  most  excellent.  Around  it  are  seven  great  districts  each  of  which 
reckons  one  hundred  populous  kents,  the  most  populous  is  that  of  Levend  Khân 
near  Aras.  On  crossing  the  bridge  of  Uzdemir-oghli  Osman  Pâshâ,  the  traveller 
arrives  at  the  district  of  Palvanai,  and  the  district  of  Shair  Abadan,  where  a  castle 
is  seen  on  a  rock,  the  name  of  which  I  do  not  remember. 

The  royal  mount,  opposite  the  town,  is  the  summer  abode  of  the  Turcomans. 
Amidst  the  districts  of  Aras  is  also  that  of  Sheki,  which  is  now  governed  by  the 
governor  of  Aras,  though  it  was  sometimes  ruled  by  the  power  of  the  Princes  of 
Dâghistân.     The  Khdn  of  Aras  leads  twenty-three  thousand  men  into  the  field. 


]56  THETRAVELSOF 

Twelve  public  officers  keep  order  in    the  town.     After  a  stay  of  three  days  in 

this  town,  we  advanced  to  the  north,  and  after  two  stations  reached  the  castle  of 

Sheki. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Sheki. 

It  was  built  by  Alexander  a  Prince  of  the  Shushads,  from  whose  hands  it  passed 
into  those  of  the  Pi  ince  of  Dâghistîin,  and  then  into  those  of  the  Persians.  Lala 
Kara  Mustafa  Pâshîi,  the  Vezir  of  Murad  III.  conquered  it,  and  it  was  conferred 
on  Erkelâd  Beg,  the  son  of  Levend  Khan.  In  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of 
Sultan  Mustafa  it  returned  into  the  possession  of  the  Persians,  and  is  now  the 
seat  of  a  Sultân,  who  commands  one  thousand  men.  It  is  a  nice  castle  built  on  a 
rock,  its  circuit  three  thousand  paces,  a  ditch  is  not  required  ;  its  two  gates  are 
that  of  Genje  and  that  of  Shirvan  ;  though  situated  on  the  frontier  of  Dâghis- 
tân  it  is  reckoned  to  belong  to  Georgia,  the  more  so  as  its  builder  was  a 
Georgian ;  there  are  three  thousand  houses,  and  seven  mihrabs ;  in  the  market 
is  the  mosque  of  Mirza  Alî  Beg,  in  the  castle  that  of  Lagûsh-oghlî  Ahmed  Beg ; 
that  of  Murad  III.  is  falling  into  decay.  In  the  gardens  great  quantities  of  silk 
are  produced.  At  a  journey's  distance  east  of  this  castle  passes  the  river  Kanuk, 
flowing  into  the  Zenghi.  Advancing  to  the  north,  we  crossed  the  river  of  Uzde- 
mir-oghli  Osman  Pâshâ  and  arrived  at  the  place  Koyun-gechid,  where  we  saw  piles 
of  human  bones  ;  our  companion  Yasser  Alî  Aghâ  told  us,  that  it  was  on  this  spot 
that  Mustafa  Pâshâ,  the  general  of  Murad  III.,  was  attacked  by  the  Khans  of  Tabrîz, 
Lor,  Nakhshivân,  and  Karabâgh,  who  with  more  than  two  hundred  thousand  men 
surrounded  him.  Koja  Lala  Mustafa  Pâshâ  ordered  a  general  attack,  which 
was  instantly  made  on  one  side  by  Uzdemir-oghli,  on  the  second  by  Mo- 
hammed, the  governor  of  Haleb,  and  on  the  third  by  Mustafa,  the  governor  of 
Mera'ash,  who  cut  to  pieces  more  than  a  thousand  men,  and  drove  the  rest  like 
sheep  to  the  ferry  of  Koyun-gechid,  where  a  great  many  of  them  were  drowned, 
some  in  the  river  Kanuk  and  some  in  the  Kapur.  In  short  there  remained 
altogether  more  than  forty  thousand  men  on  the  field  of  battle,  whose  bones  are 
piled  up  as  an  everlasting  monument ;  I  said  a  Fâtihah  for  their  souls,  and 
crossed  the  sheep's  ferry.  Further  on  to  the  north  we  passed  the  white  river 
(Aksu),  which  is  called  by  the  Persians  the  river  of  Gilân.  It  comes  from  the 
mountains  of  Aras,  and  flows  into  the  Kur.  At  the  end  of  three  hours  we  entered 
the  district  of  Mahmudabâd  consisting  of  two  hundred  highly  cultivated  kents, 
which  produce  a  thousand  Yuks  of  silk,  each  kent  resembling  a  large  town. 
The  inhabitants  are  Turkomans,  Kok,  Dulâk,  Moghols,  and  Ettels. 


E  VLI  Y  A    EFEND  I,  257 

Account  of  the  Tribe  of  Ettels. 
Ettel  signifies  in  the  Mogolic  language,  tongue  of  dogs  ;  they  take  this  name  from 
their  war-cry,  which  is  a  kind  of  howhng.  Near  Mardin,  in  the  sanjak  of  the  moun- 
tains, which  I  entered  with  Melek  Ahmed  Pasha,  the  Ettels  are  a  tribe  like  that  of 
the  hairy  Kurds,  impure,  impious,  irrehgious  robbers,  who  pretend  to  be  of  Hani- 
za's  sect,  keep  neither  prayer-hours  nor  fasts,  are  ignorant  of  moral  duties  and  of 
God.  Seven  or  eight  of  them  share  a  woman  amongst  them  ;  if  she  gets  with  child, 
her  seven  or  eight  keepers  after  some  time  assemble,  and  the  woman  gives  an  apple 
into  the  child's  hand,  the  man  to  whom  the  child  gives  it  is  reckoned  to  be  the 
father,  and  henceforth  the  woman  belongs  exclusively  to  him,  without  any  man 
being  allowed  to  raise  pretensions  to  her.  The  famous  sect  of  the  candle-ex- 
tinguishers (Mum  söndüren),  must  be  a  branch  of  them,  because  I  saw  or  heard 
nothing  of  them  any  where  else.  It  is  a  certain  fact  that  they  drink  out  of  the 
shoes  of  their  Shahs,  to  whom  they  are  most  obedient. 

The  Kaitaks  are  about  twenty  thousand  men  on  the  frontiers  of  Daghistân,  who 
sometimes  come  to  the  towns  of  Aras  and  Sheki ;  a  strange  race  of  men  like  the 
beast  of  the  day  of  judgement,  with  heads  in  the  form  of  kettles,  brows  two  fingers 
broad,  shoulders  so  square  that  a  man  may  easily  stand  upon  them,  thin  limbs, 
round  eyes,  large  heels,  and  red  faces.  They  pretend  to  be  Shafites  ;  if  they 
come  to  the  market  of  Aras  and  Sheki,  they  come  on  waggons,  or  ride  on  bufFa- 
.  Ices,  because  horses  and  asses  could  not  carry  their  weight :  as  they  pass  with 
their  turbans  of  the  size  of  a  cupola,  saluting  on  both  sides  with  great  dignity,  they 
seem  to  be  of  the  race  of  Dejdl  (the  Antichrist)  true  Oghuzians.  These  Kaitaks 
come  originally  from  the  province  of  Mahân,  are  Mogholian  Turks,  and  therefore 
speak  the  Mogolic  language,  of  which  I  could  only  collect  a  few  words,  as  I 
remained  but  two  days  among  them.  I  saw  these  people  in  the  district  of 
Mahmüdabâd,  and  after  having  travelled  further  to  the  north,  reached  the  kent 
Chailân  on  the  frontier  of  Shirvân  on  the  banks  of  the  river  of  Guilan,  with  six 
hundred  houses  of  Turcomans  and  Oghuzians.  Further  on  is  the  town  Niâzabâd 
on  the  frontier  of  Shirvân  built  by  Yezdejerd-shah,  great  ruins  of  its  ancient 
magnificence  are  yet  extant,  it  was  ruined  by  the  Moghols,  who  united  with  the 
Komuks  and  Kaitîiks  of  Dâghistân.  In  the  reign  of  Murad  III.,  Ferhâd  Pasha 
fixed  his  winter  quarters  here,  and  levelled  the  castle,  when  he  left  it  in  the  spring. 
It  is  now  the  frontier  between  Dâghistdn  and  Persia,  with  forty  quarters  and  as 
many  mosques,  a  khân,  bath  and  market-place,  the  seat  of  a  Sultân  who  commands 
a  thousand  men.  There  are  twelve  magistrates  ;  according  to  the  statement  of  the 
Kelenter,  there  are  more  than  six  thousand  houses  surrounded  by  gardens.  It 
is  a  pity  that  its  strong  castle  lies  in  ruins  ;   if  God  should  again  grant   that 


158  THETRAVELSOF 

İt  be  restored  to  the  Ottoman  power,  it  might  be  easily  repaired,  and  become  a 
very  strong  castle.     This  town  is  surrounded  by  an  endless  plain  on  all  four  sides. 

Pilgrimage  of  Ashdr-Baba. 

Ashar-Baba  was  one  of  the  disciples  of  our  great  ancestor  the  Turk  of  Turks, 
Khoja  Ahmed  Yessûî;  as  the  rites  of  Yessûî  are  liked  in  Persia  the  convent  at  this 
place  is  inhabited  by  more  than  a  hundred  Dervishes.  It  is  a  general  pilgrimage, 
the  inhabitants  profess  to  be  of  the  sect  of  Hanefî.  We  here  took  some  compa- 
nions and  advanced  to  the  north  to  the  kent  Ferrakhzâd  on  the  frontier  of 
Shamakhi,  and  on  the  bank  of  the  white  river  (Aksii)  with  five  hundred  houses, 
a  mosque,  a  khân,  a  bath  and  a  small  market.  The  mihmandar  of  this  place 
paid  me  many  attentions.  We  advanced  to  the  north  amongst  shady  groves, 
dined  at  a  hunting  place  of  Shah  Khoda-bende,  and  arrived  at  Nilchai,  the  same  as 
blue  river  (Goksii),  which  coming  from  Ddghistân  joins  the  Kûr  at  this  place. 

Praise  of  Mount  Caucasus. 

The  rivers  which  come  from  Mount  Caucasus,  on  the  south,  flow  into  the 
Kûr,  and  those  towards  the  north,  straight  into  the  Caspian  Sea.  Again 
there  are  rivers  on  the  south  side,  which  fall  into  the  Black  Sea,  and  on  the 
north  side  into  the  Kûbân.  Mount  Caucasus  is  the  greatest  mountain  in  the 
world,  its  tracts  are  ruled  by  five  different  monarchs,  and  to  the  south  the  Abaza 
tribes  are  settled  to  the  extent  of  eighty  journies.  On  the  east  side  on  the  border 
of  the  mountain  are  the  Mingrelians,  Georgians,  Ajîkbâsh,  Shûshâd,  Kûrdîl, 
and  Dadicân  to  the  extent  of  forty  journies.  Again  there  is  the  province  of  Tiflis 
on  the  Persian  frontier,  and  the  throne  of  the  Alans  (Serer-ul-allân)  on  the  border 
of  Mount  Caucasus  nineteen  journies  long  ;  Dâghistân,  within  Mount  Caucasus, 
twenty  journies  long  to  the  north.  Inside  of  Mount  Caucasus  is  also  Circassia 
inhabited  by  the  tribes  Kabartai,  Besti,  Pultakaf,  Khatûkaî,  Memsûkh,  Bozadük, 
Takakû,  Zana,  Shefâke  and  other  Circassian  tribes,  eighty-one  journies.  Accord- 
ing to  this  reckoning  the  extent  of  all  the  tracts  of  Mount  Caucasus  is  two  hun- 
dred and  forty  journies.  It  is  so  high  that  it  is  seen  at  ten  days  distance.  God 
has  created  on  the  surface  of  the  earth  one  hundred  and  forty-eight  mountains, 
twelve  of  the  highest  par  excellence,  are.  Mount  Caucasus,  Mount  Bingöl,  Mount 
Demavend,  Mount  Sijan,  Mount  Kamar,  the  mountains  in  Germany  at  the  source 
of  the  Danube  ;  the  mount  Sannir,  where  the  Zeiro  and  the  Dniester  take  their 
origin.  No  man  has  ever  reached  half  the  height  of  Mount  Caucasus  :  passing  on 
our  way  through  the  districts  of  Dâghistân  we  saw  its  top  wrapped  in  clouds. 
But  we  shall  now  return  to  the  description  of  our  journey. 


evliya  efendi.  159 

The  kent  of  Kokchaî  (the  blue  river)  is  a  great  place  with  a  Kelenter  and  Mih- 
mandar, seven  hundred  houses  with  gardens.  The  inhabitants  are  Sunnis,  who  pay 
tribute  to  Shah  Ismail  for  permission  to  wear  beards.  We  continued  our  journey 
through  fields  to  the  north,  for  seven  hours,  and  reached  the  kent  Aksu,  on  the 
territory  of  Shamâkhî,  of  one  thousand  houses,  a  mosque,  khan  and  bath.  The 
White  River  passes  through  the  place  and  flows  into  the  Kür,  it  comes  from  the 
mountains  of  Shirvân,  waters  the  fields  of  Shamâkhî  and  falls  into  the  Kiir. 

Description  of  the  Town  of  Shamâkhî. 
It  was  first  built  by  Yezdejerd  Shah  the  Persian  Monarch  ;  it  is  the  centre  of 
seven  Khânhks,  some  spell  it  Sham  Akhi  (the  brother  of  Damascus),  and  some 
Sham  Ahf  (the  sigh  of  Damascus),  because  its  first  inhabitants  were  a  colony  from 
Damascus  ;  forty  Sultans  and  forty  judges  are  attached  to  it,  seventy  castles  and 
thirteen  hundred  kents  like  large  towns  :  Ulama  Pâshâ  and  Pırı  Pâshâ,  two  Vezirs 
of  Sultân  Suleiman  took  possession  of  it  in  their  Emperor's  name,  and  Ulama 
Pâshâ  was  named  governor  of  Shirvân ;  Shah  Tahmâs  then  besieged  the  town 
during  three  months,  conquered  it,  and  gave  the  government  to  his  younger 
brother,  Elkâss  Mirza,  who  remained  three  years  at  his  post,  but  then,  being  afraid 
of  his  brother,  took  flight  with  all  his  valuable  things,  came  through  the  steppes 
in  forty  days  to  Kafa,  embarked  himself  and  paid  his  homage  to  Sultân  Suleiman 
at  Constantinople.  In  the  year  954  (1547),  Elkâss  Mirza  undertook  with  Lala 
Mustafa  an  expedition  to  Persia,  and  then  took  up  his  abode  in  the  palace  of  Pertev 
Pâshâ  at  Constantinople.  Having  witnessed  the  pomp  of  Sultân  Suleiman's  solemn 
entrance,  he  said,  "  How  it  is  possible  that  with  such  power  your  Emperor  of  the 
Ottomans  should  not  be  at  the  same  time  the  monarch  of  Iran  ?"  Suleiman 
carried  Elkâss  along  with  him  on  the  expedition  to  Wan  and  Azerbeijân.  Lala 
Mustafa  Pâshâ  was  named  governor  of  Shirvân,  and  Elkâss  Mirza,  his  prede- 
cessor in  this  government,  ravaged  the  provinces  of  Nakhshivâıı,  Erivan, 
Genje,  and  Shirvân.  Shâh  Tahmas  having  died,  the  castle  of  Shamâkhî  was 
taken  after  a  siege  of  seven  days  from  his  son ;  Lala  Pâshâ  was  named 
governor  of  Shamâkhî,  and  Elkâss  Mirza  Khân  of  Mahmûdabâd.  He 
ravaged  Persia  as  far  as  Isfahan  in  order  to  quench  his  thirst  for  vengeance. 
Shamâkhî  was  then  contested  for  by  both  powers,  till  in  the  reign  of  Murad 
III.  it  was  conquered,  and  then  repaired  by  Uzdemîr-oghlî  Pâshâ.  The  Per- 
sians reconquered  it  and  lost  it  again  to  Ferhâd  Pâshâ.  It  remained  in  the 
hands  of  the  Ottomans  till  the  time  of  Sultân  Murad  IV.  when  the  Persians  took 
Derbend  and  Shamâkhî  by  usurpation,  and  sent  the  garrison  prisoners  to  Con- 
stantinople.    It  has  ever  since  remained  in  the  power  of  the  Persians,  and  is  now 


-[QQ  THETRAVELSOF 

the  seat  of  a  Khan.  Tlie  castle  is  on  a  hill  on  the  bank  of  the  river,  the  interior 
one  is  very  strong,  but  the  exterior  is  in  decay.  The  town  consists  of  about  seven 
thousand  well  built  houses,  stone  walls,  and  terraces,  each  house  provided  with 
water ;  there  is  an  infinite  number  of  gardens,  and  twenty-six  quarters ;  the  quar- 
ters called  Meidan  and  Shabûrân  being  in  the  inner  castle  are  the  most  elegant ; 
there  are  seventy  mosques,  the  oldest  is  that  of  Div  Alî,  who  was  one  of  the  Khans  of 
Shah  Tahmass,  but  a  Sunnf ;  in  the  suburb  is  the  great  mosque  of  Shah  Saff,  which 
rivals  the  vault  of  the  palace  of  Chosroes.  In  the  court-yard  is  a  basin,  and  round  it 
cells  for  students ;  the  gates  of  the  mosque  of  Ferhâd  Pâshâ  are  closed,  because  it 
has  no  endowment ;  the  mosque  of  Uzdemîr  Osman  Pâshâ  is  a  college,  where  the 
Mufti  holds  lectures:  there  is  a  dining  establishment  of  Sultân  Khodabende's  founda- 
tion, forty  schools  for  boys,  seven  pleasant  baths,  the  best  of  which  is  that  of  Shabûr, 
with  numerous  private  rooms  and  a  basin,  its  waiters  are  fine  youths.  Besides 
the  public  baths,  there  are  private  ones  in  every  garden.  There  are  forty  cara- 
vanserais, in  each  of  which  many  thousand  tomans  of  wares  are  deposited.  The 
public  security  is  so  great,  that  every  man  leaves  his  shop  open,  without  the  least 
danger,  when  he  goes  away  on  business ;  there  are  altogether  twelve  hundred 
shops.  There  is  no  Bezestan  of  stone,  but  nevertheless  a  great  number  of 
valuable  articles ;  the  coffee-houses  are  meeting-places  for  wits  and  learned  men ; 
the  air  is  mild  and  the  land  fertile  ;  rice,  cotton,  seven  sorts  of  grapes,  pears,  and 
water-melons  are  in  great  perfection.  The  greatest  part  of  the  inhabitants  are 
Sunnis  of  the  Hanefirites,  who  perform  their  prayers  secretly.  I  remained  during 
seven  days  a  guest  of  the  Kkân  of  Shamâkhî,  Takı  Khân,  a  generous,  liberal  man, 
who  liked  society  and  good  company.  He  presented  us  with  many  pieces  of  silk 
stuifs,  ten  tomans  of  Abâssî,  and  a  horse  (Karajubuk).  Being  himself  invited  to 
the  entertainment  of  the  Khân  of  Erivan,  he  set  out  from  Shamâkhî  with  one 
thousand  men.  Marching  to  the  north  we  came  to  the  pilgrimage  of  Pîrderkûh 
(the  old  man  of  the  mountain)  a  great  saint,  a  fine  walking-place  the  view  from 
which  embraces  all  the  buildings  of  Shamâkhî;  the  inhabitants  of  three  hundred 
adjacent  villages  are  for  the  most  part  Dervishes  of  the  order  of  Begtâsh,  belonging 
to  the  Convent  of  this  Saint.  We  advanced  from  hence  six  hours  to  the  north 
through  a  cultivated  country,  and  reached  the  station  of  Pi'r  Merîzât,  where  we 
were  treated  as  guests  by  the  Kelenter.  The  convent  of  this  place  is  called  Pîr 
Mirza  by  some,  and  Pîr  Mirka  by  others,  but  the  proper  mode  of  spelling  the 
word  is  Merizât,  which  signifies  incurvated,  because  his  body  is  seated  in  one  of 
the  corners  of  the  convent  in  an  incurvated  position,  his  face  turned  towards  the 
Kiblah,  his  head  recumbent  on  a  rock.  His  body  is  light  and  white  like  cotton, 
without  corruption  at  all.     The  Dervishes  who  are  busy  all  day  long  in  cleaning 


evliya  efendi.  161 

and  sweeping  the  convent,  put  every  night  a  basin  of  clear  water  at  the  feet  of 
the  Saint,  and  find  it  empty  in  the  morning  ;  his  dress  is  thus  always  washed  white 
without  the  least  dust  upon  it.  The  brains  of  those  who  visit  this  place  are 
perfumed  by  the  scent  of  ambergris.  Sheikh  Safî  who  came  from  Erdebü  to  visit 
this  Saint  spent  treasures  in  building  this  convent  of  Dervishes  Begttishi,  which 
has  its  equal  perhaps  only  in  the  town  of  Meshlied  Mussa  Riza.  Its  entrance 
fills  all  who  visit  it  with  a  sacred  awe,  like  culprits  appearing  before  a  great 
monarch  as  their  judge.  I  visited  it,  read  the  Sura  Yass  in  honour  of  the  Saint, 
and  made  spiritual  acquaintance  with  him.  I  am  unable  to  quote  the  date  of  his 
death,  as  there  is  no  chronostick  on  the  gate  ;  but  one  of  the  Dervishes  told  me 
that  he  was  the  Muezzin  of  Sheikh  Ibrahim  Shirvanf,  who  had  arrived  at  such  a 
degree  of  sanctity,  that  when  he  proclaimed  prayers  at  the  five  hours,  the  skies 
all  moved  in  uproar.  Sheikh  Ibrahim  touched  his  back  bone,  which  is  the  cause 
of  his  incurvated  position  and  good  preservation.  Whoever  says  at  his  tomb  the 
seven  verses  of  a  Fatihah  may  be  sure  to  have  for  seven  days  the  object  of  his 
wishes.  Passing  about  a  mile  to  the  north  of  the  convent,  through  gardens,  we 
came  to  the  Kent  of  Kharjdeh,  another  place  of  pilgrimage,  which  was  covered 
with  a  cupola  by  Khodabende  Shah  ;  in  seven  hours  more,  to  the  caravanserai 
of  Kuzh,  a  great  Khan,  the  foundation  of  Shah  Ismail ;  further  on,  to  the  station 
of  six  trees,  a  great  caravanserai  with  a  ruined  Kent,  on  the  frontier  of  Derbend  ; 
and  then  to  the  pilgrimage  of  Khizrzende,  \vho  lies  beneath  a  cupola  in  good  pre- 
servation. Uzdemir-oghh'  Pasha  who  came  here  hunting,  built  this  cupola  because 
he  had  great  faith  in  the  Saint.  Still  further  northward  in  the  district  of  Musek- 
ker,  on  the  frontier  of  ShaİHiran,  is  the  place  Regal. 

There  is  a  Regal,  a  small  Kent,  near  Shamakhi,  but  this  has  a  mosque,  a  khan, 
a  bath  with  gardens,  and  three  thousand  houses  with  terraces ;  it  belonged 
formerly  to  Derbend  and  is  now  a  dependence  of  Baku,  the  inhabitants  are  for 
the  most  parts  Turcomans,  Kaitâks  and  natives  of  the  towns  of  Dâghistân,  Enderî, 
Tarkhû,  Koük,  and  Thâlibserân  ;  they  are  not  duellists,  though  many  exist  in 
these  parts.  We  halted  on  the  border  of  the  river  Regal,  and  afterwards  con- 
tinued our  journey  through  the  fields;  all  at  once  we  saw  a  great  troop  coming 
from  the  Black  Sea,  which  as  we  approached  proved  to  be  the  troops  of  seven  great 
Persian  Khdns,  viz.  Erivan,  Genje,  Lor,  Baku,  Kılan,  Moghân,  and  many  Sultans, 
all  in  state  dresses,  with  more  than  ten  thousand  men  of  Turcomans,  Moghols, 
Kalmûks,  Kodeks,  Valâcs,  and  Cossacks,  with  a  variety  of  dresses  and  arms,  sound- 
ing trumpets  of  Efrasiab,  beating  drums  and  kettle  drums,  and  playing  Persian 
tunes  in  a  style  beyond  all  description.  The  Khân  of  Erivan  leaving  the  troops 
and  advancing  to  meet  us,  the  Khân  of  Shamakhi  acquainted  me  with  it.     He 

VOL.  II.  Y 


1 G2  T  H  E    T  R  A  V  E  L  S    O  F 

saluted  me  first,  and  then  the  KhiCns  of  Kîlân  and  Baku,  and  we  continued  im- 
proving our  acquaintance  till  we  arrived  at  the  town  of  Baku.  So  many  salutes 
were  fired  from  the  walls  and  towers  of  Baku  that  it  seemed  like  a  salamander  in 
the  fire  of  Nimrod's  pile.  We  met  with  Envoys  who  had  arrived  from  the 
Russian  towns  of  Astrakan,  Heshdek  and  Terek,  to  compliment  the  Khdn  with 
presents  on  his  feast ;  thus  we  entered  the  Castle  of  Baku  on  Friday  the  first 
Moharrem  of  the  year  1057  (1647). 

Description  of  the  fortress  of  Baku. 

After  a  grand  repast  we  delivered  the  letter  of  Defterdâr-zâdeh  Mohammed 
Pasha  the  governor  of  Erzerum,  our  gracious  Lord,  with  the  presents  consisting 
of  beads  of  pearls,  Irak  stuffs,  and  a  fine  sword.  I  also  delivered  the  letters  of 
the  Khcins  of  Tabriz  and  Nakhshivan,  complimenting  him  on  the  feast  of  his 
wedding ;  the  Khân  entertained  me  as  a  guest  in  his  sister's  palace,  the  festival 
lasted  ten  days  and  nights,  during  which  he  praised  the  presents  he  had  received 
through  me,  in  the  presence  of  all  the  Khans  and  Sultans  ;  he  then  presented  me 
with  a  Persian  dress,  ten  tomans  of  Abbâssî,  and  ten  tomans  of  Bisiti ;  after 
which,  with  my  companions,  I  went  to  view  the  town. 

The  castle  of  Baku  is  built  on  a  hill  and  is  of  a  square  form  ;  the  gate  looking  to 
the  west  is  of  iron  from  Nakhshivan,  the  circumference  is  seven  hundred  paces, 
it  has  seventy  towers,  and  six  hundred  battlements,  the  height  of  the  wall  is  forty 
royal  cubits ;  being  situated  on  a  rock,  there  is  no  necessity  for  a  ditch.  Within 
the  castle  are  seventy  houses  with  terraces,  a  mosque  of  Hyder  Shdh,  but  without 
a  minareh.  In  the  castle  is  no  khan,  bath  or  market,  but  on  the  shore  of  the 
Caspian  Sea  the  suburb  (Robat)  consists  of  a  thousand  houses  with  gardens, 
mosques  and  khans,  surrounded  with  walls  on  three  sides  ;  there  are  three  gates, 
the  gate  of  Guîlân  to  the  north ;  the  gate  of  Derbend  to  the  south ;  and  west- 
ward towards  the  sea-shore  is  the  harbour-gate.  Seven  minarehs  of  as  many 
mosques  are  to  be  seen,  the  names  of  which  I  am  ignorant  of,  and  three  baths, 
the  most  brilliant  of  which  is  that  of  Mirza  Khân.  This  place  being  a  frontier 
fortress  opposed  to  Russia  is  garrisoned  with  excellent  troops  called  Shahseven 
and  Dizchoken  (who  love  the  Shah  and  bend  their  knees  before  him.)  It  is  the 
seat  of  a  Khân  in  the  province  of  Shirvân,  ruled  by  twelve  magistrates.  The 
Russian  Cossacks  have  several  times  pillaged  the  town  of  Baku,  and  the  pro- 
vince of  Guîlân  ;  they  besieged  it  at  the  instigation  of  the  Persians  soon  after  its 
conquest  by  Uzdemîr-oghlî  Osman  Pâshâ,  when  Kobâd  Pâshâ  was  governor,  but 
were  all  cut  down,  and  their  bones  are  yet  piled  up  on  the  shore.  The  climate 
is  mild  and  favourable  to  the  cultivation  of  rice  and  cotton  ;  the  water  all  smells 


evli  YA  efendi.  163 

of  Naphtha  which  is  found  in  seven  mines  near  the  town,  of  different  colours, 
yellow,  red  and  black.     The  inhabitants  of  the  districts  of  Musekker,  Sedan,  and 
Rfneb  do  not  use  oil  or  grease,  but  all  burn  black  Naphtha.     The  people  are  sound 
and  stout,  and  some  of  them  fine  figures  ;  they  are  for  the  most  part  Sunm's.     The 
distance  between  this  town  and  Derbend  is  four  days  journey,  peopled  by  wan- 
dering Turcomans.     Three  journies  east  of  Baku  is  the  town  of  Shabürân,  and 
Shamâkhi  is  five  journies  to  the  east ;  the  port  of  Shamâkhî  is  much  frequented 
by  Chinese,  and  Tartars,  Kalmüks  and  Russians,  who  bring  different  wares,  in 
exchange  for  which   they  take  salt,  naphtha,  safian,  and  silk.     Round  the  town 
are  many  places,  where  if  a  portion  of  earth  is  dug  up  fire  bursts  forth,  which  is 
used  by  the  Caravans  in  cooking  their  victuals.     Near  the  town   to  the  north 
flows  the  Kür,  which  is  sometimes  navigated  by  Cossack  and  Russian  pirates,  who 
ravage  the  Persian  provinces,  and  sell  their  prisoners  privately  in  the  markets  of 
Guîlân.     It  is  a  great  river  like  the  Danube,  broad  but  not  deep.     I  remained 
some  days  at  Baku  to  witness  the  festival  at  the  wedding  of  the  sister  of  the 
Khan  of  Erivan,  who  was  married  to  the  Khan  of  Baku.     If  I  were  to  describe 
minutely  all  that  took  place  at  this  festival  it  would  more  than  fill  a  large  book. 
During  a  fortnight's  stay  I  received  many  valuable  presents,  from  the  Khân  and 
others,  viz.  rich  cloth,  seven  horses,  three  Georgian  slaves,  a  Persian  sable  pelisse, 
two  camels,  ambergris,  &c.  ten  tomans  of  Abbâssî  for  the  expenses  of  the  journey, 
and  as  much  to  be  distributed  amongst  my  servants.     We  took  leave  of  our  friends, 
and  the  Khân  himself,  out  of  friendship,  accompanied  us  when  we  left  the  town. 

Description  of  our  journey  from  Baku  through  Georgia. 

We  passed  to  the  south  over  a  dreary  tract  along  the  sea,  where  we  saw  mines 
of  Naphtha  in  seven  places ;  it  boils  up  from  the  earth  on  the  seashore,  and  in 
the  district  of  Musekker  in  hot  springs,  on  the  surface  of  which  it  collects.     It 
is  a  Royal  lease,  let  for  seven  thousand  tomans  of  aspers  per  year.     The  men 
belonging  to  the  inspector  of  the  Naphtha  collect  it  from  the  surface  of  the 
springs  and  small  lakes,  fill  jacks  of  goatskin  with  it  and  sell  it  to  the  merchants  ; 
the  yellow  is  the  most  esteemed  ;  the  black  Naphtha  is  carried  as  a  Royal  revenue 
to  the  fortresses,  and  used  to  light  the  walls  on  dark  nights,  and  to  be  thrown  on 
the  besiegers.     It  is  also  used  by  the  Mihmandars  for  torches  ;  all  the  torches  at 
the    Court  of  the  Shah    and    at  their  great   houses  are  made  of   Naphtha  of 
Baku ;  if  it  catches  fire  it  burns  to  the  last  drop ;  to  prevent,  therefore,  the  de- 
struction of  the  mines,  heaps  of  earth  are  piled  up  near  them,  and  if  one  of  them 
should  be  ignited  by  a  spark,  all  the  people  flock  together  and  throw  earth  upon 
it  to  quench  the  fire.     There  are  also  mines  of  Naphtha  in  other  places,  wluch. 


1Ö4  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

however,  I  did  not  see.  We  advanced  to  the  south,  and  halted  in  the  district  of 
Musker,  beneath  tents  of  felt  belonging  to  Turcomans,  who  with  Moghols  and 
Kûmüks  pass  the  winter  here ;  it  is  a  fertile  tract  of  country. 

Description  of  a  Whale  with  ears  like  an  Elephant. 

A  whale  had  been  driven  on  shore,  one  hundred  yards  long,  with  two  heads, 
one  at  the  tail  end,  the  other  of  the  size  of  a  cupola.  In  the  upper  jaw  it  had 
one  hundred  and  fifty  teeth,  each  a  yard  long,  ears  like  an  elephant,  and  eyes  of 
the  size  of  a  round  table,  and  covered  with  beaver's  hair.  The  inhabitants 
of  Baku,  Derbend  and  Shamdkhî  flocked  together  to  see  it.  Khoja  Sarukhan,  a 
voyager  in  the  Caspian  Sea,  told  me  that  this  kind  of  whale  was  common  in  that 
sea ;  there  are  certainly  many  strange  creatures  and  animals  in  that  sea  which  are 
not  to  be  found  elsewhere  ;  the  shore  is  covered  with  bones  and  carcasses  of 
strange  kinds  with  square  and  pentagon  heads,  and  an  immense  number  of  extra- 
ordinary fish.  According  to  the  reports  of  sailors,  the  circumference  of  the 
Caspian  Sea  is  twenty-four  thousand  miles ;  it  has  no  islands  like  the  Black  Sea 
and  White  Sea,  wherein  two  thousand  and  forty  islands  are  reckoned,  forty  of 
which  are  great  ones,  like  Cyprus,  Creta,  Rodos,  &c.  with  large  towns  and  rivers. 
The  conflict  of  the  waves  of  the  Caspian  Sea  is  stronger  than  those  of  the  Black 
Sea ;  it  is  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  Russian  provinces ;  and  on  the  east  by  the 
country  of  the  Uzbegs,  Kalmuks,  and  Cossacks.  In  winter-time  the  Kahniik 
Tatars  pass  over  the  ice  of  lakes  and  rivers  which  are  frozen  for  the  space  of 
seven  months,  committing  depredations  in  the  Russian  provinces,  and  carrying  a 
great  number  of  prisoners  away.  On  the  western  side  its  extremity  is  at  Der- 
bend, and  south  to  it,  in  the  district  of  the  Avars,  which  is  comprehended  by  a  gulf 
on  the  frontier  of  Dâghistân,  is  the  castle  of  Terek  on  the  river  of  the  same  name. 
Its  length  from  north  to  south  is  four  thousand  miles,  and  its  depth  three 
hundred  cubits ;  thousands  of  boats  and  vessels  carry  on  trade,  but  they  are  all 
afraid  of  Russian  Chaiks,  with  whom  they  fight ;  the  vessels  are  not  large  ships 
like  those  of  the  White,  Black  and  Red  Sea,  but  small  boats  of  reeds  with  small 
guns ;  there  are  no  men  of  war  or  great  Caravellas  like  those  of  the  White  Sea, 
which  are  necessary  to  meet  the  vessels  of  the  Franks  in  the  Archipelago  and 
Mediterranean ;  such  great  means  of  defence  are  not  required  on  the  Caspian, 
as  there  are  only  Cossack  boats  to  be  met  with. 

We  continued  our  journey  eastwards  through  plain  fields,  and  arrived  at  the 
great  town  of  Shabiiian,  an  elegant  yet  ancient  town,  which  was  first  built  by 
Isfendiâr,  and  ruined  by  Hûlagû.  Uzdemîr-oghli  Osmdn  Pâshâ,  the  Vezir  of 
Murad  III.,  took  possession  of  this  town  after  the  conquest  of  Derbend,  and  it 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  ]G5 

became  the  seat  of  a  sanjak  Beg.  In  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Sultân  Murad 
IV.  the  Persians  became  masters  of  it  again,  and  it  is  now  the  seat  of  a  Sultân 
which  is  the  same  as  a  sanjak  Beg  in  Turkey,  it  is  a  well  inhabited  town,  with 
seventy  mosques,  the  largest  of  which  are  the  mosques  of  Uzun  Hassan,  of  Tokmak 
Khân  and  of  Ashâr  Khân.  The  fountains  and  china  work,  with  which  the  mosque 
of  Uziin  Hassan  is  inlaid,  are  no  where  found  in  such  profusion.  Uzdemir-oghli 
used  to  come  every  Friday  with  a  great  train  from  Derbend,  in  order  to  perform  his 
prayers  here  ;  it  is  adorned  with  so  many  arabesques  and  carvings  in  marble,  that 
the  greatest  architects  are  astonished  on  beholding  it.  The  town  is  situated  in  a 
valley  rich  in  bowers,  roses,  flowers  and  fruits.  Its  districts  are  seven,  named 
after  the  seven  planets.  We  continued  our  journey  to  the  south  in  the  district  of 
Musker,  and  reached  the  station  of  Kent  Charkhi  on  a  wide  plain  at  a  great 
distance  from  the  Sea.  It  is  the  khass  of  Shah  Mikhal,  the  Prince  of  Dâghistân, 
with  five  hundred  houses,  a  mosque,  a  bath,  a  caravanserai,  and  a  market-place. 
The  inhabitants  are  for  the  most  part  Kumuks  of  Dâghistân.  We  travelled 
further  on  to  the  south,  leaving  Regal  on  our  left,  and  arrived  at  last  in  the  dis- 
trict of  Musker  at  the  capital  of  it,  the  pass  of  Alexander,  the  strong  fortress  of 

Derbend. 

Description  of  Derbend  the  Gate  of  Gates. 

It  is  generally  known  that  Alexander  having  designed  to  build  the  dike  of 
Gog  and  Magog,  when  he  arrived  at  this  place,  thought  of  executing  a  project 
for  uniting  the  Caspian  with  the  Black  Sea,  by  means  of  a  canal  which  was  to 
join  the  Caspian  Sea  with  the  Phasus  ;  but  being  advised  by  his  Vezîrs  of  the 
danger  of  this  union,  as  the  Black  Sea  was  a  great  deal  lower  than  the  Caspian, 
he  left  it  unexecuted,  and  built  three  immense  walls  with  three  ditches  as  a 
stronghold  between  the  Black  and  Caspian  Seas,  and  as  a  line  of  defence  against 
the  Benî  Assfar  Sala'at,  Rus,  and  the  people  of  Crimea  and  Kipchak.  These  triple 
walls,  on  Mount  Caucasus  in  the  mountains  of  Irak  Dadian,  with  triple  ditches,  I, 
poor  Evliya,  saw,  and  which  all  those  who  travel  from  Crimea  into  the  country  of 
the  Kiimiiks  also  see ;  by  the  lapse  of  time  some  of  the  towers  are  in  ruins  and 
the  ditches  choked  up  with  earth.  The  author  of  the  History  of  Tophet 
pretends  that  the  Caspian  Sea  issues  by  subterraneous  canals  cut  by  Alexander 
into  the  Phasus,  but  this  is  an  evident  blunder,  as  I  can  most  positively 
assert,  because  when  I  saw  the  Phasus  on  my  journey  to  the  siege  of  Assov, 
I  found  its  water  clear  and  fresh,  while  that  of  the  Caspian  Sea  is  so  salt  and 
bitter,  that  it  burns  a  man's  skin  if  used  for  purification.  This  is  a  case  for  ap- 
plying the  Persian  proverb ;  "  Where  is  hearing,  and  where  is  seeing  ? " 

We  have   already  mentioned  in   our  journey  to  Trebisonde,   that  Alexander 


166  THETRAVELSOF 

built  a  strong  castle  on  the  shores  of  the  Black  Sea  at  the  mouth  of  the  Phasus, 
and  on  the  shores  of  the  Caspian  he  built  this  gate  of  gates  or  iron  gate. 

Size  and  figure  of  the  Castle. 

Yezîb  Ben  Abd-ul-Melek,  the  son  of  Atika,  the  daughter  of  Moavia,  took  this 
place  from  the  Khavarej,  and  the  whole  district  of  Dâghistân  was  then  ennobled 
with  the  glory  of  Islam.  In  the  year  986  (1578)  Uzdemir-oghli  the  Vezir  of 
Sultân  Murad  III.  appearing  with  a  great  army  before  its  walls,  the  Sunnîs  who 
were  inside  bound  Jirdgh  Khalifeh,  the  Shah's  commander,  cut  off  his  head,  and 
surrendered  the  fortress  to  the  Ottoman  general,  who  was  appointed  by  the 
Porte,  Governor  General  of  Shirvan.  He  repaired  the  castle  and  made  subject  to  it 
seventy  surrounding  villages.  One  thousand  janissaries,  four  regiments  of  Sipahis, 
ten  of  armourers,  ten  of  gunners,  sixty  cannons,  five  hundred  boxes  of  ammuni- 
tion and  fifteen  hundred  militia  of  Erivan  completed  its  means  of  defence. 
Communications  were  opened  with  the  Tatars  of  Crimea  and  Kipchâk,  with  the 
garrisons  of  Akhichka,  Genje,  Tiflis,  and  Shamâkhî,  and  the  town  was  in  a  highly 
flourishing  state,  till  in  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Sultân  Murad  IV.  the  troops 
rebelled  and  surrendered  the  fortress  to  the  Shah  of  Persia,  in  whose  hands  at  the 
present  time  it  is  in  a  most  prosperous  condition.  It  is  the  seat  of  a  khân  and 
judge  and  twelve  public  oflScers,  garrisoned  by  nineteen  hundred  good  troops.  I 
occupied  a  place  here  on  the  bulwark  of  Kainâk  khan,  and  was  extremely  well 
treated  by  the  khân  who  gave  me  five  tomans  for  the  expenses  of  my  journey. 

Description  of  the  Iron  Gate. 

Alexander  closed  this  passage  with  an  iron  gate,  which  remained  up  to  the 
time  of  Nûshirvân  by  whom  it  was  renewed.  Jezdejerd  Shah,  Ismail  Shah  and 
Uzdemir  Pâshâ  repaired  the  castle  situated  at  the  foot  of  mount  Arghan  and 
Deneb.  The  foundations  of  the  western  walls  are  washed  by  the  Caspian  Sea. 
The  walls  were  built  by  Herzshâh,  as  is  recorded  by  the  Persian  chronostick  on 
the  gate  of  the  harbour.  The  remains  of  the  wall  of  Alexander  also,  which  was 
a  broad  thick  wall,  are  still  to  be  seen  projecting  from  the  Sea.  If  the  govern- 
ment would  undertake  it,  it  would  be  easy  to  extend  the  harbour  from  these 
walls  up  to  the  fortress.  The  length  of  the  wall  from  the  sea  to  the  high  moun- 
tain is  an  arrow's  shot,  and  the  breadth  of  the  castle  itself  is  the  same.  It  is 
built  in  a  pentagon  form  on  a  high  hill,  the  strongest  I  ever  saw  during  my 
travels ;  the  intelligent  architect  distributed  it  into  three  parts,  one  of  which  looks 
eastward  to  mount  Safah  ;  the  second  gate  is  the  entrance  to  the  town.  In  the 
wall  which  looks  to  Mount  Arghan  are  also  two  gates,  and  two  others  leading  to 


evliya  efen  di.  167 

the  lower  town ;  the  first  is  called  Meşkûr  because  it  opens  towards  the  district 
of  that  name,  persons  leaving  this  gate  in  waggons,  may  arrive  at  Sharaakhi 
in  three  days.  Another  gate  leads  towards  Kipchak,  Crimea  and  Circassia.  In 
Ddghistan,  waggons  with  horses  cannot  travel,  but  the  roads  to  Terek,  Kazan 
and  Desht  Kipchâk  are  all  practicable  for  those  vehicles.  The  third  division  of 
the  fortress  looks  towards  the  sea ;  it  is  not  so  well  inhabited  as  the  other  two, 
as  the  barracks  for  the  garrison  are  the  only  buildings.  The  waggons  of  the  mer- 
chants who  come  from  Kîlân  and  Baku  with  goods  are  all  put  in  array  in  this 
castle ;  the  circuit  of  the  whole  fortress  is  eleven  thousand  paces,  it  has  seventy 
towers,  at  each  of  which  is  a  college  and  a  mosque.  The  students  are  allowed 
Naphtha  instead  of  candles,  and  are  fed  twice  a  day.  In  this  way  they  have 
contrived  to  interest  the  Ulemas  in  watching  the  castle  ;  there  are  besides  these 
seventy  towers,  seven  thousand  and  sixty  battlements  round  the  fortress  ;  on  dark 
nights  the  whole  fortress  is  illuminated  with  Naphtha,  which  is  a  most  necessary 
precaution,  as  the  castle  is  continually  threatened  by  no  less  than  thirteen  mortal 
enemies,  the  worst  of  whom  are  the  Cossacks,  who  come  in  boats  and  ravage  all 
these  districts ;  they  cannot,  however,  come  near  the  border  of  the  castle  on 
account  of  seventy  large  cannons,  which  defend  the  avenue,  and  whose  brilliancy 
dazzles  the  eyes  of  all  the  beholders.  The  other  powerful  enemies  are  the 
Tatars,  Kalmuks  and  the  Ottomans  on  the  west  side ;  the  Circassians  on  the 
south  side  ;  and  the  worst  of  all  enemies,  the  Kûmûks  of  Dâghistân  on  the  south- 
east or  Kiblah  side ;  to  the  east  is  the  inimical  district  of  Georgia  belonging  to 
Tamaras  khan  :  for  this  reason  the  men  of  the  garrison  pass  the  whole  night  on 
the  walls  crying  Khoda  Khob  (all's  well !)  There  is  also  a  post  of  fifty  watchmen 
(Tûlüngî)  stationed  on  mount  Deneb  at  a  great  distance  from  the  town ;  if  an 
enemy  appears  anywhere  his  arrival  is  made  known  to  the  town  by  fires  lighted 
on  the  top  of  this  mountain. 

Buildings  within  the  Castle. 

The  stones  of  the  wall  are  each  of  the  size  of  an  elephant,  but  cut  square,  and 
are  so  large  that  fifty  men  at  the  present  day,  could  not  lift  one  of  them.  In  the 
castle  are  two  hundred  well  terraced  houses  ;  close  to  the  southern  wall  is  a  large 
palace,  the  architectural  ornaments  of  which  are  not  to  be  found  in  any  other 
palace  in  Persia ;  near  to  it  is  a  great  mosque  with  a  ruined  minareh,  and  a  bath 
built  in  the  Ottoman  style,  and  a  fountain.  Near  the  gate  of  boats  opening  to  the 
east,  is  the  mosque  of  Uzdemir-zadeh  Osman  Pasha,  with  some  khans  and  shops. 
The  suburb  outside  the  castle  consists  of  about  a  thousand  houses,  with  no 
imaret,  but  khans,  mosques  and  baths.     The  people  get  their  living  by  cultivating 


IgS  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

silk,  they  are  Sunnîs  and  Shafifs,  rich  men,  and  fine  youths.  On  the  opposite 
side  of  the  Caspian  Sea  are  the  Russian  provinces  of  Heshdek  and  Kazan ;  and 
further  on  Kipchdk  and  Heihdt,  where  twenty  years  ago  Taissi  Shah,  Moyunjdk 
Khân,  and  Kuba  Kalmâkh  Khân  with  fifty  or  sixty  thousand  men  wandering  about 
in  the  steppes,  pushed  their  inroads  up  to  the  bank  of  the  Kemûklî  river  and 
there  killed  Giirgi  Mustafa  Pâshâ ;  these  Kalmuks  are  all  Infidels,  who  have  no 
idea  of  religion  and  faith,  but  are  a  careless  slavish  set  of  people,  some  of  whom 
now  begin  to  come  with  Russian  merchants  to  the  harbour  of  Derbend,  which 
is  frequented  by  Chinese,  Tatars,  and  Russians  in  great  numbers. 

When  it  was  governed  by  the  Ottomans  its  annual  revenue  was  two  hundred 
and  forty-seven  thousand  aspers,  besides  the  revenues  of  the  seven  Sultans  or 
sanjak  Begs,  and  the  annual  sums  given  to  the  Prince  of  Dâghistân  for  the 
preservation  of  peace.  This  is  according  to  the  description  of  Zal  Mohammed, 
made  after  the  conquest  of  Uzdemir-oghlî  Osman  Pâshâ.  The  province  of 
Shirvan  at  present  consists  of  seventy  jurisdictions,  seven  khânliks,  and  twelve 
Sultanliks.     May  God  bring  it  back  to  the  possession  of  the  Ottomans  ! 

Pilgrimages. 

Yezid  Ben  Abd-ul-Melek,  son  of  Atika  the  daughter  of  Moavia,  came  from 
Damascus  with  a  great  army  to  make  war  against  the  heretic  rebels  (Khavarej) ; 
seven  hundred  moslim  martyrs,  who  were  killed  on  that  occasion,  are  buried  out- 
side the  western  wall  at  a  mile's  distance.  Another  army  came  in  the  time  of 
Heshâm  Ben  Abd-ul-Melek,  which  conquered  the  provinces  of  Dâghistân, 
Kûmûk,  Thâbserân.  Kaitâk,  and  Derbend.  The  martyrs  who  fell  on  this  occasion 
were  also  buried  in  this  cemetery ;  their  names  are  written  on  the  tombs  in  Cufic 
characters  and  in  Tlniluth  writing  ;  the  inhabitants  of  Derbend  boast  that  amongst 
this  crowd  of  martyrs  seventy-five  doctors  of  true  tradition  are  buried.  Amongst 
these  tombs  some  are  to  be  seen  with  inscriptions  in  Jellî  (great  Neskhi)  of 
Ottomans,  giving  an  account  of  their  lives  and  deaths. 

The  Pilgrimage  of  the  Forty. 

There  are  forty  tombs  much  frequented  by  visitors.  The  tomb  of  Derekhor- 
khot,  a  great  Saint,  in  whom  the  people  of  Shirvan  had  great  faith.  Several 
thousand  great  Saints  are  buried  here,  but  I  visited  and  made  myself  acquainted 
with  those  only  that  I  have  mentioned.  God's  mercy  upon  them  all !  After 
having  seen  all  the  curiosities  of  this  town  I  received  from  the  Khân  a  horse  of 
the  race  (Kâdhibeg,)  and  a  trotting  horse  (Chapâr),  ten  pieces  of  cotton  stuff  of 
Guzerat,  and  two  hundred  guards  to  accompany  me  on  the  journey;   I  took  leave 


evliya  efendi  169 

of  ali  my  friends  the  Khdns  and  Sultans,  and  set  out  on  my  journey  to  Gûrjistân, 
or  Georgia. 


JOURNEY    TO    GEORGIA. 

After  a  march  of  sixteen  hours  to  the  south-east  through  woods,  we  arrived  at 
the  place  called  Kur,  of  a  thousand  fine  houses  and  a  mosque,  on  the  frontier  of 
Dâghistân,  not  far  distant  from  Tâyeserân,  the  residence  of  Mikhâl  Shah,  Prince  of 
Dâghistân.  Every  Friday  people  flock  here  together  to  buy  and  sell,  not  for  money, 
but  by  exchange.  There  are  ten  thousand  inhabitants,  all  Sunni's  and  Shâfiites. 
I  saw  no  women  at  all  here ;  the  women  of  Daghistan  are  not  allowed  to  leave  the 
house,  excepting  on  a  journey  to  Mecca,  or  to  be  carried  to  the  cemetery  after  death. 
The  men  are  hospitable.  We  left  this  place,  passed  a  ruined  castle  in  the  midst 
of  woods,  and  then  entered  the  great  district  of  the  Avars  :  it  is  a  district  belong- 
ing to  the  khass  of  the  Prince  of  Daghistan,  and  during  three  days  journey  we 
saw  seventy  great  kents  with  mosques  and  khans. 

Description  of  the  Castle  Serir-ul-alldn. 

This  ancient  town  was  built  by  Hormuz  the  son  of  Nüshirvân  ;  it  was  wrested 
from  the  hands  of  the  Princes  of  Daghistan  by  the  Persian  Shah  Kor  Khodabende, 
and  fell  into  those  of  the  Ottomans,  who  destroyed  the  castle  that  it  might  not 
be  used  as  a  defence  against  them  ;  it  is  now  a  large  ancient  town  situated  on  the 
border  of  Mount  Caucasus,  belonging  to  the  government  of  Aresh.  According 
to  fabulous  history  it  was  in  this  town  that  Solomon  set  up  his  throne,  which  had 
been  carried  through  the  air  by  Genii,  when  he  came  with  Balkis  and  an  immense 
army  to  view  Mount  Caucasus  ;  this  is  why  it  was  called  the  throne  of  Lan, 
a  Persian  word  signifying  both  a  nest,  and  one  who  walks  or  travels.  It  is 
situated  between  the  towns  of  the  gate  of  gates,  Shamâkhî,  and  Niâzabâd, 
but  is  not  much  cultivated  as  it  is  on  the  extremity  of  the  frontier,  its  gardens 
are  few  on  account  of  the  coldness  of  the  climate  ;  there  are  three  thousand  houses 
with  terraces,  and  some  mosques  not  much  frequented,  seven  baths,  eleven  cara- 
vanserais, and  seventy  shops :  as  we  remained  here  but  one  night,  it  was 
impossible  to  see  much  of  it.  It  is  the  seat  of  a  Khan,  Judge,  Kelenter, 
Darogha,  and  Munshi,  and  has  a  garrison  of  a  thousand  men  ;  there  are  a  great 
number  of  Sunnis,  who  get  their  living  by  cleaning  cotton.  The  waters  which 
give  life  to  the  plantations  of  cotton,  all  issue  from  the  west  side  of  Mount 
Caucasus,  and  fall  into  the  Kur.     We   marched  for  some  hours  towards  the 

VOL.  II.  z 


170  TH  E    TRA  V  ELS    OF 

Kiblah,  to  the  district  of  Khata  a  dependence  of  the  Princes  of  Dâghistân,  a  woody 
tract  comprising  three  hundred  kents,  with  mosques,  khdns,  and  gardens.  We 
remained  here  for  three  days  as  guests,  and  continued  our  journey  on  the  fourth 
to  the  district  of  Zakhor,  consisting  of  a  hundred  and  fifty  villages  and  large 
kents,  governed  by  Yûssûf  one  of  the  Princes  of  Dâghistân,  who  commands 
seven  thousand  brave  warlike  men  ;  the  Beg,  with  whom  we  spent  a  night,  pre- 
sented me  with  fifty  skins  of  wild  cats,  and  I  gave  him  three  handkerchiefs 

embroidered  by  Sultâna  Kia. 

Tomb  of  Emir  Sultân. 

He  was  a  great  Saint.  The  Divines  of  this  country,  all  learned  Doctors,  have 
no  enmity  amongst  themselves,  but  they  shun  all  communication  with  the  Revâfes 
(heretic  Persians).     Here  ends  Dâghistân,  and  the  province  of  Georgia  begins. 

The  frontier  castle  Ur  belongs  to  the   Persians  ;  we  passed  it  on  our  left,  and 

skirted  the  boundaries  of  the  castle  of  Sheki,  which  I  formerly  saw  on  my  way  to 

Shamâkhi,  and  arrived  at  the  kent  of  Zakhorie  on  the  frontier  of  Tamarass-khân, 

belonging  to  the  Khân  of  Tiflis  ;  the  inhabitants  are  all  Georgians,  Armenians,  and 

Gokdiilak. 

Description  of  the  Old  Town  of  Kdkht. 

This  town  is  situated  on  the  frontier  of  Georgia  and  now  governed  by  the  Persians. 
It  was  built  by  Nûshirvân  to  keep  the  tribes  of  the  Caucasus  in  order.  It  is  a 
pentagon  castle,  fourteen  thousand  large  paces  in  circumference,  with  one  hundred 
and  seventy  bulwarks,  three  gates,  two  thousand  houses  within  the  castle,  a 
mosque,  a  bath,  and  a  khân.  Its  waters,  so  many  springs  of  life,  issue  from  the 
west  side  of  Mount  Caucasus,  and  after  irrigating  the  gardens  fall  into  the  Kür  to 
the  eastward.  The  climate  being  rather  cold,  its  silk  is  not  much  praised.  The 
inhabitants  are  Georgians,  Armenians  and  Gokdülâk ;  the  Sultân  commands  a 
thousand  soldiers,  all  Shiîs,  and  there  are  twelve  civil  commanders  and  a  judge. 
Shah  Ismail  liked  its  climate  so  much  that  he  remained  here  three  years  before  the 
battle  of  Châldirân,  and  built  a  suburb  outside  of  it,  so  that  it  bears  much 
likeness  to  the  town  of  Kaschau  in  the  middle  of  Hungary.  After  the  loss  of 
the  battle  of  Châldirân,  the  Ottoman  flying  troops  arriving  at  this  town  destroyed 
it,  and  since  that  time  many  thousand  loads  of  stones  have  been  carried  away  by 
Ferhâd  Pâshâ  for  the  repairs  of  the  Castle  of  Aras.  The  Sultân  of  this  place 
accompanied  me,  out  of  kindness,  to  the  next  station,  and  we  passed  the  night 
in  Khodrai,  a  kent  of  a  thousand  houses,  with  a  mosque,  khân  and  bath,  on 
the  frontier  of  Tiflis. 


evli  YA  efendi.  171 

Description  of  Georgia  or  Shûshddisfdn,  viz.  Befits. 
According  to  the  author  of  the  Sheref-nâmeh,  this  town  was  first  built  by  Betlis 
the  Treasurer  of  Alexander,  who  also  built  the  castle  of  the  same  name  in  the 
province  of  Van ;  its  name  is  now  Tiflis,  which  for  a  long  time  was  a  great 
Persian  government,  till  in  the  time  of  Sultân  Murad  III.  Lala  Kara  Ferhâd 
Pâshâ  with  an  immense  army  undertook  the  conquest  of  Georgia,  and  conquered 
Chaldir  and  seventy  castles.  Daud  Khân,  who  was  then  governor  of  Tiflîs, 
garrisoned  it  with  forty  thousand  men,  and  fortified  it  in  all  possible  ways.  On 
the  other  side  the  Ottoman  commander  summoned  the  town  to  surrender  to  his 
Emperor;  at  an  assembly  held  on  this  occasion  it  was  advised  to  send  back  the 
bearer  of  the  summons,  and  to  put  themselves  into  a  state  of  defence,  but  the 
more  prudent  foreseeing  that  they  would  not  be  able  to  make  resistance,  they  all 
fled  away  one  night,  and  left  the  Castle  without  defence.  The  Ottoman  commander 
pursued  them  with  the  greatest  speed,  and  came  up  with  the  Khân  of  Tiflîs  at 
the  Castle  of  Zekum,  where  he  had  entrenched  himself  with  all  the  treasures  carried 
away  from  his  capital.  A  great  battle  ensued,  in  which  no  quarter  was  given 
by  the  Ottoman  victors,  and  forty  thousand  Persians  were  cut  to  pieces.  The 
booty  taken  by  the  Ottoman  army  was  immense  ;  the  Aghâ  of  the  janissaries 
with  seven  regiments  of  his  corps  was  sent  to  garrison  Tiflîs,  and  the  castle  of 
Zekum  was  taken  in  the  year  956  (1578).  A  few  days  after,  the  Castle  of 
Kerîm  also  fell.  I  have  not  seen  the  Castle  of  Zekum,  but  I  saw  that  of  Kerîm 
without  entering  it,  when  passing  through  the  plain  of  Kâkht.  Lala  Ferhâd 
pursued  his  victory  as  though  he  had  been  on  a  hunting  party  ;  he  took  twenty-six 
great  and  small  castles,  some  of  which  he  destroyed,  and  some  he  repaired, 
placing  a  Dizdar  in  each,  and  made  his  entry  into  Tiflîs  amidst  the  greatest 
demonstrations  of  public  joy.  He  fortified  this  castle  to  such  an  extent,  that  no 
fortress  of  Georgia  or  Azerbeijdn  is  equal  to  it,  except  that  of  Baku  and  Megû. 
The  province  was  given  with  the  rank  of  a  Begler  Beg  to  Mohammed  Pasha  the  son 
of  Ferhâd  Pâshâ,  then  in  possession  of  the  sanjak  of  Kastemıinî ;  its  works  were  re- 
paired, and  its  stores  completed.  He  sent  the  keys  of  no  less  than  seventy  large  and 
small  castles  to  the  Ottoman  Court  and  then  returned  himself  to  Constantinople. 
After  his  departure  the  Persians  besieged  the  town  of  Tiflîs  for  the  space  of  seven 
months.  The  garrison  being  in  the  greatest  distress  for  food,  eat  their  dogs  first,  and 
then  the  dead ;  the  famine  was  so  great  that  the  dog  belonging  to  the  Sübashî 
Alî  sold  for  seven  thousand  aspers.  At  last  the  governor  of  Erzenim,  Mustafa 
Pâshâ,  arrived  with  a  flying  troop,  put  the  Persian  General  to  flight  and  relieved 
the  garrison.  Hassan  Pâshâ  the  son  of  the  Grand  Vezîr  arrived  with  a  caravan, 
bringing  three  thousand  camel  loads  of  provisions,  which  were  placed  in  the  Maga- 


172  THETRAVELSOF 

zines  of  the  small  castle.  In  short,  this  fortress  remained  in  the  hands  of  the  Otto- 
mans from  the  time  of  Sultân  Murad  III.  till  that  of  Sultân  Mustafa,  when  the 
Persians  united  with  the  Georgians  took  the  castle  by  surprise,  and  gave  it  up  to 
the  Shah  ;  and  it  has  remained  ever  since  in  the  hands  of  the  Persians.  It  is  the 
capital  of  Georgia,  to  which  belongs  sixteen  Sultans,  seventy  judges,  forty  districts 
and  seven  tracts  called  Oimâk.  Three-tenths  of  Georgia  are  occupied  by  the 
province  of  Tiflis  ;  the  khan  commands  two  thousand  soldiers,  it  has  also  a  judge 
and  twelve  public  officers  in  honour  of  the  twelve  Imams. 

Size  and  Figure  of  the  Fortress. 

It  consists  of  two  castles  opposite  to  each  other  on  the  banks  of  the  Kür  which 
separates  the  rocks  on  which  they  stand,  and  which  are  connected  above  by  a 
bridge  leading  from  one  castle  to  the  other.  The  great  castle  is  on  the  south  side 
of  the  Kiir  and  the  small  one  on  the  north  of  it.  This  river  rises  in  the  moun- 
tains of  Chaldir,  passes  Erdehân,  Akhiska,  and  Azgura  and  flows  into  the  Caspian 
Sea  ;  the  Persian  historiographers  say,  that  its  waters  are  supplied  from  a  thousand 
and  sixty  sources  ;  it  is  the  largest  river  in  these  countries  next  to  the  Euphrates. 
The  circumference  of  the  largest  castle  is  six  thousand  paces,  the  wall  sixty 
cubits  high,  with  seventy  bulwarks,  and  three  thousand  battlements,  but  no  ditch  ; 
the  water-tower  which  supplies  water  to  the  garrison  in  time  of  siege  is  situated 
on  the  Kür.  In  the  castle  are  six  hundred  houses,  terraced,  some  with  and  some 
without  gardens,  the  palace  of  the  Khân,  a  mosque  and  a  bath.  The  small 
castle  was  built  by  Yezdejerd  Shah,  it  is  of  stone,  in  a  square  form  with  only  one 
gate  at  the  head  of  the  bridge,  and  has  no  Bezestân  or  imaret. 

Three  thousand  watchmen  light  fires  every  night,  and  continually  cry  Khoda 
Khob  (all's  well.)  Though  it  is  a  Persian  town,  yet  its  inhabitants  are  for  the 
most  part  Sunnis  and  Hanefis  from  the  time  of  the  Ottomans. 

Products. 

The  white  bread  of  Tiflis,  and  the  peaches  are  renowned  ;  the  vegetables  exqui- 
site ;  there  is  no  silk,  but  most  excellent  grapes  :  all  these  productions  prosper 
through  the  quantity  of  rain  water  which  falls,  and  do  not  require  water  from 
the  Kur,  this  is  the  case  with  an  hundred  and  fifty  towns  and  villages,  which  it 

passes  on  its  way. 

The  Hothath  of  Tifiis. 

On  the  east  side  of  the  large  castle  a  hot-spring  boils  out  of  the  ground  without 
the  assistance  of  fire  ;  sheep's  heads  and  feet  are  cooked  therein.  There  are  also 
several  pilgrimages  at  Tiflis,   as  those  of  Imam  Hossein  Efendi,  Rizwan  Agha, 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  173 

Jem  Alî  Efendî,  &c.  Tiflis  is  five  hours  distance  from  Kidkht,  from  the  Castle  of 
Aras,  four  journies,  and  the  the  same  from  that  of  Genje.  We  took  from  the 
khân  two  hundred  men  to  accompany  us,  and  received  three  tomans  for  the 
expenses  of  the  journey. 

Description  of  the  Castle  Küsekht. 

It  stands  on  a  chalk  cliff,  is  of  a  square  form,  aud  belongs  to  the  district  of 
Tifli's.  The  castle  Lorî  near  Tiflis  was  seen  on  our  right  side  in  the  mountains, 
but  we  passed  it  at  a  great  distance. 

Des  cription  of  Sürdn. 

Though  a  small  castle  on  a  hill,  yet  it  is  extremely  strong  and  high  :  it  is  one 
of  the  oldest  castles  of  Georgia  built  by  Nûshirvân.  Its  inhabitants  are  Georgians, 
Gokdülâk  and  Armenians.  We  proceeded  four  hours  to  the  west,  and  reached 
the  old  town  Azgur  :  according  to  the  author  of  the  Sheref-nameh,  it  is  the  oldest 
town  in  Georgia,  and  was  built  by  Alexander.  In  the  Georgian  language  Azgur 
signifies  the  King  of  Kings.  The  immense  blocks  of  stone  used  in  the  formation 
of  the  walls,  show  that  it  must  have  been  built  by  Alexander,  because  five  hundred 
men  of  the  present  age  would  not  be  able  to  move  one  of  them  ;  it  stands  on  a  high 
hill,  and  is  of  a  square  form ;  it  has  one  gate  opening  to  the  south,  a  mosque,  a 
bath,  a  khân,  and  forty  small  streets ;  the  gardens  are  beautiful  owing  to  the 
mildness  of  the  climate ;  the  river  which  passes  below  it,  issues  from  the  moun- 
tains of  Akhiska  through  which  it  passes,  and  waters  the  gardens  of  the  town, 
falling  into  the  Araxes.  This  town  being  on  the  frontier  of  Gurgistân  Shûshâd, 
tile  inhabitants  all  speak  Georgian. 

Specimen  of  the  Georgian  Shûshâd  Language. 

One,  art;  two,  ?W;  three,  *am ;  four,  otkhi;  five,  khott;  six,  egst:  seven, 
shudi;  eight,  revai  ;  uine,  khiijrai;  ten,  atî ;  bread,  pari ;  water,  chi'gdl;  meat, 
kkarj  ;  wine,  ghita ;  cherries,  bdk  ;  pears,  bishdl ;  figs,  leji  ;  grapes,  kurzeni ; 
hazel-nuts,  inikhli;  melon,  weiw  ;  &c. 

Genealogy  of  the  Georgian  Kings. 

Their  first  kings  were  Jews,  then  Dadians  and  Shûshâd,  from  whom  originated 
the  people  of  G Uriel,  Achikbash,  and  Mingrelia,  who  are  all  Christians.  They 
speak  twelve  different  languages,  and  only  understand  each  other  by  the  aid  of 
interpreters.  The  purest  language,  according  to  their  opinion,  is  that  of  the 
Shûshâd  and  Dadiân.     If  the  dynasty  of  the  Moscovites  should  be  extinguished. 


174  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

the  Princes  of  Georgia  would  succeed.  The  Aiza  and  Cherkessians  who  are  an 
Arabic  colony,  have  no  books  at  all ;  according  to  the  histories  of  their  priests 
they  descended  from  Keikavûs,  and  then  from  David. 

There  was  formerly  here  a  Queen  who  pretended  to  reign  unmarried  ;  one 
night  having  drank  with  some  young  men,  she  was  violated  by  one  of  them,  and 
got  with  child,  which  happened  to  be  a  girl.  To  get  rid  of  the  ravisher,  the  Queen 
sent  him  fowl-hunting  on  a  frozen  canal,  when  the  ice  broke,  and  the  man  was 
swallowed  up,  so  that  all  talk  about  the  matter  was  at  an  end.  The  daughter  mar- 
ried a  Prince  named  Begdivdn,  and  had  three  sons,  who  when  of  age,  divided 
Georgia  into  three  parts.  The  first  Prince  obtained  the  district  of  Cotatis  otherwise 
called  Bash  Achik,  and  its  inhabitants  derive  their  descent  from  him.  To  the 
second,  Simon,  was  allotted  the  district  of  Tiflis ;  and  to  the  youngest,  the  pro- 
vince of  Bâghat ;  from  the  latter,  the  Dadiâns  derive  their  lineage.  This  Dadian 
Prince  was  a  just  monarch,  and  even  now  the  whole  of  Georgia  pay  homage  to 
the  Princes  of  Achikbash  and  Dadian.  When  Sultdn  Selim  I.  was  Governor  of 
Trebisonde,  he  lived  on  good  terms  with  the  Beg  of  Achikbash,  and  spent  some 
time  in  the  castle  of  Cotatis,  and  when  he  ascended  the  throne  after  Bayazid  II.  he 
exempted  by  a  Khattî-sherîf,  the  inhabitants  of  Achikbash  from  all  gifts  and 
duties,  a  privilege  they  enjoy  up  to  the  present  day ;  since  that  time  it  has  only 
been  the  custom  to  send  annually  falcons  and  fine  youths  as  presents  to  the  Porte. 
We  left  the  castle  of  Azgur,  and  going  westward  through  woods  and  fields,  we 
arrived  all  well  at  Chaldiran  and  Akhaskha. 

Description  of  the  Stronghold  of  Ahhaska,  Sultan  Selim  s  conquest. 

This  strong  fortress  of  Akhaskais  also  spelled  Akhachka,  Akhjaska,  Okhaskha, 
and  Oksakha,  according  to  the  difference  of  the  languages  of  the  surrounding 
people.  In  the  Imperial  register  it  is  laid  down  by  the  name  of  Chaldir.  The 
builder  was  Nûshirvân,  the  great  Persian  monarch  who  built  the  Tak  Kesra.  He 
used  to  spend  six  months  of  the  summer  here,  on  account  of  its  climate.  It 
would  be  too  long  to  relate  all  the  changes  that  this  place  underwent  under 
different  kings.  The  first  moslim  conqueror  of  it  was  Hesham  Ibn  Abd-ul-Melek, 
of  the  family  of  the  Ommiades,  who,  proceeding  from  Syria  with  an  immense 
army,  conquered  Aintâb,  Mera'ash,  Malâtia,  Haleb,  Diarbekr,  Erzerura,  and 
this  castle  of  Akhaska,  which  then  became  the  Capital  of  Georgia.  He  also 
conquered  Genje,  Shirvan,  and  Derbend,  and  returned  to  Damascus.  Kara  Yüssûf, 
the  Prince  of  the  dynasty  of  the  Kara  Koyiinli,  not  being  able  to  resist  the  arms 
of  Timur,  fled  to  Bayazid  I.  for  assistance,  and  Sultân  Uzun  Hassan  became 
the  possessor  of  the  castle  of  Akhaska.     Paying  homage  to  Tîmûr  he  was  put  in 


evliya  efendi.  175 

the  number  of  eleven  tributary  princes,  that  marched  by  the  side  of  Timtir's  horse, 
who  conferred  upon  him,  the  province  of  Azerbeijan.  It  afterwards  came  into 
the  power  of  Shah  Ismail  of  the  Saff  family,  who  chose  Akhaska  for  his  summer 
quarters  and  subdued  the  whole  of  Georgia.  He  ravaged  the  Ottoman  provinces, 
and  pushed  his  incursions  up  to  Sivas,  the  granary  of  the  Ottoman  capital. 
Selim  I.  was  then  governor  of  Trebisonde,  and  many  times  pursued  the  Persian 
troops.  Having  himself  ascended  the  throne,  he  immediately  began  the  Holy 
war,  and  fought  the  famous  battle  on  the  plain  of  Chaldir,  which  cost  the  lives  of 
one  hundred  thousand  Persians,  and  nearly  that  of  Shah  Ismail,  who  had  a  narrow 
escape.  He  then  conquered  the  castle  Akhaska,  and  subdued  the  whole  of  Georgia. 
A  survey  of  it  was  commanded,  and  it  was  assigned  as  a  government  to  a  Pâshâ 
of  three  tails.  As  this  town  is  the  frontier  of  Giirjistan  (Georgia),  Türkistan,  and 
Kurdistan,  in  immediate  contact  with  Persia,  it  was  declared  a  separate  Eyâlet  or 
government,  of  which  the  following  is  the  description  in  the  Kanûn-nâmeh  of 
Sultân  Suleiman.  The  sanjak  of  Chaldir  consists  of  thirteen  sanjaks,  the  officers 
are  a  public  treasurer  of  the  timârs  (Timâr  Defterdarı) ;  an  inspector  of  the  rolls 
(Defter  Emînî) ;  a  kiaya,  an  inspector  and  a  secretary  of  the  Chaushes,  (Chau- 
shlar  kiayassi,  Emînî,  and  Kiâtibî).  The  sanjaks  are  as  follow:  (1)  Olti ;  (2) 
Khortîz;  (3)  Ardîkh ;  (4)  Khajrek  ;  (5)Erdehân  ;  (6)  Postkhû;  (7)  Mâkhchîl ; 
(8)  Achârpenîk ;  (9)  Akhachka,  the  seat  of  the  Pâshâ.  There  are  also  four 
hereditary  sanjaks  Yordlik,  or  Ojaklik,  viz.  Portekrek,  Lesâna,  Nussf  Levana, 
and  Shûshâd  ;  making  in  all  thirteen. 

Khass  or  Revenues  of  the  Sanjak  Begs. 
Khass  of  the  Beg  of  Olti,  two  hundred  thousand  and  seventeen  aspers  ;  Portek, 
forty- six  thousand  two  hundred  and  nineteen ;  Ardenj,  two  hundred  and 
eighty  thousand ;  Erdehân,  three  hundred  thousand ;  Shûshâd,  six  hundred 
and  fifty  six  thousand  ;  Lesâna,  three  hundred  and  sixty-five  thousand  ;  Khartîz, 
two  hundred  thousand  five  hundred;  Khajrek,  three  hundred  and  sixty-five 
thousand :  Postkhû,  two  hundred  and  six  thousand  five  hundred ;  Makhjil, 
twenty  thousand  three  hundred  and  eleven ;  Ajâra,  two  hundred  thousand ; 
Penek,  four  hundred  thousand. 

Number  of  Zidmets  and  Timdrs. 

The  ziamets  and  timârs  are  altogether  six  hundred  and  fifty-six  swords,  which 
with  the  Jebellis  form  eight  hundred  men ;  and  with  the  troops  of  the  Pâshâ 
fifteen  hundred  troops.  In  the  sanjak  Oltî,  three  ziamets,  a  hundred  and  thirteen 
tiraars;   Erdehân,  eight    ziamets,   eighty-seven   timârs ;   Ardi'kh,    four  ziamets. 


176  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

forty-two  timars ;  Khajrek,  two  ziamets,  seventy-two  timars ;  Khartiz,  thirteen 
ziâmets,  thirty-five  timars  ;  Postkhu,  twelve  ziamets,  twenty-eight  timars  ;  Penek, 
eight  ziamets,  fifty-four  timars  ;  Sdszin,  seven  ziamets,  thirty-two  timars ;  Khatla, 
nineteen  ziamets,  seven  timars ;  Isper,  four  ziamets,  fourteen  timars.  These 
feudal  troops  are  commanded  by  their  Yuzbashi  (Lieutenants),  Cheribashî 
(Captains),  and  Ala'i-Beg  (Colonels).  They  possess  a  thousand  and  sixty  villages  on 
condition  of  going  to  war  when  called  upon,  the  annual  revenue  of  which  amounts 
to  three  hundred  and  twenty  Ottoman  purses.  In  the  time  of  Selim  I.  the  Pâshd 
of  this  province,  commanded  those  of  Erzerura,  Sivas,  Mera'ash,  Adana,  and 
Rakka.  The  place  of  a  judge  with  the  rank  of  Molla  was  given  to  Ramazân 
Efendi  with  five  hundred  aspers,  now  it  has  a  judge  with  three  hundred  aspers ; 
he  may  however  annually  collect  from  the  districts  belonging  tohis  jurisdiction,  the 
sum  of  eighty  purses.  The  Khass  of  the  Begler-beg  amounts  to  four  hundred 
thousand  aspers ;  the  garrison  consists  of  two  thousand  men,  regular  troops,  with 
an  Aghâ  of  the  janissaries,  of  the  Jebeji  and  of  the  Topji.  In  the  year  1044 
(1634)  the  Persians  became  masters  of  Chaldiran,  but  after  the  conquest  of 
Erivan,  Canaan  Pâshâ  was  sent  by  Sultân  Murad  IV.  with  an  immense  army 
who  conquered  the  fortress  of  Akhachka,  and  put  it  in  a  good  state  of  repair,  in 
which  it  is  kept  by  the  Ottomans,  up  to  the  present  time. 

Form  and  size  of  the  Castle  of  Akhachka. 

It  is  a  square  castle  built  of  stone,  standing  on  a  chalk  cliff,  with  two  gates  and 
about  a  thousand  houses  without  gardens  covered  with  terraces.  One  of  the  two 
gates  leads  to  the  east,  and  the  other  to  the  west,  there  are  twenty-eight  mosques. 
The  old  mosque  in  the  upper  castle  is  covered  with  earth.  There  is  no  imaret 
(religious  foundation)  covered  with  lead  in  this  fortress.  The  mosque  of  Kunbet- 
oghli  is  also  covered  with  earth,  and  without  a  minareh.  In  the  lower  castle  is 
the  mosque  of  Khalü  Aghâ.  Besides  the  five  legal  prayers  a  day,  there  are  cer- 
tain lectures  in  all  these  mosques  on  the  Koran  and  tradition,  but  there  are  no 
private  rooms  or  establishments  for  these  lectures.  The  Müderris  (Professors) 
hold  them  in  the  mosques,  the  students  (Thelebe)  are  numerous.  The  suburb 
outside  of  the  castle  is  well  built,  and  its  baths  pleasant,  but  the  bath  inside  the 
castle  is  very  small ;  the  best  is  that  outside  the  eastern  gate  of  the  castle,  the 
waiters  are  fine  Georgian  boys  ;  there  are  a  great  number  of  khans ;  no  vine- 
yards (Bâgh),  but  in  some  places  gardens  (Bâghje) ;  a  large  number  of  gardens  of 
fruit  trees  (Mushebek-bostân)  full  of  valuable  trees,  well  watered  by  springs. 
The  water  of  this  place  comes  from  the  mountains  of  Uda,  waters  the  fields  of 
the  town,  goes  straight  to  the  castle  of  Arghân,  and  falls  near  the  Castle  of  Kurehkt 


evliya  efendi,  177 

into  the  Araxes.  The  passage  between  the  castle  and  the  suburb  is  estabhshed 
by  a  bridge  ;  the  suburb  is  not  surrounded  by  walls  ;  the  market  consists  of  about 
three  hundred  shops,  but  no  Bezestân  of  stone.  The  temperature  of  this  place 
being  fresh  and  invigorating  its  people  are  strong  and  brave  also  ;  the  Pfishd  Sefer 
Pâshâ,  by  birth  a  Georgian,  is  one  of  the  most  wise  and  virtuous  Vezirs  of  the 
Ottoman  Court.  Erivan  is  six  journeys  from  Akhashka  to  the  east,  and  mid 
way  is  the  Castle  of  Karss.  From  Akhaskha  to  Tiflis  is  five  journeys  towards 
the  north-east,  to  Genje  five  journeys  direct  east,  and  seven  journeys  to  the  north 
is  the  castle  of  Georgia.  The  fortress  of  Akhaska  is  situated  between  them  all  in 
the  plain  of  Chaldir. 

Castles  of  Georgia  belonging  to  the  Province  of  Chaldir. 

The  castle  of  Khartiz  near  Chaldir  was  conquered  in  the  year  886  (1481),  by 
Lala  Pâshâ,  together  with  the  castle  of  Adhil,  and  the  castle  of  Perkan  near  Chaldir 
at  a  journey's  distance,  situated  between  two  high  mountains  on  a  high  hill.  The 
castle  of  Cotatis  is  two  journies  distance  from  Chaldir,  it  is  the  capital  of  the 
district  of  Ajikbash  near  mount  Perirat.  It  is  the  proper  residence  of  Georgia 
otherwise  called  Shûshâd,  and  Selim  I.  when  governor  of  Trebisonde,  sometimes 
came  hither  to  divert  himself.  It  was  created  by  him  a  hereditary  province 
(Ojâklik),  the  khass  of  which  amounts  to  six  thousand  and  six  aspers.  There  are 
no  ziamets  and  timars.  The  castle  of  Khajrek,  situated  between  Akhachka  and 
Erdehân,  is  the  residence  of  the  Sanjak-Beg  of  Burdehân,  and  was  conquered  by 
Lala  Pâshâ  ;  the  Khass  amounts  to  three  hundred  and  sixty-five  thousand  aspers, 
six  ziamets  and  twenty-two  timars.  The  castle  of  Shatan,  which  by  mistake  is  called 
Sheitân  Kala'am,  (the  Castle  of  Satan),  was  conquered  by  Ferhâd  Pâshâ  in  the  year 
990  (1582) ;  it  is  situated  near  Chaldir,  on  a  steep  rock.  The  castle  of  Kizlar  (of 
the  maiden)  near  Chaldir,  on  the  border  of  the  river  Jâgh,  is  a  magic  castle.  The 
castle  of  Altun  (gold),  the  conquest  of  Lala  Pâshâ,  is  three  hours  distance  from 
the  latter.  The  castle  of  Odoria  near  Chaldir,  the  conquest  of  Lala  Pâshâ.  The 
castle  of  Al  near  Akhaska.  The  castle  of  Postkhö,  which  is  the  seat  of  a  Sanjak 
Beg  in  the  province  of  Akhaska,  was  conquered  by  Lala  Pâshâ  in  the  year  998 
(1589)  ;  a  jurisdiction,  the  judge  of  which  is  appointed  with  one  hundred  and  fifty 
aspers.  There  is  an  Ala'i  Beg  and  Cheribashf.  Shııshâdistân  is  the  name  of  one 
of  the  principal  provinces  of  Georgia,  governed  by  a  Begler-beg.  Shûshâd,  the 
castle,  has  no  judge.  Shûshâdistân  is  a  mountainous  tract  full  of  precipices.  The 
castle  of  Kharbe  on  the  border  of  a  valley,  is  a  steep  castle.  The  castle  of  Ardikh, 
the  seat  of  a  Sanjak-beg  in  the  province  of  Chaldir,  a  conquest  of  Lala  Pâshâ. 
The  castle  of  Akhanji,  the  seat  of  a  Sanjak-beg.     The  castle  of  Jâghirmân  near 

VOL.  II.  A    A 


178  THETRAVELSOF 

Chaldir,  conquered  by  Lala  Pîîshâ.  Besides  these  castles  there  are  a  great 
number  of  others  seen  on  the  great  road.  Georgia  is  indeed  a  fine  and  well 
cultivated  country.  After  having  seen  all  this,  I  took  leave  of  Sefer  Pâshâ,  who 
presented  me  with  two  Georgian  boys,  a  horse,  and  a  hundred  piastres ;  I  took 
an  escort  and  began  my  journey  westward  to  Erzerum. 

Stations  of  the  Journey  from  Akhaslca  to  Erzerum. 

We  passed  the  summer  quarters  of  Ulghâr,  and  arrived  at  the  end  of  four 
hours  at  the  castle  of  Kinava  on  the  frontier  of  Ardehân ;  we  passed  through  a 
mountainous  tract  and  at  last  arrived  at  the  Castle  of  Kara  Ardehân,  which  was 
conquered  in  the  time  of  Selfm  I.  and  made  the  seat  of  a  Sanjak  Beg ;  the  khass 
is  three  hundred  thousand  aspers,  eight  zidmets,  and  eighty-seven  timârs ;  an  Alai 
Beg,  (Colonel)  ;  Cheribashi,  (Captain) ;  Dizdar,  (Commander  of  the  castle)  ;  are 
the  commanding  officers  of  the  garrison,  which  consists  of  two  hundred  men  ; 
the  whole  contingent  in  war  time  including  the  troops  of  the  Beg  amounts  to  one 
thousand  men.  The  judge  is  appointed  with  a  hundred  and  fifty  aspers.  There 
is  no  Nakîb-ul-ishrâf  (head  of  the  Sheriffs  or  relations  of  the  prophet)  and  its 
Mufti  resides  at  Akhaska.  The  castle  is  built  on  a  rock,  and  is  five  hundred  paces 
in  circumference ;  it  is  not  commanded  by  any  neighbouring  height,  it  has  two 
hundred  and  seventy  towers,  and  three  gates.  A  company  of  armourers 
(Jebeji)  of  the  Porte,  is  in  garrison  here.  In  the  town,  the  family  establishment 
(Khandân)  of  Kia  Pâshcî  is  the  most  renowned. 

Castles  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Erdehdn. 

The  castle  of  Wala,  conquered  by  Lala  Pâshâ  987  (1579) ;  the  castle  of  Ker- 
mek,  conquered  by  Lala  Pasha  in  the  year  982  (1574)  ;  the  castle  of  Akharsin, 
conquered  by  Lala  Pâshâ  in  the  year  982  (1574) ;  the  castles  of  Mamervân  and 
Nazarbdn,  the  latter  built  by  Ghâzî  Sefer  Pâshâ  in  the  year  1053(1643);  the 
castle  Kense  Dusal  in  the  district  of  Erdehân  on  a  hill ;  its  water  flows  to  Erdehân. 
The  houses  all  have  terraces ;  there  is  no  college,  but  a  school  for  boys.  No 
gardens  on  account  of  the  temperature,  which  is  rather  cold.  Its  fruits  come 
from  the  castle  of  Tortum  and  Acharas ;  the  inhabitants  are  all  Sunnis,  and  live 
by  agriculture.  This  castle  is  five  journeys  to  the  east  of  Erzerum ;  and  Karss 
is  one  journey's  distance  from  Erzerum  by  the  way  of  Kargha-bazâr.  We  then 
passed  westward  sometimes  on  a  stony  and  woody  ground,  sometimes  in  rich 
meadows,  and  arrived  at  the  castle  of  Güle.  It  was  built  by  Levend-Khan,  a 
Georgian  Prince,  and  is  the  seat  of  a  Sanjak  Beg,  the  khass  of  which  is  three 
hundred  thousand  aspers ;  it  has  a  Colonel,  Captain,  Dizdar  and  garrison ;  it  is 


evli  YA    efendi.  I79 

an  elegant  castle  on  a  chalk  hill.     Eight  hours  further  to  the  west,  we  reached 
the  castle  of  Penek  also  named  after  its  Georgian  builder,  it  is  the  seat  of  a 
sanjak  Beg  subordinate  to  Chaldir ;  its  khass  is  four  hundred  thousand  aspers. 
Its  feudatory  militia  with  the  troops  of  the  Beg  are  a  thousand  men  ;  there  is  a 
judge  with  a  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  no  market  nor  garden.     The  water  of  the 
river  is  very  good,  its  subjects  are  Armenians,  Gokdulak,  and  Georgians.     Seven 
hours  further  is  the  Castle  of  Ulini,  built  by  a  Georgian  king,  and  conquered  by 
Sultân  Selîm  ;  it  is  the  seat  of  a  Sanjak  Beg,  whose  Khass  is  two  hundred  thousand 
and  seventeen  aspers.     And  has  a  Colonel,  a  Captain,  a  Judge  with  a  hundred  and 
fifty  aspers,  a  Dizdar,  and  garrison  ;  the  castle  stands  on  a  chalk  hill  with  two  gates, 
one  opening  to  the  east,  and  the  other  to  the  west.     At  the  foot  of  the  castle 
flows  the  river  Olti,  which  waters  the  gardens  of  the  town,  and  enters  the  Aras 
on  the  Kiblah  side.     The  houses  are  all  inhabited  and  covered  with   terraces. 
There  are  a  number  of  mosques,  a  khan,  a  bath,  garden,  and  school  for  boys  ;  its 
beauties  are  celebrated.      The  inhabitants  are  good  moslims.     From  hence  we 
travelled  direct  north,  and  came  at  the  end  of  two  hours  to  the  castle  of  Maver- 
van  built  by  the  Georgian  Kings,  and  conquered  by  Lala  Kara  Mustafa  Pasha  ;  it 
is  the  seat  of  a  Sanjak  Beg  subordinate  to  Erzerum,  whose  khass  amounts  to  two 
hundred  and  three  thousand  aspers ;  the  officers  are  a  Colonel  and  Captain  of 
the  feudal  militia.     The  mihtia  of  the  Beg  amounts  to  fifteen  hundred  men  ;    the 
judge  is  appointed  with  a  hundred  and  fifty  aspers.     The  castle  is  of  a  square 
form  and  gigantic  size,  standing  upon   a  hill ;     its   gate  looks   to  the  Kiblah, 
there  are  eight  hundred  houses,  a  mosque,  a  bath,  and  a  khân,  the  inhabitants 
are  almost  all  poor  people.     Three  hours  further  on  to  the  west,  is  the  village 
Aide  Mamervân,  a  village  inhabited  by  Armenians  and  Moslims.     Further  on 
among  bleak  mountains  is  the  village  Karakunk,  it   belongs  to  the  district  of 
Erzerum;    we  passed   the   straight   of  Georgia  and   arrived   at   the   village  of 
Osmiidum  Sultân,  a  fine  kent   of  a  hundred  houses  on  the  border  of  a  high 
mountain ;  it  is  situated  at  the  very  source  of  the  Euphrates,  which  issues  from  a 
cavern  in  the  mountain  of  Dûmlî  Sultân,  a  delightful,  refreshing  water,  which 
seems  to  be  alluded  to  in  the  Koran  by  the  verse :  "  I  gave  thee  the  Keuther." 
Trouts  of  a  cubit's  length  sport  in  it ;    their  bodies  are  ruby-coloured  and  inter- 
spersed with  smaragdine  spots.     Umudum  Sultân  the  Saint,  who  is  buried  here, 
protects  these  fish,  so  that  it  is  impossible  to  catch  them ;  but  a  farsang  below 
they  are  taken  by  fishermen,  and  fill  the  brains  of  those  who  eat  them  with 
ambergris ;    however  much  a  man  may  eat,  he  is  never  incommoded  by  them. 
The  Pilgrimage  to  Rurali  Sultân  is  much  frequented.     We  marched  five  hours  to 
the  south,  on  the  plain  of  Erzerum  and  entered  it,  God  be  thanked !  in  perfect 


180  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

health.  Before  I  changed  my  dress,  I  laid  the  letters  and  presents  of  the  khdn 
of  Erivan  at  the  feet  of  my  gracious  Lord  the  Pasha,  and  gave  him  a  detailed 
account  of  all  the  castles,  towns,  kents  and  villages,  which  I  had  seen  on  my 
journey.  He  gave  me  a  splendid  dress  and  three  hundred  piastres  bath-money, 
besides  two  purses,  which  he  assigned  to  me  on  the  extraordinary  revenues  of 
the  custom-houses.  I  had  remained  scarcely  a  week,  when  a  message  arrived 
from  the  Khan  of  Erivan  complaining  that  some  of  the  soldiers  of  Karss  had 
molested  one  of  his  caravans,  and  requesting  that  an  Aghâ  might  be  sent  to 
convey  the  caravan  safe  to  Erzerum.  In  consequence  of  this  letter  I  was  sent 
back  into   Persia  on  the  tenth  day. 


JOURNEY    TO     ERİVAN     IN    THE     YEAR,     1057,    (1647). 

From  Erzerum  twelve  hours  to  the  east,  is  the  castle  of  Hassan  Kala'a  which 
has  already  been  described  ;  and  further  on  to  the  east,  through  the  plain  of  Passin, 
the  village  Badil  Jovânlî,  an  Armenian  village.  We  passed  it,  and  reached  in  nine 
hours  the  station  of  Meidânjik  ;  the  inhabitants  are  all  Armenians.  Ten  hours 
further  is  the  castle  of  Mishingerd  in  the  province  of  Erzerum,  a  square  castle  on  a 
chalk  cliff;  which  has  a  Dizdar  and  a  hundred  and  fifty  men,  two  hundred  houses, 
but  no  market ;  a  mosque  of  Sultdn  Suleiman  Khân,  without  a  garden.  We 
passed  to  the  east,  through  the  valley  of  Khândere,  by  the  ruined  convent  called 
the  seven  churches,  through  a  narrow  straight,  and  then  to  the  west  by  a  flowery 
meadow  for  six  hours  to  the  castle  Bardiiz,  in  the  territory  of  Karss,  built  by 
Lady  Ken'm-vid-din,  the  daughter  of  King  Azz-ud-din  of  the  dynasty  of  the  Auk- 
koyûnlî.  The  chronograph  is  written  on  the  gate;  there  is  a  Dizdar  and  a 
hundred  and  fifty  men  in  garrison,  a  small  bath,  but  no  garden.  From  hence 
we  went  southward  to  the  castle  of  Gejkeran  built  by  Nûshirvân ;  this  is  the  old 
town  of  Diideman  Gejkeran  which  is  mentioned  in  the  ancient  histories  of  the  wars 
of  Pizen  and  Efrasiab.  It  was  ruined  by  Holagu  at  the  same  time  as  Baghdad, 
but  flourished  again  under  the  government  of  Kara  Yûssûf  Shah  of  the  family  of 
the  Kara  Koyunli.  Timur  again  destroyed  it.  It  was  conquered  by  Lala  Kara 
Mustafa  Pasha,  and  now  belongs  to  the  government  of  Karss,  it  is  a  square  castle. 
The  karss  of  the  Beg  amounts  to  fifteen  thousand  three  hundred  and  fifty  aspers. 
According  to  the  canon  of  Sultân  Suleiman  there  are  two  thousand  two  hundred 
men  including  the  troops  of  the  Beg  ;  a  Dizdar,  an  Aghâ  of  the  Azabs  and  Gonulli, 
with  three  hundred  men  in  garrison,  a  judge  of  a  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  twelve 
hundred  houses  covered  with  earth,  three  small  mosques,  and  from  forty  to  fifty 


evliya    EFEN  di.  ]81 

shops.     Eight  hours  further  to  the  east  we  reached  the  frontier  fortress  of  the 
Ottomans,  the  castle  of  Karss.     There  are  three  towns  of  that  name ;   one  is  in 
Silefka,  the  Karss  of  Karatâshhk  ;  the  second,  the  Karss  of  Mera'ash,  and  the  last 
that  of  Düdemân,  which  is  the  present  one.     In  the  time  of  Murad  III.  it  was 
conquered  by  Lala  Kara  Mustafa  Pâshâ.     The  repairing  this  town  after  it  was 
ruined  by  the  Persians,  was  undertaken  by  the  Ottoman   generals,  and  on  this 
occasion  a  large  square  marble  stone  was  found,  which  they  placed  on  the  gate 
looking  to  the  south-east,  and  which   had  the  following  inscription :  — "  This 
Castle  was  built  under  Vezîr  Fîrıiz  Akaî  in  the  time  of  Sultdn  Azz-ud-din  ;  and 
repaired  by  his  daughter  Sultana  Karîm-ud-dîn.     May  God  illuminate  her  tomb! " 
Lala  Pâshâ  who  is  the  last  builder  of  Karss,  placed  this  stone  on  the  wall,  how- 
ever, out  of  reverence  for  its  ancient  builders.     Lala  Pâshâ  repaired  it  in  seventy 
days,  within  which  time  he  completed  its  munition.      A  soldier  came  to  relate  to 
him  a  dream  which  he  had,  and  which  was  as  follows.     An   old  man  appeared  to 
him,  saying,  his  name  was  Abül  Hassan  Kharkanî,  that  he  was  buried  here,  and 
that  if  a  well  at  his  feet  was  to  be  dug,  marvellous  things  would  be  seen.     Some 
hundred  workmen  were  instantly  set  to  dig  the  well,  when  they  found  a  red  granite 
tomb,  on  which  was  written  "  I  am  the  martyr.  Said  Kharkcini."     He  was  found 
quite  fresh,  and  the  blood  yet,flowing  from  his  right  arm.  The  tomb  was  re-covered 
amidst  prayers,  and   Lala  Pâshâ   raised   a  convent  upon   it.     The  government 
of  Karss  has  been  given  at  different  times  to   Vezirs  of  three  tails  as  barley- 
money  (Arpalik)  ;    the  karss  is  sixty  thousand  aspers.     It  belonged  formerly  to 
the  government  of  Erzerum,  but  is  now  a  distinct  province  with  the  addition  of 
Passin.     There  are  seven  sanjaks,  a  Kiaya,  and  Emin  of  the  Defter,  a  Defterdar 
of  the  treasury  and  of  the  timârs,  but  no  Kiatib  Kiaya  and  Emin  of  the  Chaushes, 
Its  sanjaks    are  ;    Little  Erdehân  ;    Khojûjân  ;    Zârshâd  ;  Gejewan  ;  Kaghzmân  ; 
Werishan,  and  Karss  the  seat  of  the  Pâshâ,  there  are  seven  ziâmets  and  a  hundred 
and  two  timârs,  with  the  Jebellis  and  troops  of  the  Pâshâ,  three  thousand  exquisite 
troops ;  a  Colonel,  a  Captain,  a  judge  with    three    hundred  aspers,   a  Dizdar, 
an  Aghâ  of  seven  companies  of  Azâbs,  and  an  Aghâ  of  the  Janissaries,  armourers, 
and  gunners ;  the  Colonels  reside  for  the  most   part  at  Erzerum  :  the  garrison 
consists  of  fifteen  hundred  excellent  men  ;   the  garrisons  of  Wan,  Karss,  and 
Akhachka  are  decidedly  brave  men.     Their  pay  is  collected  from  the  produce  of 
the  ferry-boats  at  Birejik  on  the  Euphrates,  and  from  the  villages  Surilj  and  Bombiij 
at  Haleb,  amounting  annually  to  seventy  thousand  aspers.     The  government  of 
Karss  is  divided  into  ten  jurisdictions,  and  eight  districts  ;    there  is  a  Sheikh-ul- 
Islâm  (Mufti) ;  Nakîb-ul-ishrâf  (head  of  the  Emirs),  and  other  distinguished  men. 


182  THETRAVELSOF 

Size  of  the  castle  of  Karss. 

At  a  gun-shot  distance  on  the  north  side  is  a  high  mountain,  at  the  foot  of  which 
this  fortress  rises  on  a  separate  hill ;  the  lower  castle  is  situated  in  the  plain,  and 
has  five  strong  walls.  The  gate  of  the  outer  or  lower  castle  looks  to  the  east,  and 
that  of  the  inner  or  upper  castle  to  the  west.  There  is  only  the  house  of  the 
commander,  and  barracks  for  the  garrison  of  two  hundred  men  ;  no  bath,  market, 
or  any  remarkable  building.  The  lower  town  or  suburb  is  surrounded  by  two 
strong  walls,  and  has  three  iron  gates  which  are  adorned  with  all  kinds  of  armour. 
One  of  these  gates  on  the  west  is  the  water-gate,  also  called  the  gate  of  the 
troops,  looking  towards  Erzeriim  ;  the  second  or  middle  gate  opens  to  Kaghz- 
mun  ;  the  third  to  the  east  is  the  gate  of  Behrâm-pâshâ,  opening  towards  Erivan. 
Watchmen  keep  watch  the  whole  night,  lighting  torches  and  lamps.  The  lower 
castle  is  surrounded  by  a  lake  instead  of  a  ditch,  which  encircles  it  from  the 
middle  gate  to  the  gate  of  Behrâm-pâshâ,  and  hence  it  is  impossible  to  get 
possession  of  the  fortress.  There  are  two  hundred  and  twenty  strong  towers, 
and  two  thousand  and  eighty  battlements  ;  the  circumference  of  the  whole  is  five 
thousand  seven  hundred  paces.  The  buildings  consist  of  three  thousand  houses, 
forty-seven  mosques,  in  eight  of  which  prayer  is  performed  on  Fridays ;  the  most 
remarkable  is  that  of  Sheikh  Hassan  Kharkânî,  built  by  Lala  Pâshâ ;  the 
mosque  of  Waiz  Efendi  at  the  water-gate  ;  the  great  mosque  of  Suleiman  Efendi, 
which  was  formerly  a  church  ;  the  mosque  of  Hossein  Kiaya  called  the  red 
church  ;  the  mosque  of  Omar  Efendi,  which  was  destroyed  when  the  Persians  got 
possession  of  the  castle,  solely  on  account  of  being  named  after  Omar,  and  turned 
into  a  stable  ;  the  mosque  of  Kâltâkjî-zadeh,  at  the  gate  of  Behrâm-pashâ  ;  the 
mosque  of  Beirâm  Chelebi-zadeh  ;  and  on  the  south  side  of  the  town  across  the 
bridge,  the  mosque  of  Emir  Yüssüf  Pasha,  all  covered  with  terraces.  There 
are  eighteen  schools  for  boys,  but  no  colleges  for  lectures  on  the  sciences, 
which  are  all  held  in  the  mosques.  Within  the  water-gate  is  the  bath  of  Emir 
Yüssüf  Pâshâ  ;  within  the  middle  gate  is  the  old  bath.  There  are  no  houses  for 
reading  of  the  Koran  or  tradition,  or  for  dining  the  poor,  who  are,  however,  well 
taken  care  of  by  private  generosity  ;  there  is  no  stone  Bezestân,  but  two  hundred 
shops  in  which  Indian  and  Persian  wares  are  found.  No  gardens  and  vineyards 
on  account  of  the  cold  temperature  of  the  climate.  The  inhabitants  are  a  lively 
set  of  people  who  gain  their  hving  by  agriculture  and  commerce. 

We  travelled  from  Karss  twelve  hours  to  the  north,  passed  the  village  of  Arjük 
and  the  valley  of  Baghirsak,  and  the  summer  quarter  (Yaila)  of  Olghâr  twelve 
hours  long.  It  is  three  journies  from  hence  to  the  castle  of  Akhiska  (otherwise 
Akhaska,  Akhachka).     From   Karss   to  Erdehân  is  one  journey  by  the  way  of 


EVLIYAEFENDI,  183 

Korgha-bazar.  I  arrived  at  last  at  the  object  of  my  journey,  the  castle  of  Güle, 
and  on  the  same  day  I  entered  it,  read  the  letters  of  our  gracious  Lord,  the 
Pâshâ  of  Erzertim,  to  the  Aghas  of  Gule,  who  excused  themselves,  saying  :  "  that 
they  never  had  disturbed  the  Persian  caravan,  and  that  it  was  a  calumny  of  the 
inhabitants  of  Kaghzemân."  Next  day  we  mounted  our  horses,  proceeded  for  a 
whole  day  to  the  south,  and  arrived  at  the  castle  of  Kaghzemân.  The  towns  and 
castles  on  the  Kiblah  side  of  the  Aras  are  all  reckoned  to  be  on  the  frontier  of  Azer- 
beijân.  The  river  Aras  rises  on  the  west  from  the  mountains  of  Bingol  (thousand 
lakes)  flows  to  the  east,  joins  the  barley  river  (Arpachayi),  and  the  Zenghi.  The 
castle  of  Kaghzeman  being  situated  on  the  Kiblah  side  of  the  Aras  is  reckoned  to 
be  on  the  frontier  of  Azerbeijan,  but  belongs  to  the  Ottoman  government  of  Karss. 
It  is  named  after  its  builder,  one  of  the  daughters  of  Nûshirvân.  It  was  taken  out 
of  the  hands  of  Uzun  Hassan  by  Shdh  Ismail,  and  then  submitted  to  Sultan  Sulei- 
man. It  is  the  seat  of  a  Sanjak  Beg  whose  khass  amounts  to  two  hundred  thousand 
aspers,  nine  ziamets,  a  hundred  and  seventy-eight  timers ;  nine  hundred  feudal 
militia,  a  judge  appointed  with  a  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  and  a  garrison  of  three 
hundred  men,  who  are  paid  by  the  impost  on  salt ;  the  salt  mines,  and  a  quarry  of 
mill  stones,  are  on  the  west  side  of  the  castle.  The  mill-stones  of  Persia  and  Rum 
come  from  Kaghzeman  ;  the  borax  of  the  goldsmiths,  barbers,  whetting-stones, 
and  the  common  whetting-stones  are  extracted  from  the  mines  of  Kaghzeman ; 
in  two  places  gold  and  silver  are  found,  but  as  the  product  was  exceeded  by  the 
expences,  they  were  abandoned  ;  there  are  altogether  eleven  mines.  The  castle 
is  a  square  strong  building  standing  on  a  hill  on  the  bank  of  the  Aras,  there  are 
seven  hundred  small  houses ;  it  is  not  a  commercial  town  (Bender),  but  a  frontier 
town  (Serhadd).  Mount  Aghrî  which  appears  to  the  west,  is  one  of  the  most 
praiseworthy  mountains  in  the  world,  it  is  near  the  town,  and  is  the  summer 
abode  (Yaila)  of  Turcomans.  The  air  is  temperate  and  allows  of  the  cultivation 
of  gardens  on  some  spots ;  the  inhabitants  are  mild  and  some  of  them  fair. 

The  Levend  troops  (irregular  levies)  sing  Persian  songs  with  harmonious  voices. 
As  soon  as  I  entered  the  town,  the  Divân  assembled,  and  notwithstanding  the 
repeated  oaths  of  the  members  of  it,  that  they  had  not  molested  the  Persian 
caravan,  but  only  taken  their  custom  duties,  I  took  seven  Aghas  of  them  with 
me  to  prove  the  truth  of  what  they  said,  by  their  presence  at  Erzerum,  whereunto 
I  returned.  The  Beg  and  eleven  Aghas  presented  me  with  a  purse  of  money,  two 
horses  (Mahmudi),  and  two  Georgian  slaves ;  and  we  travelled  towards  the  east 
for  nine  hours,  to  the  castle  of  Moghazberd,  it  is  a  district  belonging  to  Karss, 
built  by  Moghdz  a  Persian  Khân ;  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Ak-koyunli  of 
Shah  Ismail,  and  then  into  those  of  Sultân  Suleiman  ;  the  garrison  consists  of  a 


184  THETRAVELSOF 

hundred  and  fifty  men  ;  the  castle  is  built  of  stone  in  a  pentagon  form  on  a  rock,  not 
commanded  by  any  neighbouring  height ;  it  has  six  hundred  houses  with  gardens 
and  vineyards ;  a  mosque,  khân,  bath  and  ten  shops ;  at  the  foot  of  this  castle 
flows  the  river  Arpachai,  which  comes  from  the  mountains  of  Georgia,  and  mingles 
with  the  Aras  at  the  Kend  of  Tekelti.  The  castle  of  Moghdzberd  is  contiguous 
to  the  territory  of  the  Persian  castle  Shuregil,  which  alone  remained  in  the  power 
of  the  Persians,  meanwhile  all  the  districts  of  it  belong  to  the  government  of 
Karss ;  the  river  Arpachai  forms  the  limits :  the  eastern  tract  of  this  town  is 
Persian,  and  the  western,  Ottoman,  belonging  to  Karss.  Opposite  to  Moghfizberd, 
at  a  journey's  distance,  is  the  castle  of  Ana  on  a  hill,  a  square  mud  castle,  built  by 
Nûshirvân,  the  inhabitants  are  Armenians ;  between  Ana  and  Karss  are  two 
mountains ;  we  passed  this  castle  and  after  nine  hours  journey  we  arrived  at 
Zarshid  on  the  utmost  frontier,  built  by  the  Persian  Shahs,  it  is  the  seat  of  a 
Sanjak  Beg  subordinate  to  Karss ;  in  the  time  of  war,  twelve  hundred  men  bear 
arms,  the  judge  has  a  hundred  and  fifty  aspers ;  there  is  no  Muftî  nor  Nakib ; 
but  a  Dizdar  (Commander  of  the  castle)  and  a  hundred  and  fifty  men.  The 
castle  is  situated  on  a  hill  in  a  plain,  at  a  day's  journey  from  Karss  to  the  east  on 
the  road  to  Erivan,  there  are  three  hundred  houses  with  terraces,  a  mosque,  a 
convent,  a  bath,  and  a  khân.  Nine  hours  further  eastward  is  the  kent  Thâlish, 
on  the  frontier  of  Erivan  ;  we  passed  Kara  Taib,  and  arrived  after  twelve  hours 
march  to  the  east  at  Three  Churches,  a  great  convent  built  by  the  Greek 
Emperors ;  the  convent  is  divided  into  three  parts,  in  one  are  Greek,  in  the 
others  Armenian  nuns ;  these  Three  Churches  and  the  Seven  Churches  on  the 
road  to  Nakhshivan  are  the  most  famous  convents  of  Persia.  It  is  a  convent  well 
worth  seeing  on  account  of  its  monuments  and  strange  talismans. 

The  balsam,  called  Mirûn-yâghi,  is  made  here,  of  plants  boiled  in  a  kettle  upon 
a  carpet,  to  which  fire  does  no  harm  ;  the  balsam  which  is  skimmed  off  from  the 
kettle  is  put  into  jars,  and  used  through  the  whole  of  Frengistan  as  a  panacea  or 
universal  remedy.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  this  castle  is  an  iron  bar  suspended 
in  a  cave  without  being  supported  up  from  above  below  ;  the  Infidels  beHeve  it  to 
have  been  suspended  by  a  miracle  of  Simeon  the  Apostle  :  if  a  strong  wind  blows 
it  vibrates,  and  it  is  enclosed  by  iron  rails  to  prevent  it  being  touched  by  the 
profane.  The  explanation  of  this  matter  is,  that  the  architect  who  made  the  vault 
of  this  cave,  placed  on  the  top  of  it  a  great  magnet,  and  a  similar  one  on  the 
floor,  so  that  the  iron  bar  is  kept  in  equilibrium  between  them.  This  is  what  I, 
shortsighted  Evliya,  found  out  by  my  own  weak  intellect.  If  it  please  God, 
there  is  no  blunder  in  our  guess.  The  convent  is  inhabited  by  about  five  hun- 
dred monks ;  almost  every  night  five  or  six  hundred  horsemen,  either  from  Persia 


evliya  efendi.  185 

or  Turkey  arrive  here,  and  are  entertained  by  the  monks  with  milk,  honey  and 
dates.  From  hence  we  passed  to  the  east  through  level  fields  for  nine  hours, 
crossed  the  gi'eat  rivers  Aras  and  Zenghi,  and  arrived  for  the  second  time  at 
Erivan,  where  the  Khân  had  just  returned  from  the  wedding  of  his  sister  at  Baku, 
and  lodged  me  at  his  house.  The  next  day  I  repaired  to  the  Divân  with  the 
Aghds  of  Karss  and  Kaghzemfln,  who  con)plained,  in  the  strongest  terms,  of 
their  having  been  unjustly  accused  of  molesting  the  Persian  caravan ;  a  long 
discussion  ensued,  at  the  end  of  which  the  Aghas  appeared  to  be  innocent,  and 
the  men  of  the  caravan  to  be  calumniators.  Takki  Alî  Khan  feasted  the  Aghas 
three  days,  gave  me  five  tomans  Abâssî,  and  a  horse,  and  for  the  Pasha  a  string 
of  camels,  laden  with  rice,  also  some  letters.  Charged  with  these,  I  set  out  to 
return  to  Erzerum. 

Journeys  on  our  Return. 

We  set  out  from  Erivan,  with  a  caravan  of  seven  hundred  persons  toward  the 
west,  and  reached  after  five  hours  the  kent  Abdallî,  a  Persian  village  of  a  hun- 
dred houses,  which  at  the  time  of  the  conquest  was  fixed  to  be  the  frontier  of 
Karss.  We  advanced  to  the  north  four  hours  to  kent  Ayârân  with  five  hundred 
houses  ;  the  inhabitants  of  which  are  Gokdulak  ;  from  hence  through  mountains 
of  luxuriant  vegetation  to  kent  Sherâb-khâneh,  situated  on  a  hill,  of  three  hun- 
dred Armenian  houses  with  many  gardens,  it  is  a  ziamet  on  the  frontier  of  Karss. 
We  continued  our  journey  to  the  west,  passing  over  fertile  steppes,  and  seeing 
many  castles,  which  had  been  ruined  by  Sultân  Murad  IV.  After  four  hours  we 
arrived  at  kent  Begum  ;  the  daughter  of  Uzun  Hassan  Shah  of  that  name  built 
it ;  the  Persian  Princesses  are  even  now  styled  Beghum  :  there  are  three  hundred 
houses  of  Armenians  and  Georgians  ;  it  was  ruined  by  Timiir,  but  seven  high 
arches  are  still  extant  among  the  ruins  on  the  border  of  Arpachai,  where  the 
Princes  of  the  Ak-koyiinli,  Meimendi  Khân,  Ashâr  Khân,  Otgabai  Khân,  Gûn- 
dûzbai  Khân  and  other  Shâhs  are  buried,  some  lying,  some  seated  on  their 
thrones,  as  if  they  were  in  life,  with  their  names,  and  the  chronographs  of  their 
deaths.  The  three  sides  of  this  old  town  are  a  great  Yaila.  From  hence  we 
went  to  the  west  through  marshy  ground,  and  some  meadows,  to  the  old  castle 
of  Shureger ;  Hossein  Bikara,  delighted  with  its  situation  on  the  river  Arpachai, 
built  this  town  according  to  the  advice  of  Doctor  Shûrgerî ;  it  passed  into  the 
hands  of  Kara  Yûssûf  and  was  destroyed  by  Timiir  ;  Lala  Kara  Mustafa  Pâshâ 
ruined  it  again  ;  large  vaults  and  masses  are  yet  conspicuous  amongst  its  ruins. 
The  musical  tune  Shureh  is  said  to  have  been  invented  by  Shureger  at  the  time  he 
was  building  this  town,  whose  inhabitants  all  delight  in  music,  and  are  famous 
singers.     The  castle  is  in  ruins,  and  no  more  than  three  hundred  houses  with 

VOL.  II.  B  B 


]86  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

terraces  are  now  existing.  The  half  of  its  districts  being  situated  on  the  other 
bank  of  Arpachai  belong  to  the  government  of  Erivan ;  those  on  this  side  to 
Karss.  It  is  a  mountainous  fertile  tract  of  Georgia  which  extends  northward  to  the 
Arasand  Zenghi,  and  along  Mount  Caucasus  to  the  Caspian  Sea;  and  on  the  west 
to  Erzeriim.  From  Shiireger  we  advanced  to  the  west,  crossing  five  small 
rivers,  some  of  which  come  from  Georgia,  some  from  the  mountains  of  Azghur, 
and  flow  into  the  Aras  ;  some  of  the  ground  is  marshy.  We  then  arrived  at  the 
ferry  of  a  river,  the  name  of  which  I  am  ignorant  of.  Sultân  Murad  crossed  this 
river  on  his  expedition  to  Erivan,  and  the  spot  is  yet  marked,  where  his  tent  was 
fixed ;  the  inhabitants  planted  trees  round  it,  and  made  it  a  prayer-place.  Five 
hours  further  to  the  west  through  fertile  ground  is  the  village  of  Bûlânik,  a  free 
ziamet  of  Sefer  Agha,  of  three  hundred  houses.  Seven  hours  further  is  the  castle 
of  Karss  ;  we  remained  a  night  as  guests  with  Alî  Aghâ,  and  continued  our  journey 
next  day  to  the  village  of  Dushen  Kia  (the  falling  rock),  on  the  frontier  of  Karss, 
with  two  hundred  houses ;  then  five  hours,  ascending  and  descending  through  high 
fir-woods  and  meadows  to  Wernishan  on  the  frontier  of  Karss,  formerly  a  sanjak. 
The  opposite  shore  of  the  Aras  belongs  to  the  castle  of  Bayazi'd,  and  the  Alaii  Beg 
of  Wernishan  resides  here ;  it  is  an  Armenian  village  of  three  hundred  houses. 
Akhiska  is  two  journeys  from  hence  to  the  north  ;  six  hours  further  to  the  west 
through  fields  to  Zeinkhan  on  the  territory  of  Karss,  of  two  hundred  houses,a  Dizdar, 
a  garrison,  a  khan,  a  mosque,  a  bath,  and  forty  shops  ;  it  is  the  seat  of  a  Sûbâshî 
subordinate  to  Karss  ;  the  castle  is  square  and  built  of  stone,  the  inhabitants  are 
an  obstinate  people.  We  continued  our  journey  through  fir  woods  for  seven 
hours  to  Soghânlf  Beli,  a  straight  famous  all  over  Persia  and  Turkey  for  the 
difficulty  in  crossing  it ;  three  hours  beyond  this  straight  we  reached  the  kent 
Kûmadâmî,  of  a  hundred  and  fifty  houses,  on  the  frontier  of  sanjak  Passın,  an 
Armenian  village  on  the  banks  of  the  Aras.  Eight  hours  further  is  the  village  of 
Passln,  of  three  hundred  Armenian  houses,  in  a  plain,  it  is  the  ziamet  of  Ja'afer 
Efendi  the  land  registrar  (Moharerî  Wilayet)  at  Erzerum  ;  five  hours  further  along 
the  Aras  is  the  station  of  Goz  ;  we  passed  in  sight  of  the  bridge  of  Chobcin,  built 
by  the  dynasty  of  that  name,  through  level  fields,  and  arrived  at  Hassan  Kala'a, 
which  has  been  already  described.  Four  hours  from  hence  we  arrived  safe  at 
Erzerum,  where  we  found  our  gracious  Lord  the  Pasha,  on  the  walk  of  Abd-ur-rah- 
man  Ghazi ;  I  presented  the  camels,  letters  and  caravan  of  the  khân  of  Erivan, 
and  reassumed  my  functions  as  Clerk  of  the  Custom-house,  assisting  every  night 
at  the  assemblies  of  the  Pasha.  At  this  time  the  Capiji  Alı  Aghâ  arrived  from 
Constantinople,  with  a  Khatti-sherff  of  Sultân  Ibrahim,  by  which  the  Pasha 
received  the  Imperial  command  to  repair  with  all  the  troops  of  his  government  to 


evliya  efendi.  187 

Karss,  to  be  ready  for  the  war  against  the  Infidel  Persians.  The  Pâshâ  paid 
obeisance  to  the  noble  tiighra  and  instantly  dispatched  commissaries  to  Erzerum, 
Mera 'ash  and  Sîvâs,  in  order  to  raise  and  collect  troops.  I,  poor  Evliyii,  received 
a  commission  to  go  to  Sîdî  Ahmed  Pâshâ,  the  governor  of  the  sanjaks  of  Sânja 
and  Tortum. 


JOURNEY    TO     BAIBURD,    JANJA,     ISPER,    TORTUM 
AND    AKCHEKALA'A. 

I  left  Erzerum  with  nine  servants,  proceeding  to  the  north  in  the  plain  of 
Erzerum,  two  hours  to  the  village  of  Kân,  of  two  hundred  Armenian  houses  ;  five 
hours  more  to  the  north  we  came  to  the  village  of  Sheikh  Umudum,  which  has 
been  described  in  our  journey  to  Georgia.  Six  hours  further  to  the  north,  through 
vallies  and  hills,  to  the  bridge  of  the  Georgian  straight,  a  bridge  built  over  the 
Euphrates  by  Shah  Uzun  Hassan.  It  is  on  this  spot  that  the  rebel  Abaza  Pâshâ 
cut  to  pieces  forty  regiments  of  janissaries  sent  against  him ;  their  bones  are 
piled  up  near  the  bridge  :  the  village  of  Gûrgî-boghâzî  (Georgian  straight),  has  two 
hundred  houses,  in  the  district  of  Erzerum.  We  passed  to  the  north  over  flowery 
meadows  nine  hours  to  Rûmlî  Sultân,  a  great  saint  buried  underneath  a  cupola. 
Here  is  the  cave  whence  springs  the  Euphrates,  which  is  above  all  praise,  since  it 
is  mentioned  with  praise  in  the  Koran.  At  Keifi,  one  of  the  sanjaks  of  Erzerum, 
are  the  iron  mines,  where  iron  shot  are  cast ;  several  hundred  little  rivulets 
run  from  these  iron  mines  into  the  Euphrates,  and  somewhat  spoil  the  sweetness  of 
the  water ;  but  from  its  source  in  the  rock  of  Rûmlî  Sultan  unto  Keifi  it  is  the 
most  delicious  and  most  healthy  water  in  the  world.  Rumli  Sultân  was  a  Saint, 
who  appreciating  the  good  qualities  of  this  river,  took  up  his  residence  at  its  source  ; 
it  is  a  village  of  two  hundi-ed  houses.  We  advanced  three  hours  to  the  north  to 
Akchekala'a  in  the  territory  of  the  sanjak  of  Tortum,  built  by  Ulama  Pâshâ  in 
order  to  control  Georgia ;  in  course  of  time  the  castle  has  been  dismantled  of  its 
walls  and  garrison.  It  hes  north  of  Tortum,  and  has  six  hundred  houses,  a  than, 
and  a  mosque ;  it  was  destroyed  by  Bayazid  II.  when  governor  of  Trebisonde  in  his 
youth.  We  proceeded  six  hours  to  the  west,  to  the  village  of  Saûlû  of  a  hundred 
houses  in  the  territory  of  Janja,  on  the  top  of  a  high  mountain  without  gardens ; 
and  seven  hours  further  to  the  west,  to  the  castle  of  Janja,  otherwise  Gumish 
Khâneh  (silver  house).  I  went  straight  to  the  Court  of  Justice,  and  read  the  firman, 
which  all  the  inhabitants  were  ready  to  obey.  I  remained  as  guest  in  the  house 
of  the  inspector  of  the  silver  mines  and  began  to  visit  the  town.     It  was  built  by 


1S8  THETRAVELSOF 

Alexander,  one  of  whose  philosophers  discovered  the  silver  mines.  Mohammed 
II.  conquered  it  by  the  sword  after  the  defeat  of  Uzun  Hassan  in  the  field  of 
Terjân.  Silver  is  here  found  in  such  abundance,  that  every  child  has  a  silver 
plate.  The  inspectorship  is  let  for  seven  million  aspers ;  the  inhabitants  are 
exempted  from  all  taxes,  because  they  are  obliged  to  labour  in  the  silver  mines, 
seventy  of  which  are  worked.  These  are  the  richest  silver  mines  in  Turkey, 
the  others  are  those  of  Kaghzeman,  Hakkârî,  Bingöl,  Sanjar,  Akar,  Aswan, 
Libanon,  and  Merzifun.  These  are  the  Asiatic  and  African  silver  mines  of  the  Otto- 
man Empire  ;  the  European  ones  are  the  following  :  on  the  frontier  of  Bosnia, 
Sira,  Berinjesse  near  Uskiib  at  Karatova,  Novaborda  near  Pereshtina,  Sidr  Kaissi 
near  Salonia  ;  but  their  veins  are  thin  ;  those  of  Jânja  are  as  big  as  an  arm,  per- 
fectly pure  silver :  There  was  also  a  mint  here,  but  it  is  now  abandoned,  I 
however,  got  some  aspers  with  the  inscription,  coined  at  Jânja.  After  taking  a 
good  view  of  the  town  I  was  presented  by  the  principal  men  with  three  hundred 
piastres,  a  vase  for  rosewater  (gülabdan),  and  a  censer  (bokhûrdân)  of  silver, 
and  after  two  days  march  through  mountains  and  straights  I  arrived  at  the  old 
fortress  of  Baibiird.  The  Princes  of  the  family  of  Akkoyûnlî,  who  came  with  the 
Danishmend  family,  and  with  the  ancestors  of  the  Ottomans  from  Mahân  to  Rum, 
first  settled  here,  and  having  found  a  rich  treasure  of  silver  in  the  mines,  by  which 
they  became  rich  (Bai),  the  place  was  called  Baiyûrd,  which  was  changed  into 
Baiburd.  Mahmiid  Pasha  the  Vezir  of  Mohammed  II.  conquered  it  from  Uzun 
Hassan.  According  to  the  description  of  Sultân  Süleîmân,  it  is  the  seat  of  a 
Subashi  separated  from  the  khass  of  the  Vezir  of  Erzerum,  a  jurisdiction  of  a 
hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  the  revenues  of  the  judge  amount  annually  to  six  purses. 
There  is  a  Mufti,  a  Nakib,  Sipâh-kiayayerî,  and  Yenicherı-serdârî. 

Form  and  size  of  the  Castle. 

It  is  a  pentagon,  and  stands  on  a  high  hill,  the  height  of  the  wall  is  forty  royal 
cubits,  it  has  no  ditch,  on  account  of  its  position  ;  there  are  three  hundred  old 
houses,  but  no  market,  khân,  or  bath  ;  two  gates,  one  to  the  east,  opening  to- 
wards the  gardens,  and  one  to  the  west,  by  which  you  descend  to  the  lower 
town,  consisting  of  more  than  a  thousand  houses  with  terraces ;  there  are  nineteen 
quarters  of  Moslims,  and  nine  of  Armenians ;  no  Jews  nor  gipsies,  but  a  great 
number  of  Greeks,  because  it  is  not  far  from  the  seashore.  A  great  number  of 
its  inhabitants  are  Turks  and  Turcomans.  Mohammed  II.  transplanted  hither  a 
colony  of  three  thousand  men  of  the  inhabitants  of  Tire,  whose  descendants  are 
very  orderly,  good  men.  Its  mosques  are  pleasant,  the  most  frequented  of  them  is 
that  of  the  conqueror,  in  the    Castle  ;    in   the  market  that  of  Zâhid  Efendi,  a 


E  V  L  I  Y  A    E  F  E  N  D  I.  1 89 

mosque  covered  with  a  terrace  in  the  olden  style ;  its  minareh  is  a  slender  build- 
ing of  bricks  ;  at  its  left  are  the  Court  of  Justice,  the  Imperial  dyeing-house  and 
the  Flour-hall,  Near  to  the  women's  bath  is  the  mosque  of  Kâzizâdeh  Mohammed 
Chelebi,  an  old  but  sweet  mosque  ;  near  the  river  Jorugh,  is  the  mosque  of 
Shengel-baî ;  the  part  of  the  town  beyond  the  river  Jorugh  is  called  Yoris 
Mahallessi ;  there  is  a  dining  establishment  and  college,  with  three  baths,  the  first 
is  the  bath  at  the  bridge ;  the  second,  that  of  Alî  Shengâh  ;  the  third,  the  red 
bath  ;  the  temperature  of  these  baths  is  most  excellent :  there  are  three  convents 
of  Dervishes,  and  a  great  khân  close  to  the  mosque  of  Kâzizâdeh  ;  before  this  kh;in 
there  is  a  market  every  Sunday  attended  by  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand 
persons;  three  hundred  shops,  an  elegant  Bezestan,  and  some  coffee-houses. 
Of  its  provisions,  fresh  butter,  white  pies,  and  a  kind  of  wheat  called  camel's 
teeth  are  much  renowned ;  so  are  also  the  carpets  and  felts  of  Baibiird,  light, 
well-coloured,  fanciful  carpets,  which  are  exported  into  all  countries.  The  air 
being  rather  cold,  it  is  not  very  favourable  to  flowers  and  fruits,  but  it  is  amply 
provided  with  fruit  from  the  neighbouring  places.  There  are  some  pretty  faces, 
and  seventy  schools  for  boys,  who  are  quick  and  clever  ;  the  old  men  hve  to  the  age 
of  a  hundred  and  fifty,  who  losing  their  teeth  pronounce  with  difficulty  the  letter 
S,  but  the  women  are  very  eloquent.  Erzerum  is  two  journeys  direct  north  from 
hence.  A  man  may  go  from  here  to  Erzerum,  by  footpaths,  in  two  days,  and  on 
horseback  in  four  days. 

Description  of  the  River  Jorugh. 

It  rises  in  the  mountains  of  Erzerum,  supplies  water  to  a  great  number  of  fields, 
and  flows  straight  to  the  lower  town  of  Baibiird ;  the  two  banks  are  adorned 
with  many  elegant  palaces  and  koshks  and  gardens,  where  the  inhabitants  delight 
to  fish  ;  its  name  is  corrupted  from  Jûîrûh  (river  of  spirit)  a  name  it  well  deserves 
by  its  most  excellent  qualities.  The  inhabitants  of  the  town  cut  their  wood  on 
the  mountain,  and  putting  on  it  a  private  mark  throw  it  into  the  river,  which 
it  floats  down  until  it  is  stopped  in  the  middle  of  the  town  by  a  great  rake, 
where  each  person  comes  to  fetch  out  his  wood.  This  river  comes  to  Baiburd 
from  the  east,  washes  the  rocks  of  the  castle,  passes  through  many  well-cultivated 
villages,  and  flows  at  the  bottom  of  the  Castle  of  Conia,  a  large  river,  into  the 
Black  Sea.  Some  hundred  boats  of  the  Lazes,  which  are  called  Sarpiina  and 
Mengesila,  navigate  this  river  to  Georgia  and  Mingrelia,  and  exchange  their  mer- 
chandize for  slaves. 

Pilgrimages. 

The  mountan  facing  the  mosque  in  the  quarter  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the 
Jorugh,  is  called  the  parrot's  mountain,  it  is  the  burying-place  of  Abd-ul  wahhab 


190  THETRAVELSOF 

A'aıî,  and  is  a  general  walk.  This  high  mountain  commands  the  town,  but  cannon 
shot  cannot  reach  it  from  hence,  the  distance  being  too  great,  and  the  river  Jorûgh 
flowing  between.  The  hill  which  rises  in  the  town,  opposite  the  mosque,  is 
ascended  in  half  an  hour.  The  Pilgrimage  of  Osman  Ghdzî,  who  is  here  buried 
underneath  a  cupola  of  bricks.  The  Pilgrimage  of  Jâghir  Kânlidedeh  has  the 
greatest  credit  with  the  inhabitantsof  this  town,  as  he  isa  recent  Saint ;  people  yet 
alive  having  witnessed  his  miracles.  Near  this  place,  an  able  architect  built 
a  bridge  of  fir-tree  across  the  river  Jorugh,  in  the  shape  of  a  swallow's  wing,  to 
which  the  fir  bridge  over  the  Duina  at  Fuja  Shehri  in  Herzgovina  can  alone 
be  compared ;  but  this  bridge  of  Baiburd  having  only  a  single  arch,  is  higher 
and  finer  than  that  of  Fuja.  In  the  cemetery  to  the  Kiblah  of  the  town,  are 
buried  many  thousand  great  men,  but  I  have  mentioned  only  those  I  visited.  After 
taking  a  good  view  of  the  town,  and  having  collected  the  number  of  troops  fixed 
by  the  firman,  I  received  from  the  Sûbashî  a  present  of  three  hundred  piastres, 
and  continued  my  journey  accompanied  by  fifty  armed  men. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Tortum. 
It  was  built  by  the  old  King  of  Georgia  Mamerul,  was  conquered  by  Uziin 
Hassan,  and  by  Mohammed  II.,  and  then  fell  again  into  the  hands  of  the 
Georgians.  Selfm  I.  first  retook  it  when  Governor  of  Trebisonde,  and  Sultân 
Suleiman  lost  it  again.  He  despatched  his  second  Vezir  Ahmed  Pasha  to  recon- 
quer it,  who  took  it  after  a  siege  of  seven  days  and  an  assault  of  seven  hours, 
cutting  all  the  Infidels  to  pieces ;  and  providing  it  with  stores  and  men.  He  then 
advanced  further  into  Georgia,  and  the  two  castles  of  Nejakh  and  Mirakhor  sur- 
rendered. Trom  hence  he  proceeded  to  Akchekala'a,  which  being  a  stronghold  was 
not  taken  till  the  seventh  day.  The  Begs  of  the  castles  of  Penkerd,  Asherd,  and  the 
little  Akchekala'a  paid  obeisance.  The  district  of  Bevâna  with  three  hundred  vil- 
lages did  the  same,  and  the  inhabitants  remain  Ottoman  subjects  even  to  the  pre- 
sent time.  The  castles  Isper  and  Pertekrek  yielded  to  ihe  Ottoman  power  ;  so  did 
also  the  district  of  Dadânlı  with  seventy-six  villages,  and  fifteen  castles,  large  and 
small ;  the  castles  of  Tekkhiss  and  the  valley  of  Bersâssa  were  conquered,  and 
Tortum  was  put  down  in  the  register  as  the  seat  of  a  sanjak  Beg  belonging  to 
Erzeriim ;  it  furnishes  sixty  thousand  men,  and  the  Pasha's  revenues  amount 
annually  to  twelve  thousand  piastres  in  a  fair  way  :  Its  judge  is  appointed  with  a 
hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  and  there  are  nine  well  cultivated  districts,  the  principal 
of  which  are  those  of  Bervâna,  Dadânlî  and  Isper,  their  annual  revenue  amounts 
to  three  thousand  piastres. 


evliya  efendi.  ]gı 

Size  and  Shape  of  the  Castle. 

It  is  built  in  a  square  form,  on  a  high  rock  ;  an  iron  gate  opens  to  the  east ;  in 
the  castle  is  a  mosque  of  Sultan  Suleiman's  time,  and  in  the  lower  town  is  seven 
hundred  houses  and  seven  mosques,  two  baths,  two  khans,  twelve  schools  and 
seventy  shops,  but  no  stone  bezestân,  imaret  or  medresseh.     The  pears,  grapes 
and  peaches  are  much  praised  ;  as  it  is  only  two  journeys  from  Erzerum,  the  mer- 
chants send  chests  full  of  fruit  to  that  place ;  the  inhabitants  are  righteous,  hospita- 
ble men  ;  the  river  which  flows  through  it  goes  into  the  Black  Sea ;    in  the  town 
of  Tortum  saltpetre  is  produced  for  Government.     While  I  was  collecting  troops 
here,  and  visiting  the  town,  news  arrived  to  Ghâzî  Sîdi  Ahmed,  the  Pasha  of  the 
place,  that  the  Cossacks  had  assailed  the  castle  of  Gonia  ;    he  instantly  put  on  his 
armour,  mounted  on  horseback,  summoned  all  the  Zaims  and  Timariots   who 
wished  to  volunteer  in  this  expedition,  assembled  about  a  thousand  men,  and 
started  with  his  troop  under  the  triple  shout  of  Allah.     We  marched  a  whole  day 
and  night,  reinforcing  our  number  on  the  road,  and  halted  next  morning  in  a  val- 
ley.    We  continued  our  course  to  the  north  for  the  whole  of  the  second  day, 
passed  on  to  the  frontier  of  Trebisonde  and  entered  that  of  Gonia :    here  we  met 
the  Mingrelian  troops,  which  came   to  join   the    Pâshâ,    and    were   honourably 
received,  they  consisted  of  three  hundred  well  armed  horsemen  with  lances,  and 
about  a  thousand  riflemen  with  flying  hair,  between  forty  and  fifty  years  of  age, 
with  strange  figures  and  ugly  faces,  whom  the  Pâshâ  flattered  with  good  words- 
This  night  we  passed  along  the  river  Jorugh,  and  arrived  next  morning  at  the 
castle  of  Gonia  on  the  Black  Sea,  which  we  saw  filled  with  Infidel  Cossacks,  who 
at  the  moment  they  saw  us  roared  out,  Jasus  !  Jasus !  (Jesus) ;  seventy  Chaikas 
were  moored  behind  the  castle.     The  Pâshâ  with  a  hundred  and  fifty  Aghas,  and 
all  the  troops  which  had  joined  him  on  the  way,  with  loud  cries  of  Allah,  attacked 
the  ships  lying  in  the  river,  cut  the  cables,  and  let  the  boats  float  out  into  the  Black 
Sea,  cutting  down  or  making  prisoners,  those  who   were  left  to  guard  the  boats, 
and  towing  the  Chaikas  intg  a  bay  at  a  gunshot's  distance  from  the  castle  ;    the 
Infidels,  seeing  they  could  not  escape  in  their  boats,  acted  like  swine  that  are  laid 
hold  of,  and  began  to   fire.     The   Moslim   troops  on  their  side  prepared  every 
thing  for  an  assault ;  and  made  ladders  of  the  masts  and  rigging  of  the  captured 
ships.     The  Mingrelian  and  Georgian  troops  entered  the  trenches  in  broad  day- 
light, the  walls  were  fired  upon,  and  the  assault  was  made  from  all  sides.     The 
Pâshâ  led  the  assault   himself  with   such  courage  and  spirit,  that  the  Infidels 
had  not  time  to  recollect   themselves,   but  fled  to  some  ships,  which  were   left 
on   the  Jorugh.      Some  of  these  boats  being    overloaded  went   to  the  bottom, 
those  who  by  swimming  reached  the  opposite  shore  were  received  by  the  muskets 


132  THE   TRAVELS    OF 

of  dheMo^BBsandwena  to  Hel:  seicnleeii  of  tiie  ships  on  the  J(xûgfa  were 
hmmia,  sod  two  fignodred  InfiMs,  wbo  cooM  not  re-ester  the  castle,  were  taken 
peisiiEiieis ;    sef^oity  Mo^ms  fell  mMl»ti»  in  this  trij^  asault.     Tbe  Pâshâ  now 

{leessed  tiie  snirxl  of  tike  troops  from  Ûne  dasintt  o£  Sanjâk  Baiam.  FîzkaDy  there 
amred  s: '  :  Lizes  sxmed  witii  Isoces,  casques,  motets»  aad  soowfe^ 

tibeir  — '~  ^  rib,  with  wtnte  basoos  wztİdş;  tfaej  joioed  the  Pâ^â, 

hsl-^'  -  r  river.     The  Fâ^tâ  k&  tiian  oot  a  mcnöent  s  rest,  bot 

er  -  ---^gsfng-  thetn  in  the  Cnrrssâaıı  laz^oase.     Thus  a  crowd 

is  brfore  tbe  castle,  on  which 
tne   s'  -  i  were  i  -       -  .ntains  re-echoed  the 

:  tw^s,  and  began  to 
■  '■  -  2:îed  up  befiire 

; :-  the  Urwer 

ax  chr  -  -  *-     FrtKn 

eartf  ^  of 

-         :  r  Eviira,  had  the 

__: ^__ L  _-       ;.    :_i   ir   r_:;-5eTeii 

— CT-o.  ^^^w^  back  t:  -    .    -  -  ît  with  all  provisi'^îîs  aiî-d  ma- 

,  ee  days  and  three  nights,  daring  w.  .  :.e 

lonqoest.  At  tJi  rUt 


-f  KiT^"?.  "■^?d  b^'orr-  Çr''vj:2.  îfter  a  flvin^  march  fironi  Erzerdnu  and 

'^T  sDonBaned  by  tbe 

_  _  ;    tüıTûT  Ol  SİûT  uCıâls    Cıi    \  ^J.     .  .  "XSKSOkkA  tZIB 

--:::--—-  --e  casüe  was 

i  .:  _^  .^._ -_; _;: .       -_  :;_.-_:ped  ak«ç 

-yt~.     Tbe^  ^e  ^ed  by  S:  iî   Ghizf  Pâshâ,  who  captnred 

ibrcT-sere  t  i  Mingreli:  s.  and  drowned  aba«â 

sı:  r  rİTer.     This  e:  ::  was  thus  crowned  with  three  Tİctories  : 

1.  Töe  et«iıC|LMcât  î;   2,  iii^x  of  tbe  castie;   3.   the  ctHxpest  of  the 

""     .     "  -  r  Gossans  with  pro- 

._^-_^.      ~  _-  arruHigst  the  Moslim 

mtûîs,  &:        \       ,  . ?•    The  inght  was  again 


evliya  efendi.  193 

passed  with  illuminations  and  feasting ;  the  shouts  of  Allah,  and  the  sounds  of  the 
Ottoman  drum  interrupting  the  silence  of  the  night.  The  next  day  clouds  of  dust 
rising  on  the  side  of  the  Jonigh  announced  the  arrival  of  a  new  army,  whose  gUt- 
tering  armour  dazzled  the  eyes ;  it  was  that  of  Koja  Sefer  Pasha,  the  Vezfr  of  Chal- 
dir,  who  summoned  by  the  command  of  our  Lord  the  Pasha  of  Erzerum,  arrived 
with  the  Georgian  army  in  gi-eat  speed  to  the  assistance  of  the  Castle  of  Gonia  ; 
Sîdî  Ahmed  Pasha  went  mth  the  other  Pashas  to  meet  them,  and  it  was  a 
grand  sight  to  see  these  troops  on  fine  horses,  well  armed  with  spears,  swords, 
shields,  and  muskets,  with  flying  hair  and  strange  figures.  \Mien  Sefer  Pâshâ 
himself  came  with  the  train  of  his  guards  (Mataraji,  Tufenkji,  and  Shatir),  he 
received  Sîdî  Pasha's  salute,  and  then  rode  on  his  right.  Baki  Pâshâ  keepmg  on  the 
left.  When  they  approached  the  castle  a  general  salute  of  guns  and  musketry  gave 
them  welcome.  Provisions  now  arrived  in  abundance  at  the  Imperial  camp  from 
Georgia,  ^lingreha,  Lâz,  and  Batüın.  Xext  day  fresh  troops  appeared  to  the 
south  of  Gonia,  it  was  the  Pâshâ  of  Trebisonde,  who  came  with  three  thousand 
good  troops ;  in  seventy  boats  (sandal)  and  a  hundred  ships  of  the  Lazes,  called 
Mengesila,  he  carried  plenty  of  provisions,  and  ten  guns.  SîJî  Ahmed  Pâshâ 
being  acquainted  with  his  arrival  neither  went  himself  to  meet  him,  nor  sent  anv 
troops  to  perform  that  ceremony.  He  halted  with  his  troops  on  one  side  of  the 
castle.  Having  waited  on  Sîdî  Ahmed  Pâshâ  he  received  him  without  the  least 
honour,  but  with  the  following  speech. 

"  I  am  the  Pâshâ  of  Tortum,  which  is  from  tour  to  five  journeys  distant  fi-om 
Gonia,  and  it  was  not  my  duty  to  hasten  to  its  assistance ;  but  I  did  it  for  the  sake 
of  the  faith  and  the  Empire.  You,  Pâshâ,  who  are  the  Governor  of  Trebisonde. 
and  Begler-beg  of  two  tails,  and  at  only  two  journies  from  Gonia,  why  did  vou 
not  arrive  till  within  these  seven  days  to  its  assistance.     Quick,  executioner !" 

The  Pâshâs  of  Passın,  Akhiska  and  Kaighi  interfered,  saying,  that  it  was  against 
constitutional  law,  that  he  being  only  a  Pâshâ  of  one  tail,  should  kill  one  of  two. 
He  replied,  "By  God  !  if  it  is  righteous,  according  to  religious  duties,  I'll  cut  off 
his  head,  even  if  he  be  a  Pâshâ  of  seven  tails ;  in  consideration,  however,  of  vour 
intercession,  I  won't  kill  him,  but  relate  the  business  to  the  Emperor ;  call  quicklv 
for  the  Divân  Efendî  (Secretary)."  "While  the  dispatch  was  being  drawn  up, 
orders  were  given  to  put  seventy  of  the  principal  oflicers  of  the  troops  of  Trebi- 
sonde into  prison,  and  they  were  accordingly  shut  up  in  the  castle,  for  not  hanng 
urged  the  Pâshâ  to  hasten  to  the  deliverance  of  Gonia.  The  Divân  Efendî  made 
out  the  account  of  the  conquest  of  Gonia,  and  the  accusation  against  the  Pâshâ 
of  Trebisonde  ;  it  was  signed  and  sealed  by  the  three  Begler-Begs,  by  the  Judges 
of  Gonia  and  Trebisonde,  and  was  ready  to  be  sent  off,  when  the  inhabitants  of 

VOL.  II.  c   c 


194 


THE    TRAVELS    OF 


Trebisonde  threw  themselves  at  the  feet  of  Sîdî  Ahmed  Pâshd,  supplicating  not  to 
be  accused  to  the  Porte.     Sîdî  Pâshâ  persisting  in  his  resolution,  showed  all  the 
obstinacy  of  a  Circassian.     The  principal  men  of  Trebisonde  however,  solicited  the 
Pashas  to  intercede  with  the  Commander-in-chief  Sîdî  Ahmed  ;  and  it  was  ultimately 
arranged,  after  three  days  negotiation,  that  the  Pâshâ  and  principal  men  of  Trebi- 
sonde should  give  forty-three  purses  of  money,  three  sable  pelisses,  twelve  beautiful 
boys,  twelve  girls  with  eyes  like  Narcissuses,  and  of  sweet  language,  a  silken  tent 
richly  embroidered  with  gold,  a  sword  set  with  jewels,  a  mare,  seven  quivers,  vases 
of  silver,  the  work  of  goldsmiths  of  Trebisonde,  bridles,  hatchets,  candlesticks  of 
silver,  three  strings  of  camels,  three  of  mules,  and  a  hundred  and  twenty  horses. 
By  these  gifts  they  obtained  the  favour  of  not  being  named  in   the  report  to  the 
Emperor  ;    to  whom  only  were  mentioned  the  Begler  Begs,  Alai  and  Sanjak  Begs, 
who  had  hastened  to  the  deliverance  of  Gonia,  and  this  report  was  sent  by  Gurji 
Beg  Zadeh  to   Constantinople.     Another   Kapijî  Bâshî  was  despatched  with  the 
same  news  to  the  governor  of  Erzerum,  but  at  the  moment  he  was  setting  out, 
clouds  of  dust  announced  the  arrival  of  fresh  troops  on  the  banks  of  the  Jorugh ; 
these  were  the  troops  of  Erzerum  sent  to  the  succour  of  Gonia,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Hassan  Atlî  Aghâ.     The  Zaims,  Timariots  and  Jebellis  of  Erzerum  with 
half  the  garrison,  and  the  guards  of  the   Pdsha,  forty  banners  of  Segbân    and 
Sârîja  (irregular  levies  of  the  Pâshâ),  led  by  their  colonels  (Boluk  Bâ^hî).     They 
were  followed  by   a  squadron  of  Deli,   by  another  of  Gonullî  (Volunteers),  six 
squadrons  of  Tatar  horsemen,  a  squadron  of  six  hundred   Moteferrika,  a  squadron 
of  two  hundred  Châshnegîrs  (carvers),  a  squadron  of  two  hundred  Serraj  (saddle- 
men),  squadron  of  two  hundred  Kîlarjî  (men  of  the  cellar),  and  lastly  a  squadron 
of    two    hundred    Ichaga    (indoor    servants),   led   by     the    Key-keeper    (Miftah 
«Thûlâm    agassî).      They    were    also  followed  by  forty  chamberlains,  each    one 
surrounded  by  from  forty  to  fifty  men  clad  in  armour,  on  horses  of  the  finest 
breed,  caparisoned  with  silver,  and  ornamented  with  sea-horses  bristles ;  they  rode 
two  and  two,  and  immediately  after  them  came   Hassan  Atlî  Aghâ  himself,  with 
trumpets  sounding,  and  took  up  his  encampment  on  the  border  of  the  fortress.     All 
these  chamberlains  were  men,  who  had  seen  service  in  the  quality  of  Kiayas 
(substitutes),  Kaima    Kâms    (Lieutenants),    MotesseUims    (Vice-governors)    and 
Administrators  of  provinces.     Sfdi  Ahmed  Pâshâ  gave  them  a  great  repast,  and 
next  day  assembled  all  the  architects  of  the  country  to  repair  the  castle  of  Gonia. 
The  Turkish  music  played  from  seven  sides,  seventy  tables  were  spread,  and  day 
and  night  was  spent  in  festivities.     The  side  of  the  castle  that  was  damaged  by 
the  fire,  and  the  mosque  of  Bayazîd  H.  was  first  put  in  repair.     Seven  hundred 
men  forming  a  new  garrison,  with  a  new  Beg,  as  Commander,  were  put  into  it 


evliya  efendi.  195 

with  sufficient  stores,  and  all  the  arms  taken  from  the  enemy.  Thus  the  castle  of 
Gonia  shone  forth  in  greater  splendor  than  before.  God  be  praised  that  I,  poor 
Evliya,  was  so  fortunate  as  to  proclaim  the  first  prayer  on  its  newly  conquered 
walls  ! 

The  troops  of  the  sanjaks  of  Trebisonde  and  Bâtûm  were  left  for  the  safety  of 
the  castle  of  Gonia,  and  the  whole  army  of  sixty  thousand  men,  then  began  to 
march  along  the  banks  of  the  river  Jorugh  towards  Erzerum.  The  army  having 
halted  on  the  bank  of  the  river  Joriigh  on  a  large  meadow  surrounded  with  trees,  a 
council  was  held,  and  Sfdf  Ahmed  Pâshâ  said  :  —  "  The  Minsfrelians,  thouch 
belonging  to  the  Province  of  Trebisonde  have  rebelled,  and  I  have  related  to  the 
Emperor,  that  we  took  their  boats ;  which,  together  with  those  of  the  Rus- 
sians, may  now  wait  in  the  port  of  Gonia  for  the  Emperor's  decision.  I  have  also 
acquainted  His  Majesty  that  so  many  thousand  Cossacks  and  Mingrelians  have 
fallen  to  the  share  of  the  Ottoman  victors,  as  prisoners,  and  I  now  intend  to 
take  vengance  on  the  Mingrelian  infidels  with  this  army,  ready  for  expedition,  that 
it  may  gain  some  booty  as  compensation  for  its  journey."  The  governor  of 
Georgia,  Sefer  Pâshâ,  who  was  very  angry  at  the  Mingrelians,  proposed  that  all 
the  horsemen  should  join  the  foot  and  undertake  an  inroad  for  booty,  the  Moslims 
of  Akhiska  and  Georgia  leading  the  way,  who  were  then  also  to  share  the  spoil. 
The  Council  broke  up  with  this  resolution,  for  the  happy  execution  of  which 
I  said  a  Fâtihah.  The  cryers  gave  notice,  that  all  Moslims  who  wished  for 
breeches  and  horses,  for  boys  and  girls,  for  money  and  booty,  should  be  ready  in 
arms.  This  notice  produced  an  astonishing  effect,  the  Moslim  victors  roared  like 
lions,  armed  and  washed  themselves,  and  waited  for  the  orders  of  the  Commander, 

Account  of  our  Inroad  into  Mingrelia. 

Ketgâj  Pâshâ  led  the  van  of  three  hundred  men,  towards  the  Kiblah,  followed 
by  three  thousand  men  of  Georgia  and  Akhaska,  and  by  Sidi  Ahmed  Pâshâ,  at  the 
head  of  nine  thousand  men.  Bakî  Pâshâ  commanded  the  rear  of  three  hundred 
men  ;  the  troops  of  Erzerum  and  Kara  Hissâr  formed  the  two  wings  ;  the  sanjak 
Begs  of  Khinissin,  Tekman  and  Melazjerd  were  deputed  to  provide  the  forage. 
We  marched  this  day  ten  hours  to  Zârchairî,  a  pleasant  position  between  Min- 
grelia, and  the  sanjak  of  Batiim.  The  next  day  we  passed  the  Jorugh,  and  Sefer 
Pâshâ  began  to  pillage  the  district  of  Darına  ;  the  twenty-two  companies  of  Sârija 
(irregular  levies)  of  the  Pâshâ,  our  gracious  Lord,  two  thousand  two  hundred  brave 
men,  pursued  the  fugitives  in  the  mountains,  made  seven  hundred  prisoners,  and 
lost  seven  men  as  martyrs.  The  troops  proceeded  till  they  arrived  under  the  walls 
of  castle  of  Merava,  which  was  taken  by  assault,  with  the  loss  of  seventy  Moslims, 


196  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

who  drank  the  sherbet  of  martyrdom ;  seven  hundred  men,  five  hundred  women, 
two  hundred  girls,  and  six  hundred  boys,  were  made  prisoners.  The  pillage  was 
pushed  as  far  as  the  districts  of  Georgia,  and  we  arrived  at  the  end  of  nine  hours, 
at  the  field  of  Boghdii ;  here  a  Soffa  (or  meadow  seat)  is  shown,  where  Sultân 
Selim  I.  was  seated  when  Governor  of  Trebisonde.  Two  spies  sent  by  the  Prince 
of  Mingrelia,  were  taken  prisoners,  and  they  showed  the  way  (the  necessary  pre 
cautions  being  taken)  to  the  district  of  Tamaras  Khân,  whose  son  with  a  thousand 
horsemen  and  two  thousand  infantry,  met  the  Commander-in-chief,  and  led  the 
Ottoman  party  of  pillage  further  against  the  Mingrelians,  with  whom  he  was 
angry. 

The  pillaged  districts  were  those  of  Pernak,  Selsel,  Perkân,  Penâk,  Cümle,  and 
Samârgha ;  we  halted  before  the  castle  of  Akhâr,  a  small  round  castle  on  a  hill, 
built  by  Hormuz  the  son  of  Nushirvan  ;  the  inhabitants  are  not  very  brave,  but 
great  thieves ;  two  hundred  and  fifty  castles  and  villages  were  pillaged,  and  nine 
thousand  prisoners  taken.  Ketgdj  Pasha,  the  leader  of  the  van,  alone  took  two 
thousand  beautiful  girls,  whom  the  commander-in-chief  bought  for  a  thousand 
piastres,  and  sent  them  to  Sultân  Ibrahîm  with  twenty  other  fine  maidens  ;  they 
were  so  beautiful  that  the  text  of  the  Koran,  "  We  have  created  man  in  the 
finest  sliape,"  seems  to  have  been  revealed  only  for  their  praise.  The  booty  was 
so  rich,  that  a  slave  was  sold  for  ten  piastres,  an  ox  for  half  a  piastre,  and  a  sheep 
for  five  aspers.  The  Beg  of  Bâshajik  sent  to  the  Commander-in-chief  a  present  of 
five  boys  and  five  girls,  and  also  gave  me  a  boy  and  girl.  We  arrived  after  eleven 
hours  predatory  march  at  a  plain,  in  the  middle  of  which  was  a  building  raised 
by  the  Beg  of  Mingrelia,  it  was  ruined  by  Uziin  Hassan,  and  is  now  contiguous 
to  Batiim  on  the  frontier  of  Mingrelia.  We  passed  the  Castles,  Nejâkh,  Merkhor, 
Akchekala'a,  Chepek,  Penkerd,  Asherd,  Kûchük  Akchekala'a,  the  Begs  of 
which  all  came  with  presents,  paying  obeisance  to  Sidf  Ahmed  Pâshâ.  These 
castles  being  situated  on  high  mountains,  and  in  woody  tracts,  were  passed  by 
indulgently,  but  the  villages  situated  in  the  plain  were  all  ravaged  ;  the  district  of 
Yuvana,  overrun  for  the  space  of  seven  days,  furnished  such  beautiful  boys  and 
girls,  that  each  of  them  was  worth  a  treasure  of  Egypt.  We  halted  underneath 
the  castle  of  Tekrek,  the  inhabitants  of  which  came  with  presents,  to  ward  ofT 
the  danger  of  the  pillage,  they  were  threatened  with  ;  six  districts  more,  the  names 
of  which  I  am  ignorant  of,  shared  the  common  fate  of  havock. .  The  Ottoman 
victors  were  now  so  loaded  with  spoils  and  booty,  that  it  became  impossible  to 
carry  it  all  away.  Many  of  them  returned  bringing  their  booty  to  the  Castle  of 
Gonia,  and  from  thence  to  Trebisonde. 


evliya  efendi.  197 

Of  tlıe  Language  of  the  Mingreliaııs. 

Georgia  is  inhabited  by  seventeen  christian  tribes,  the  principal  of  which  are, 
the  Achikbash,  Dadiân,  Shüshâd,  and  Güriel.  The  Mingrelians  are  the  last  and 
most  despised  specimen  of  their  language:  Qr\e,  artı;  two,  xheri ;  three,  s  fiunii; 
four,  dmekh  ;  five,  khoti;  six,  pishhU ;  seven,  ishküi;  eight,  rvo  ;  nine,  jit g/ıûr  : 
ten,  weit.  Bread,  gûpdl ;  fire,  ddjkhir  ;  shield,  pi'ir  ;  sheej),  ashkhori ;  girdle, 
derkdt;  head,  dudl;  wood,  deshke;  dog,  jogkûr ;  ox,  klıijâ;  calf,  k issin ;  salt, 
ajim;  swine,  ghdj  ;  ass,  kirût ;  hear,  nut;  cheese,  MZ;  curds,  ?ner/m«  ;  come, 
wai ;  man,  chai ;  sit  down,  dakhûr  ;  girl,  tine ;  go,  halawli ;  come  mother,  wai 
dids,  &c. 

Mingreha  is  inhabited  by  a  great  number  of  different  tribes,  who  speak  different 
dialects ;  there  are  seventy  different  products ;  its  sheep,  goats,  swine  and  fine 
breed  of  horses  (Kohailan)  are  renowned  ;  there  are  neither  mules  nor  asses  in  the 
whole  of  Georgia  and  Mingrelia,  but  a  great  number  of  foxes,  wild  cats,  and  martens  ; 
corn  and  wheat  are  scarce  as  hardly  any  thing  but  millet  and  Lazud  (?)  is 
sown  ;  on  the  high  mountains  are  many  nut  and  fir-trees,  box-trees  and  cedars. 
The  inhabitants,  like  those  of  Mingrelia,  Abaza,  and  Circassia,  are  settled  in  the 
mountains  ;  they  have  castles  with  gardens  and  churches.  In  short,  during  seventy- 
seven  days,  we  made  the  tour  of  Mingrelia  and  Georgia,  after  which  time  the 
Ottoman  troops  took  the  direction  of  Erzerum ;  on  the  third  day  we  came  to 
the  district  of  Darâtlî,  which  is  contiguous  to  the  sanjak  of  Tortum.  Perfect  secu- 
rity being  restored,  the  troops  were  licensed  to  break  up  by  the  Vezir  of  Akhiska, 
Sîdî  Ahmed  Pâshâ,  and  we  then  went  with  the  Georgian  Begs  towards  Chaldir. 
After  fourteen  hours  we  reached  the  valley  of  Yuvana,  where  the  inhabitants  of 
Isper  and  Tortum  met  us  with  presents.  At  the  public  entrance  into  Tortum,  the 
Cossack  and  Mingi-elian  prisoners  were  dragged  along  in  chains  ;  the  inhabitants  of 
Tortum  all  assembled  to  form  the  istikbâl  (solemn  meeting.  See  Morier's  travels). 
Srdi  Pasha  himself  wore  the  plumes  of  honour  (Jîghateiî)  which  the  Governor  of 
Erzerum  had  sent  to  him,  put  on  his  well  caparisoned  state  horse,  trappings  of  six 
pieces  of  steel  of  Nakshivan,  wrapped  round  his  head  a  red  sash  in  the  Moham- 
medan fashion,  clad  himself  in  blue  steel  with  armour  on  his  thighs,  and,  looking 
of  stupendous  size,  like  a  seven-headed  dragon  he  passed  through  the  crowd  who 
received  his  salute  crying,  "  Aleik  awnallah  ei  ghâzî  seifollah  !"  "  God's  assistance 
be  upon  thee,  O  victor,  sword  of  God  !"  The  guns  of  the  castle  of  Tortum  saluted 
and  the  mountains  re-echoed  the  thundering  noise.  Sîdî  Pâshâ  repaired  to  his 
palace,  and  Ketgâj  Pasha,  Bakî  Pâshâ  and  eight  Sanjak  Begs  encamped  before 
the  town  for  three  days,  and  on  the  fourth  the  whole  of  the  troops  moved  towards 
Erzerum,  the  territory  of  which  we  reached  on  Kassim  (St.  Demetrius'  day)  and 


198  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

passed  the  straight  of  Ghâzî-boghîîzî.  The  governor  expecting  the  troops,  was  in 
his  tent  at  Gumishlî  Kunbed  (silver  vault)  where  Si'di  Ahmed,  Ketgâj,  and  Bakî 
Pasha  were  received  with  the  greatest  distinction,  treated  with  a  splendid  repast 
and  invested  with  pelisses  of  honour.  Here  the  Pasha  and  Sanjak  Begs  laid  with 
great  pomp  their  presents  before  the  governor.  The  season  being  now  too  far  ad- 
vanced to  think  of  the  expedition  against  Erivan,  we  remained  in  this  place  spend- 
ing our  days  in  pleasure.  The  Governor,  my  gracious  Lord,  being  a  little  angry 
with  me  on  account  of  my  having  accompanied  the  expedition  without  leave,  Sidi 
Ahmed  Pasha  interceded  in  my  favour,  saying,  "  If  it  is  a  fault  that  I  took  Evliya 
with  me  to  the  siege  of  Gonia,  it  is  he  that  proclaimed  first  the  Mohammedan 
prayer  on  its  walls;  he  is  a  traveller  of  the  world,  a  good  companion  of  mankind, 
a  Hafiz  (who  knows  the  Koran  by  heart)  and  a  warrior  in  the  ways  of  God." 
Having  asked  pardon  for  me  in  this  gentle  manner,  the  Pâshâ  said,  "  His  duty 
was  to  collect  troops  and  not  to  assist  at  the  siege  of  Gonia,  I  will  not  pardon 
this  fault  unless  he  finishes  in  eight  hours  the  recital  of  the  Koran  (Khatem 
sherif)."  I  began  with  the  Bismillah  and  finished  in  somewhat  more  than  nine 
hours,  after  which  I  kissed  the  earth  before  my  gracious  Lord,  and  received  from 
him  a  sable  pelisse,  a  thorough  bred  horse,  two  fine  boys,  and  a  sinecure ;  so  that 
I  now  spent  all  my  time  both  day  and  night  in  pleasure. 

Moral  Reflections. 
The  end  of  all  joy  is  disappointment,  and  the  end  of  every  day  is  bitter.  There 
is  no  doubt  about  this.  So  at  the  end  of  this  1075th  year  we  received  the  news 
by  a  swift  messenger  despatched  from  Constantinople,  that  Sultân  Ibrahim  had 
killed  without  reason  the  Grand  Vezir  Saleh  Pasha,  and  had  appointed  in  his 
place  Tezkereji  Ahmed  Pasha.  Though  this  news  greatly  afflicted  the  Pâshâ  yet 
he  kept  it  secret  not  to  spoil  the  pleasure  of  the  company,  and  transacted  the  rest 
of  his  business  at  Erzerum.  Saleh  Pâshâ,  who  had  been  one  of  the  favorite  slaves 
of  the  father  of  our  Governor,  had  for  this  reason  given  him  the  government  of 
Erzerum  ;  but  the  present  Grand  Vezi'r,  ever  since  he  had  been  the  Tezkerejf  of 
Kara  Mustafa  Pâshâ,  had  become  his  mortal  enemy.  He  kept  however  this 
secret  to  himself  and  continued  to  feast  in  his  tent  with  his  guests,  Sidi,  Ketgâj, 
Bakî  and  Dilaver  Pâshâ. 

{Here  follows  the  separate  history  of  these  four  Pdslids  and  of  the  Governor, 
which  we  omit.      In  the  chapter  of  Sidi  Pdshd  it  is  mentioned  that  playing  at 
jerid  one  day  with  Evliyd  lie  broke  four  of  his  teeth.) 


evli  YA  efendi.  199 

Account  of  our  return  from  Erzerûm  to   Constantinople  in  the 
month  ofZUkadeh  1057  (1647). 

We  left  the  town  by  the  gate  of  Erzenjan  and  halted  first  in  the  plain  called 
the  circles  of  Bazar-bashi,  where  farewell  presents  were  lavished  on  us  by  all  the 
Aghfis  and  principal  men  of  Erzerûm,  who  both  by  day  and  niglit  formed  their  court 
around  the  tent  of  the  Pasha.  The  Kiaya  of  Saleh  Pasha,  the  governor  of 
Baghdad,  accompanied  by  an  hundred  and  fifty  Aghâs,  an  hundred  and  seventy 
Kapijî-bashî,  seven  hundred  men,  Sârija,  and  three  hundred  Segban,  arrived  here 
with  the  news  of  Saleh  Pasha  having  been  killed.  The  next  day  a  messenger 
came  from  Constantinople  with  a  Khattf-sherif  conferring  on  governor -Mohammed 
Pasha,  our  gracious  Lord,  the  Governorship  of  Karss  with  the  obligation  to  take 
the  field  against  the  Persians  by  defending  the  frontier.  The  Governor,  our 
gracious  Lord,  said,  "  Be  it  now  as  it  may,"  and  without  paying  attention  to  the 
Khatti-sherif  continued  his  way  to  Constantinople.  The  first  station,  three  hours 
to  the  vvest  of  Erzerûm,  was  the  village  of  Kân,  an  Armenian  village  in  the 
midst  of  the  plain.  Five  hours  further  westward,  the  village  Ilija,  possessing  a  hot 
spring,  covered  with  high  cupolas  by  the  munificence  of  the  Princes  o£the  dynasty 
of  Akche-koynnli.  The  basin  is  not  paved  with  stones,  but  only  strewed  with 
white  sand.  The  water  is  of  a  moderate  heat  and  smells  like  that  of  other  hot 
springs,  but  is  more  conducive  to  health  than  the  warm  spring  of  Zia-ud-din. 
From  hence  we  advanced  five  hours  to  the  westward  to  the  village  of  Khinnis,  an 
Armenian  village  of  two  hundred  houses,  and  in  five  hours  more  came  to  the 
village  of  Mamakhatun,  a  mussulman  village  of  two  hundred  houses.  This  Lady 
was  a  pious  Lady  of  the  Akche-Koyûnlf  family,  and  lies  buried  here  with  her 
children  beneath  a  high  cupola ;  there  is  a  mosque,  an  imaret,  and  a  college. 
Advancing  for  five  hours  over  valleys  and  hills  we  reached  tlie  village  of  Ketur  on 
the  territory  of  Erzerûm,  where  the  Euphrates  is  crossed  by  a  bridge  of  fir-tree. 
The  Pasha  halted  here  for  three  days,  and  sent  me  on  a  mission  to  Mirakhor 
Aghâ,  the  inspector  of  the  salt  of  Kumâkh. 

Our  journey  to  the  Castle  of  Kumdkh. 

The  Castle  of  Kumâkh  was  built  by  the  Greek  Emperors  and  then  came  into 
the  hands  of  the  Akche-koyûnlî.  When  in  the  possession  of  Uzun  Hassan,  the 
king  of  Azerbeijan,  it  was  besieged  by  Timur  for  seven  months,  during  which  the 
besieged  disdained  to  fire  a  single  shot  or  throw  a  single  stone  on  the  besiegers. 
After  the  defeat  of  Uzun  Hassan  it  was  also  besieged  by  Mohammed  HL,  dur- 
ing three  months  without  success.  Selim  I.  when  governor  of  Trebisonde,  availed 
himself  of  a  good  opportunity  and  conquered  it.     He  then   crossed  from  Trebi- 


200  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

sonde  with  three  liundred  ships  to  Caffa  and  Crimea  on  the  opposite  shore  with 
the  intention  of  wresting  the  sovereign  power  from  the  hands  of  his  father,  Bâya- 
zîd  II.  assisted  by  the  Tatars  of  the  Crimea.  The  Father  and  Son  met  near 
Hâjî  Oghlî-bazarı  in  the  valley  of  Oghrash,  and  Selim  being  defeated  left  his  son 
Suleiman,  Governor  of  Trebisonde,  and  went  himself  into  Persia,  where  he  visited 
the  tombs  of  great  Saints  like  imân  Mûssa  and  played  at  chess  with  the  Shah,  who 
at  this  time  had  taken  possession  of  Kumâkh.  Selim  then  defeated  his  father  at 
Chorli,  who  exiled  to  Demitoca  died  at  Hâssa.  Selim  I  received  at  Yenî-bâghje 
the  obeisance  of  the  inhabitants  of  Constantinople,  and  instantly  fixed  the  tails  at 
Scutari  as  the  signal  of  a  Persian  expedition.  The  castle  of  Kumâkh  was  con- 
quered by  Bikli  Mohammed  Pâshâ.  It  is  one  of  the  strongest  fortresses  of  the 
Ottoman  Empire,  like  those  of  Diârbekr,  Mârdîn,  Van,  Sın  Kara-hissâr,  Afiûn 
Kara-hissâr,  Megu,  Eremnâk,  Merkâb,  Hassan,  Karak  in  Asia,  and  in  Rûm 
Mengesha,  Napoli,  Misistra,  Rodos,  &c.  it  is  loftier  than  all  these  and  is  invisible 
till  noon,  from  clouds  which  pour  frequent  showers  upon  it.  At  the  time  of  the 
description  of  the  country  by  Sultân  Suleiman  it  was  set  down  as  the  seat  of  a 
Voivode,  subordinate  to  Erzerum.  Three  districts  belong  to  it ;  that  of  the  town, 
ofGerjanis,  and  of  Kûrûchaî,  from  which  the  Judge  gathers  an  annual  revenue 
of  three  thousand  piastres.  The  Castle  has  a  Dizdar  and  a  garrison  of  five  hun- 
dred men,  an  officer  of  the  Janissaries  (Serdâr),  of  the  Sipahîs  (Kiayayeri),  and  a 
Nakib  ;  another  officer  rules  the  village  of  Gomur  on  the  other  side  of  the 
Euphrates,  which  consists  of  seven  hundred  houses  :  this  officer  is  the  Inspector 
of  the  salt,  which  is  sweeter  than  the  salt  of  Hajî-begtâsh. 

The  inhabitants  of  Türkistan  and  Turcomania  get  all  their  salt  from  Kumâkh. 
A  linen  which  is  no  where  else  to  be  found  in  such  perfection,  is  made  here  for 
tents.  There  is  a  proverb  in  praise  of  the  linen  of  Kumâkh,  the  sheep  of  Erzenjân 
and  the  girls  of  Baiburd.  The  river  Komur,  which  passes  through  the  gardens 
of  the  village  that  bears  its  name,  comes  from  the  mountains  of  Jerjânish  and  joins 
the  Euphrates  near  the  convent  of  Melek  Ghâzî  Effendî.  Near,  and  opposite  to 
it,  is  Mobarek,  an  armenian  village,  the  khass  of  the  garrison  of  Erzenim.  The 
water,  which  distils  in  the  caverns  of  the  mountain  freezes  in  the  summer  time 
and  in  the  winter  is  as  warm  as  a  hot  spring.  Tlie  inhabitants  keep  in  these 
caverns  their  cheese  called  Katik-peiniri.  In  coming  hither  from  Erzerum  you 
cross  the  Euphrates  over  a  large  single  arched  bridge,  ascend  a  height  of  five  hun- 
dred paces  and  pass  along  the  rocky  tract  called  Keban.  There  towering  rocks 
are  on  the  right,  as  you  ascend  the  castle  and  on  the  left  are  deep  precipices. 
The  small  river  Ain  Manzar  here  flows  into  the  Euphrates.  This  river  issues  from 
Mount  Manzar,  unites  with  the  Sâterdereh,  a  torrent  which  supplies  water  to  the 


EVLIYAEFENDI,  201 

gardens  of  the  town  and  joins  the  Euphrates  below  the  rocks  of  Kepân.  The 
water  is  clear  and  fresh.  Near  it  is  a  rock  called  All's  rock,  where  people 
believe  they  are  cured  of  pains  in  the  limbs,  because  Alî  is  said  to  have  rested 
here  his  weary  limbs  ;  it  is  a  stone  like  a  magnet,  and  the  inhabitants  call 
it  Kullikia ;  above  is  the  suburb  of  the  Infidels.  The  houses,  with  and  without 
gardens,  are  all  covered  with  earth.  The  subjects  are  all  Armenians ;  there  are 
three  hundred  shops,  but  no  bezestan  of  stone,  two  khans,  two  baths,  and  a  great 
mosque  :  the  bath  near  it  is  called  Chorbdjî-hamâm.  The  suburb  has  no  fortifica- 
tion (Robat)  round  it,  but  above  it  is  a  great  castle. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Kumdkh. 

This  castle  is  a  pentagon  of  stone  situate  on  a  chalk  cliff;  it  may  be  compared 
to  the  castle  of  Sin-hissar  on  the  frontiers  of  Erzerûm.  On  the  opposite  side 
of  the  Euphrates  is  a  height  by  which  it  is  commanded,  but  the  distance  is  too 
great  to  make  it  of  consequence.  It  has  three  strong  gates  one  behind  the  other ; 
on  the  right  and  left  of  the  first  gate  are  two  brass  guns,  well  worthy  to  be  seen, 
of  such  dimensions  that  a  cobler  might  very  well  work  in  them  without  complain- 
ing of  the  narrowness  of  the  place.  They  are  of  the  time  of  Sultân  Suleiman  -, 
their  length  twenty-seven  spans  and  their  balls  of  three  quintals  weight.  The 
greatest  wonder  is  how  they  succeeded  in  bringing  such  large  guns  to  so  high 
a  place.  At  the  innermost  or  third  gate  is  suspended  the  mace  of  a  Pehlivan, 
and  a  bow  of  Alî.  The  number  of  the  houses  great  and  small  is  six  hundred,  but 
they  want  gardens  and  water.  Five  magazines  have  been  filled  with  rice  and 
millet  ever  since  the  time  of  Sultân  Selîm  I.,  which  seem  as  though  they  had 
been  laid  up  but  to-day.  There  are  eleven  mosques  ;  the  Beg's  is  a  large  mosque 
with  a  minareh  of  stone  ;  though  this  castle  is  built  on  a  rock,  yet  the  houses  are 
paved  with  flat  stones.  On  the  tower  called  the  Martyrs  towards  the  north  are 
thirty-two  large  and  small  guns  ;  from  the  gate  of  the  Martyrs,  a  water-way  cut 
in  the  rock  leads  down  to  the  foot  of  it,  by  which  they  fetch  the  water  at  the  time 
of  a  siege.  There  are  three  cisterns  here  near  one  another,  the  first  is  full  of 
good  water,  the  second  smells  of  saltpetre  and  the  third  is  very  salt.  Though 
this  town  is  a  town  of  Türkistan,  situated  on  the  territory  of  Erzerüm,  yet  its 
inhabitants  are  goodnatured,  sound  people.  The  linen  for  tents,  the  white  salt 
and  the  cheese  called  Katik-peinirî,  which  is  better  and  sweeter  than  that  of 
Mytilene  and  of  Koreisha  at  Damascus,  are  famous  all  over  Asia.  The  quails, 
which  in  summer  come  in  great  numbers,  the  inhabitants  preserve  in  vinegar  for 
the  winter. 

Near  the  magazines  are  the  pilgrimage  of  Kend  Effendî  and  at  the  head  of  the 

VOL.  II.  D  D 


202  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

bridge,  that  of  Melek  Ghazî.  As  this  town  is  not  situated  on  the  great  road, 
caravans  do  not  pass  here.  The  Euphrates  on  the  east  comes  from  the  moun- 
tains of  Riimli  Sultân  and  flows  round  the  rock  towards  the  west  to  the  Izûlî 
Kurds.  From  the  Alps  of  a  thousand  lakes  (Bingol)  comes  the  Murad  river, 
which  joins  the  Euphrates.  Whoever  travels  from  Malatia,  Kharput,  Ekin, 
Pâlava,  or  Diârbekr  can  only  cross  it  in  a  boat.  I  viewed  this  town  for  three 
whole  days,  collected  what  was  due  by  the  Voivode  to  the  Pasha,  and  received 
from  him  an  hundred  piastres  as  a  present  of  arrival  (Küdûmie).  I  returned  in 
five  days  to  Kumakh  and  set  out  next  day  northward  along  the  Euphrates  to 
Shurim,  which  has  two  hundred  houses ;  ten  hours  further,  to  the  station  of 
Jebjeh-khânı ;  then  leaving  the  Euphrates  to  the  right,  to  the  village  of  Jemen, 
an   Armenian  village  on  the  plain    of  Erzenjan  ;     from   whence  we   arrived  at 

Erzenjân. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Erzenjdn. 

This  castle  belongs  to  Erzerum  and  not  to  Azerbeijân.  There  are  four  towns, 
which  bear  the  name  of  Erzen,  viz  :  Erzen  in  Mesopotamia  (Jezire),  Erzen 
Akhlat,  Erzenriim  commonly  called  Erzerum,  and  Erzenjan.  It  is  a  delightful 
spot,  the  possession  of  which  occasioned  many  wars,  till  in  the  year  855  Sultân 
Bayazîd  I.  received  it  from  its  prince,  Zâhir-ud-dîn,  who,  the  very  same  day  he 
heard  of  the  conquest  of  Amasia,  repaired  to  this  town  and  delivered  to  Sultân 
Bayazid  the  keys.  Bayazîd  out  of  generosity  returned  the  keys  to  Zahir-ud-dfn 
on  condition  that  Khutbeh  be  performed,  and  the  coinage  struck  in  his  name. 
Zâhir-ud-dîn  died  three  years  afterwards  and  the  town  was  taken  possession  of  by 
Kara  Yûssüf,  the  Prince  of  the  dynasty  of  Kara-koyûnlî,  who  held  it  for  seven 
years,  until  Timiir  overrun  Asia.  Kara  Yûssüf  fled  from  his  residence  and  sought 
shelter  at  the  throne  of  Sultân  Bayazîd,  together  with  Ahmed  Jelair,  the  Com- 
mander of  Baghdad.  Timur  required  Bayazîd  to  deliver  them  up  to  him,  but 
Bayazîd  refused,  and  this  refusal  was  the  chief  cause  of  the  war  between  them. 
Kara  Yûssüf  and  Jelair  afterwards  fled  into  Egypt  to  Sultân  Berkûk.  Erzenjan 
fell  into  the  hands  of  Uzun  Hassan,  who  being  already  Prince  of  Azerbeijân 
became  also  Prince  of  Erzenjan.  His  mint  is  still  extant  near  the  convent  of  the 
Mevlevîs.  After  the  defeat  and  death  of  Bayazîd,  the  Empire  was  disputed 
by  the  Princes  Issa,  Mussa,  Suleiman  and  Mohammed,  the  latter  obtained  it  and 
became  absolute  Lord,  but  was  unable  to  conquer  Erzenjan,  which  remained  in 
the  hands  of  Uzun  Hassan  until  the  time  of  Mohammed  H.,  who  took  possession 
of  it  after  the  defeat  of  Uzun  Hassan  on  the  plain  of  Terjân.  He  repaired  the 
castle  of  Sultân  Zahir-ud-dfn  and  garrisoned  it  with  Ottoman  troops.  In  the  reign 
of  Bayazîd   II.,   when  Sultân   Seh'm  was  governor  of  Trebisonde,   Shah  Ismail 


evliya  efendi.  203 

took  possession  of  Azerbeijan,  which  returned  to  its  first  Lord  after  the  battle 
of  Chaldirdn  in  the  year  921  (1515) ;  Erzenjân  was  then  made  a  part  of  the 
revenues  of  the  Pasha  of  Erzerûm.  Its  magistrates  are  a  Sûbashi  and  a  judge 
with  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  who  may  collect  annually  six  purses.  The 
other  officers  are  the  Mufti,  Nakîb,  Serdâr,  Kiayayerî,  a  Mohtessib  (judge  of  the 
market)  and  a  Shehr-naibi  (inspector  of  the  town.) 

The  castle  is  situated  in  a  delightful  plain  in  the  midst  of  woods,  its  gates 
and  walls  are  very  low  and  its  fortifications  very  old.  At  the  time  of  the  rebellion 
of  Abaza  at  Erzerûm,  the  ditch  was  cleared  and  the  walls  repaired,  but  Abaza 
Pasha  became  nevertheless  master  of  it.  It  has  an  iron  gate,  and  the  communi- 
cation from  the  fortress  to  the  suburb  is  by  a  bridge ;  in  the  castle  are  three  hun- 
dred houses  with  and  without  gardens,  a  mosque,  a  khân  and  a  bath. 

The  great  suburb  consists  of  eighteen  hundred  houses  with  and  without  gar- 
dens, all  covered  with  neat  terraces  and  but  few  of  them  having  upper  stories ; 
seventy-six   mosques  great   and  small  without  cupolas,  and  seven  convents,  the 
most  renowned  of  which  is  that  of  the  Mevlevis ;  Chelebî  EfFendî,  the  son  of  the 
great  Mevlana  Jelal-ud-din,  is  buried  here.     This  convent  built  in  the  olden  style 
is  situated  in  the  midst  of  a  delightful  Persian  garden,  the  nightingales  of  which 
with  their  delicious  songs  feed  the  brains  of  the  poor  Dervishes,  and  intoxicate 
them  with  divine  love,  while  they  themselves  are  singing  mystic  hymns  in  the 
tunes  of  love.      Round    the   music-room    (Ima'a-khdneh)   are  the  cells  of  the 
Dervishes,  and  the  convent  is  endowed  with  a  good  kitchen  and  cellar  (Kîlâr). 
They  preserve  here  Jelâl-ud-dîn's  habit,  a  Kordn,  and  a  Mesnevi  written  by  his  own 
hand.      The   second   convent  is   that   of  Châdirjî   Sheikh   Abd-iil-kadir   Gîlâni. 
There  are  various  excellent  baths,  eleven  great  khans,  forty  abecedarian  schools, 
no  houses  for  reading  the  Koran  (Dar-ul-kirayet),  tradition   (Dar-ul-hadith)  nor 
for  dining  the  poor   (Dâr-ul-ita'âm),  but  there  are  a  great  number  of  students 
(Talebe)  ;  and  lectures  are  read  in  all  the  mosques.     Amongst  the  inhabitants 
are  found  many  clever,  goodnatured,  learned,  pious,  well-bred  men,  who  w'ear 
short  dresses,  but  no  silk  with  the  exception  of  the  soldiers,  who  dress  in  cloth 
of  various  colours  and  also  in  silk.     The  youth   of  both  sexes  are  pretty,  and  the 
ladies  are  chaste  as  Adiiyeh  Rabia,  and  wear  when  walking  boots  and  a  pointed 
cap  (Arakjin) ;  they  are  prohibited  from  walking  in  the  market-place,  which  con- 
tains six  hundred  houses.     Precious  articles  are  kept  in  a  small  bezestân.     From 
hence  to  Erzerûm  situated  beyond  the  mountains  is  two  journies.     The  climate 
of  Erzerûm  is  rough  and  very  cold,  while  that  of  Erzenjan  on   the  contrary  is 
mild,  and  favourable  to  roses  and  flowers.     Snow  falls  sometimes,  but  remains  no 
longer  than  three  days.     Its  gardens  are  productive  of  the  finest  flowers  and  the 
sweetest  fruits. 


204  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

Praise  of  the  Eatables  and  Beverages. 

Seventy  sorts  of  pears  are  produced  here ;  and  though  the  season  of  winter 
was  far  advanced  at  the  time  of  our  stay  here,  yet  we  now  saw  seventeen  various 
sorts  of  pears  offered  as  presents  to  the  Pasha,  with  raisins  and  apricots  ;  its 
mulberries  both  white  and  black  are  much  renowned  and  when  dried  are  exported 
to  all  countries.  The  sherbet  of  mulberries  seasoned  with  different  spices  gives 
new  life  to  the  soul.  Erzenim  is  provided  with  fruits  from  this  town,  from 
whence  they  are  transported  in  two  days. 

Pilgrimages. 

The  convent  of  Khizr,  a  convent  of  Mevlevîs ;  the  convent  of  Sheikk  Khaled 
Efendî ;  and  the  tomb  of  Himmet  Pâshd,  one  of  the  vezirs  of  Sultân  Selim,  who 
was  killed  on  his  way  to  Chaldiran. 

I  remained  here  for  three  days  to  collect  the  sums  due  from  the  Inspectors  of 
salt  and  the  Sübâshî  of  Kürûchai.  Whilst  the  inhabitants  were  giving  feasts  to 
the  Pâshâ  news  arrived  of  the  rebellion  of  Vârvâr  Pâshâ,  with  a  letter  to  the 
following  intent :  "  My  son  !  Hezarpara  Ahmed  Pâslıâ  the  Vezir  of  Ibrahim 
has  killed  eleven  Vezirs  and  deprived  me  of  the  Governorship  of  Sivas,  because 
I  did  not  send  to  the  Sultân  the  wife  of  Ipshir  Pâshâ,  the  daughter  of  the  Prince 
of  Georgia,  the  Lady  Perikhan.  Three  Kapijî-bashî  came  with  orders  to  take  my 
head,  but  I  happily  escaped  from  them.  I  have  now  received  letters  from  all  the 
great  and  principal  men  at  Constantinople,  and  from  the  officers  of  the  seven 
military  corps,  summoning  me  to  come  with  my  troops  to  Scutarf,  and  to  demand 
there  the  heads  of  the  Vezir,  of  Jenji  Khoja,  Begtâsh  Aghâ,  Chelebî  Kiaya, 
Mossleh-ud-dîn  Aghâ  and  Kara  Chaiish.  I  am  now  united  with  three  Vezirs, 
seven  Begler-begs  and  eleven  Sanjak-begs  ready  to  march  against  Constantinople. 
If  thou  wishest  to  save  thy  head  from  Ahmed  Pâshâ  (the  grand  Vezir),  I  invite 
thee  to  join  us  at  Tokat,  from  whence  we  shall  march  our  united  forces  to 
Constantinople  to  try  our  fortune."  This  letter  having  been  received  at 
Erzenjân  a  council  was  held,  and  the  levies  (levend)  having  determined  to 
follow  the  auspices  of  the  Pâshâ,  the  resolution  was  taken  to  join  the  party  of  the 
rebels,  and  a  Fâtihah  was  said  to  that  intention.  Alaja  Atlî  Hassan  Aghâ  was  sent 
on  with  a  foraging  party  to  be  quarter-master  general,  and  letters  were  sent  to 
Vârvâr  Pâshâ  with  the  declaration  upon  oath  to  join  him.  I,  poor  Evliya,  was 
quite  perplexed  and  out  of  my  wits,  I  had  so  many  things  and  goods,  which  I 
knew  not  how  to  dispose  of.  We  were  in  the  midst  of  winter,  and  the  tradition 
of  the  prophet,  "a  journey  is  a  portion  of  hell,  be  it  but  a  farsang's  length," 
received  its  full  application.    I  did  not  know  where  to  leave  my  things  in  safety  ; 


evliya  efendi.  205 

and  only  with  my   horse  and  sword  accompany  the  Pasha,  my  gracious  Lord, 
as  a  rebel. 

We  first  moved  from  Erzenj^n  to  the  north  and  halted  after  seven  hours  at 
Bâshkhdn  ;    five  hours  further,  to    the    village  Erzensî,  an  Armenian  village,  six 
hours   further  to  the   village    of  Sheikh  Sinan,  near  which  at  Bârûgünde  is  the 
tomb    of  Behlul  of  Samarkand,  a  convent  of  bareheaded  and  barefooted   Beg- 
tâshîs ;  and    three  hours  further  we  crossed    the  bridge  of  the  Shepherds  near 
Hassan  Kala'assi.     Shah  Kürtidûmân  of  the  Chobân  family  is  buried  in  the  same 
place  with  Behlul  of  Samarkand.     It  is  said,  that  the  tomb  being  opened.  King 
Chobân  Kûrüdûmân  with  all   his  family    was  burnt  by  a  fire  that  issued  out  by 
talismanic  virtue.     He  was  a  Prince  of  great  enterprise,  built  the  bridge  of  Tiflis 
and  near  Melazjerd  the  bridge  with  golden  rings  over  the  Araxes.     Adjoining  the 
bridge  is  a  magnificent  caravanserai,  the  windows  of  which  look  on  the  river,  so 
that  travellers   lodging  there   have  the  pleasure  of  fishing  out  of  their  windows. 
I  have  sometimes    passed    this  bridge  on  my    way  to  and  from  Erivan.     This 
time  I  visited  the  builder's  tomb  and  said  the   Sura  yass,  for  his  soul.     We  left 
Bârûgûnide  and  came  after  a  march  of  eight  hours  to  the  north  to  Ezendeler,  a 
cultivated  village  in  the  district  of  Terjan,  and  after  four  hours  more  to  the  north 
to  the  station  of  Tapan  Ahmed  Aghâ,  where  a  feast  for  ten  days  was  ordained. 
Here  I  took  leave  of  the  Pasha  and  proceeded  with  the  men  of  Ahmed  Aghâ  to 
Shin   Kara   Hissar.     I  first  travelled  towards  the  east  through  woods  and  deserts 
along  the  valley  of  Kara  hissar,  and  villages  belonging  to  it,  and  reached  the  town 
itself  after  a  nine  hours  march. 

Description  of  the  strong  Castle  of  Shin  or  Shdbm  Kara-hissdr. 

There  are  in  the  Ottoman  Empire  various  castles,  which  bear  the  name  of 
Kara-hissar,  the  most  renowned  of  which  is  that  before  us.  The  others  are 
Kara-hissar  called  Afiun  (Apamea),  Develi'  Kora-hissâr,  Adalia  Kara-hissârî,  and 
Van  Kara-hissârî.  The  two  first  are  superior  to  the  others.  Shâbîn  Kara- 
hissar  is  so  called  because  a  mine  of  alum  (Shab)  was  found  in  its  mountains ; 
the  stones  of  the  castle  being  black,  it  is  also  called  Shabîn  from  Shab  (night,  dark 
coloured).  It  was  built  by  the  Armenian  kings,  fell  into  the  power  of  the  Greek 
Princes  of  Trebisonde,  and  then  into  that  of  Zâhir-ud-dîn,  the  Prince  of  Erzenjân, 
who  conquered  it  on  a  dark  night,  which  is  another  reason  given  for  its  being  called 
Shabîn.  It  passed  into  the  power  of  Uzun  Hassan,  the  Prince  of  Azerbeijan  and 
was  taken  from  him  by  Mohammed  II.  In  the  time  of  Sultân  Selîm  I.  it  was 
described  as  a  sanjak  belonging  to  the  government  of  Erzerum.  Its  khass  is  thir- 
teen thousand  aspers ;  and  there  are  thirty-six  ziamets  and  nine  hundred  and  forty 
timars,  which  furnish,  together  with  the  men  belonging  to  the  Beg,  two  thousand 


206  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

men.  The  revenue  of  the  Pâshâ  amounts  annually  to  forty  purses.  It  has  some- 
times been  given  as  a  supplementary  allowance  (Arpalik)  to  Pashas  of  three 
tails.  It  was  so  given  to  Ghâzî  Sefer  Pâshâ,  the  vezir  of  Akhiska,  in  addition  to 
Akhiska.  His  administrator  (Motessellem)  was  Dei-vish  Aghâ,  a  Georgian  and 
powerful  commander.  He  once  sent  me  on  service  to  the  vallies  of  Mendvdl 
and  Tûsdereh  by  which  I  gained  a  horse,  a  sword,  two  red  mules,  and  a  Georgian 
boy  ;  presented  to  me  by  himself.  The  judge  is  appointed  with  an  hundred  and 
fifty  aspers  and  may  annually  make  four  thousand  piastres  from  the  different 
districts.  There  is  a  Mufti,  a  Nakîb,  a  Serdâr,  Kiaya-yerî,  Subashî,  Mohtessib, 
a  Dizdar  and  an  hundred  and  fifty  men  invested  with  timars. 

The  castle  of  Shabîn  Kara-hissâr  is  of  a  heptagon  form  and  stands  on  a  high 
mountain,  appearing  like  a  man  of  war  dismantled  and  dismasted.  It  is  the  work 
of  an  architect  who  was  a  second  Ferhâd.  It  is  one  of  the  twelve  fortresses  in 
the  Ottoman  Empire,  which,  not  being  commanded  by  the  neighbouring  heights, 
seem  to  have  been  built  by  the  hand  of  Omnipotence.  The  height  of  the  walls 
on  all  the  seven  sides  is  seventy  cubits,  with  seventy  bulwarks  and  seven  hundred 
battlements.  The  whole  circumference  is  three  thousand  six  hundred  paces  ; 
there  is  no  ditch,  it  being  surrounded  by  precipices.  It  has  three  strong  gates 
where  the  garrison  keep  watch  day  and  night,  because  the  inhabitants  of  the 
villages  along  the  shores  of  the  Black  sea  send  all  their  best  goods  into  the 
castle  to  protect  them  from  the  inroads  of  the  Cossacks  ;  there  are  seventy  houses 
with  terraces,  but  they  suffer  from  want  of  water,  which  is  obliged  to  be  brought 
upon  asses  from  the  river  below ;  in  case  of  siege  they  use  the  water  kept  in 
cisterns.  The  magazines  are  full  of  millet  and  rice,  and  have  been  for  more  than  a 
century.  As  it  is  not  a  frontier  fortress  the  artillery  is  neither  heavy  nor  numerous. 
A  small  mosque  bearing  the  name  of  Sultân  Mohammed  II.,  a  khân,  bath 
and  market  are  in  the  lower  town  or  suburb.  This  suburb,  with  gardens  around 
it,  consists  of  sixteen  hundred  terraced  houses,  the  windows  of  which  look 
towards  the  north  ;  the  courtyards  are  spacious.  There  are  forty-two  mosques, 
none  of  which  are  covered  with  lead,  hke  those  of  the  Sultans  at  Constantinople  ; 
the  one  within  the  market  place  near  the  court  of  justice  is  much  frequented  : 
three  convents,  two  baths,  four  khans,  seven  schools  for  boys  and  an  hundred 
and  fifty  shops ;  as  this  place  does  not  lie  on  the  great  road,  but  on  one  side  of 
it,  its  establishments  are  not  very  elegant.  Tapan  Ahmed  Aghâ  began  a  new 
bezestân  with  eighty  shops  on  both  sides  of  the  main  street ;  it  is  sheltered  by  a 
roof  against  rain  and  foul  weather,  and  protected  by  two  gates  on  each  side  against 
thieves  and  bad  men.  Watchmen  keep  guard  every  night  because  many  precious 
things  are  deposited  there. 


evliya  efendi.  207 

Description  of  a  Lion. 

Upon  the  gate  leading  to  the  outer  town  a  Hon,  stuffed  with  cotton,  is  to  be 
seen,  it  has  oranges  in  the  place  of  eyes,  yawning  like  a  seven-headed  dragon,  with 
a  piece  of  red  felt  instead  of  a  tongue,  and  teeth  as  sharp  as  Turcoman  daggers  or 
Arab  lances.  It  measures  from  its  nose  to  its  tail  forty-five  spans.  This  moun- 
tain lion  continued  his  havoc  on  the  cattle  of  the  neighbouring  country  for  seven 
years,  when  it  was  killed  by  a  brave  man,  and  placed  by  the  order  of  Ahmed  Tapan 
upon  the  gate  of  his  new  built  bezestân.  It  is  a  terrific  beast,  with  feet  resembling 
columns ;  it  is  not  so  beautiful  as  the  lions  of  Baghdad,  Helle,  Jevazer  and 
Kavarna,  with  their  yellow  coloured  hair  of  a  span's  length,  like  Angora-goats. 
Lions  being  generally  the  inhabitants  of  deserts,  this  one  of  the  mountains 
deserves  so  much  the  more  to  be  noticed.  The  mountains  of  this  part,  being 
all  covered  with  thick  forests,  abound  with  leopards,  lynxes,  wild  sheep,  martens, 
wolves,  foxes  and  jackals,  and  men  are  scarcely  able  to  fetch  wood  from  the  moun- 
tains because  they  are  so  full  of  ferocious  animals.  A  party  of  Cossacks,  who  had 
once  pushed  their  inroads  as  far  as  these  mountains,  became  the  prey  of  wild 
beasts ;  intending  to  devour  men's  goods  they  were  themselves  devoured,  and  ever 
since  the  town  has  enjoyed  perfect  security  from  the  roving  Cossacks,  who  availed 
themselves  of  the  vicinity  of  the  Black  Sea. 

In  this  town  I  saw  another  marvellous  thing,  it  was  a  boy  standing  before  a 
barber's  shop  with  his  father  who  begged  alms ;  the  boy  was  about  eight  or  nine 
years  of  age  with  a  stupendous  head,  like  the  heads  of  the  people  of  A'ad  and 
Themud,  like  the  head  of  Salsfil  (?)  at  Akgermân  or  like  pumkins  of  Adana  and 
cabbages  of  Van,  on  a  neck  no  thicker  than  an  arm,  which  not  being  capable  of 
bearing  such  an  enormous  weight  the  head  was  supported  by  a  wooden  fork, 
which  was  fixed  in  the  ground,  and  on  it  the  weight  of  the  head  rested. 
This  monstrous  head,  held  up  in  this  way  before  a  barber's  shop,  laughed  in  the 
faces  of  all  who  passed  by.  It  had  no  turban  but  a  kind  of  coarse  saddle-cloth 
wrapped  round  it,  the  brows  were  of  two  fingers  breadth  extending  to  the  ears, 
which  were  of  human  form,  but  of  immense  size,  as  were  also  the  eyes,  the  lashes 
of  which  resembled  arrows  ;  the  nose  was  somewhat  of  the  shape  of  a  Melonyena 
(Bâdinjân)  of  Morea,  and  when  breathing,  the  nostrils  were  like  those  of  a  snorting 
horse  ;  the  mouth  opened  to  such  an  astonishing  width,  that  he  was  able  to  swallow 
at  once  a  small  water  melon  ;  of  his  teeth  two  were  curved  outside  of  the  mouth 
towards  the  upper,  and  two  downwards  to  the  under  lip  ;  the  lips  were  ruby- 
coloured  but  like  the  lips  of  a  camel ;  the  spittle  was  continually  running  out  of 
his  mouth.  The  physiognomy  was  that  of  a  Kalmuk,  and  the  hair  crisped  like  that 
of  black  Arabs.  The  arms  and  breasts  were  those  of  a  boy's  of  his  years,  the  fingers 


208  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

very  thin  and  the  feet  like  sticks.  This  was  a  case  to  apply  the  verse  of  the 
Koran  to :  "  God  does  what  he  wills  and  orders  what  he  likes."  I  asked  the 
father  whether'  the  mother  of  this  monstrous  child  was  still  alive,  he  said 
"  Yes,  and  that  she  was  actually  again  with  child."  I  said,  "  Bandage  her  body 
tightly,  that  she  may  miscarry,  for  if  the  head  of  the  child  should  grow  to  the 
size  of  its  brother's,  its  entrance  into  tiie  world  might  cause  an  inconvenient 
enlargement."  The  father  said,  "  You  are  joking,  but  I  assure  you  most  earnestly, 
that  when  the  mother  of  this  boy  laid  in  with  him,  the  birth  was  so  easy  that 
she  was  aware  of  nothing  at  all  and  thanked  God  for  such  an  easy  deliverance." 
I,  poor  Evliyd,  said,  "  But  never  has  there  been  created  a  creature  with  such  a 
head,  such  a  face  and  such  teeth  ;  do  you  believe  it  to  be  the  real  produce  of 
your  loins?"  The  man  answered,"  Having  once  gone  to  the  mountain  with  my 
wife  to  cut  wood,  we  there  enjoyed  a  shepherd's  hour  in  most  pleasant  conversa- 
tion. I  then  left  her  reposing  under  a  tree,  and  went  on  my  business,  when 
I  suddenly  heard  her  cries,  and  saw  her  running  towards  me  pursued  by  a  naked 
giant,  tall  as  the  fir-trees.  When  she  got  home  she  fell  sick,  and  her  figure  in- 
creased in  size  daily,  until  at  the  end  of  a  year's  time  she  was  delivered  of  this  boy, 
whose  head  grows  bigger  and  bigger  every  day."  I  said,  "  If  it  please  God,  that  it 
should  still  grow  to  a  larger  size,  you  must  come  to  Constantinople,  where  if 
shown  to  the  Vezirs  and  great  men  of  the  Empire  he  may  easily  gain  two  thou- 
sand piastres  in  a  year." 

Praise  of  the  Alum,  called  Solomons  Alum. 

This  is  a  reddish  alum  produced  in  the  mountains  of  this  town,  which  is  there- 
fore called  Shâbîn  Kara-hissâr  ;  it  is  much  sought  after  by  the  goldsmiths  of  all 
countries.  The  Inspectorship  is  let  at  seven  hundred  thousand  aspers  a  year. 
It  breaks  up  into  pentagon  and  sexagon  stones  shaped  like  the  seal  of  Solomon  ; 
the  goldsmiths  use  it  to  brighten  the  silver,  and  the  surgeons  for  plasters.  It  has 
many  excellent  qualities.  The  temperature  of  this  town  being  mild  the  inhabitants 
are  fair.  Its  quinces  and  a  kind  of  small  bread  are  famous.  We  remained  here 
three  days  as  guests  in  the  palace  of  Tapan  Ahmed  Aghâ,  purchased  coffee,  horse- 
shoes and  some  other  necessary  things  and  then  returned. 

On  our  journey  we  passed  a  great  river,  which  flows  into  the  Kerkük,  and 
whose  waters  collect  from  the  vallies  of  Mând,  Yâl,  and  Kürd-dereh.  After  six 
hours  march  to  the  west  we  reached  the  village  of  Yakûb-aghâ  and  further  on, 
along  the  shores  of  the  Kerkük,  through  steep  and  stony  ways  and  the  tremendous 
pass  of  Boghâz-kessen,  to  where  the  river,  which  flows  through  Amasia,  enters 
the  Kerkük,  and  falls  into  the  sea  at  Ener.     Having  passed  it  we  continued  our 


evliya  efendi.  209 

way  for  eight  hours  over  hills  and  valleys  and  arrived  at  the  Castle  of  Hdji  Murâd, 
built  by  Uziin  Hassan's  vezfr.  After  the  defeat  of  Uzun  Hassan  it  surrendered 
its  keys  without  contest  to  Mahmud  Pâshâ,  the  vezir  of  Sultcin  Mohammed  H. 
It  is  a  high  and  steep  castle  like  that  of  Kavilî-hissâr,  of  a  thousand  paces  in 
circumference  and  without  a  ditch,  which  from  its  situation  on  a  hill  would 
be  superfluous.  In  the  castle  are  seventy  small  houses,  but  no  market,  khan, 
bath,  college  or  imiiret.  There  are  a  great  number  of  nut-trees.  On  the  border 
of  the  Kerkük,  which  flows  at  the  foot  of  the  castle  in  a  deep  valley  is  a  khan. 
The  Sûbashî  resident  here  is  subordinate  to  Shâbîn  Kara-hissâr.  I  here  informed 
the  Pâshâ  of  the  strength  of  Shâbîn  Kara-hissâr,  at  which  he  was  surprised. 
From  hence  we  ascended  a  high  mountain  to  the  north  and  came  in  six  hours  to 
the  village  of  Chatidâr ;  in  seven  more  to  Emirler,  a  village  in  the  territory  of 
Shâbîn ;  in  five  more  to  an  Armenian  village  ;  in  four  more  to  the  west  to  the 
village  of  Kîlârjî  Veliaga,  on  the  border  of  a  high  mountain,  consisting  of  two 
hundred  houses,  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Iskefser,  in  five  more  to  the  station  of 
Bâsh-chiflik  also  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Iskefser  on  the  frontier  of  Erzerum  and 
Sivas,  which  has  already  been  mentioned  on  our  road  to  Erzerum.  Further  to 
the  west  is  the  castle  of  Nîk-hissâr  (good  castle)  and  five  hours  further  the 
village  of  Kazan -kia  in  the  province  of  Sîvâs,  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Nîk-hissâr. 
Still  passing  to  the  west  by  Boghâz-kessen  we  came  through  thick  woods  to  the 
village  of  Kûmânova ;  in  two  hours  more  to  the  great  village  Sontissa,  on  the 
frontier  of  Nîgissâr,  with  three  hundred  houses,  a  mosque,  and  bath ;  and  in  five 
hours  more  to  Zavâdî-tekiessî,  of  two  hundred  houses,  on  a  high  mountain  on  the 
frontier  of  Lâdîk ;  a  great  foundation,  being  a  great  convent  at  the  tomb  of  a 
great  saint.  Its  Dervishes  are  almost  all  of  the  Prophet's  family.  I  here  per- 
formed with  the  Pâshâ  the  prayer  of  I'idî-asha  (Kurbân-bairâm)  and  the  Sheikh 
of  the  convent  gave  us  a  repast.  The  tails  having  been  sent  on,  we  passed  the  next 
morning  in  five  hours  the  pass  of  Setlî-pûlî,  and  arrived  at  the  village  of  Hamîd, 
which  has  a  mosque  and  gardens  ;  and  in  five  hours  more  to  the  west,  at  Lâdîk. 

Description  of  the  Castle  of  Lâdik. 
This  castle  was  built  by  one  Havîk  one  of  the  Greek  Princes  of  Amasia.  Melek 
Ghâzî  of  the  Dânishmend  family,  who  came  from  Mahân  with  the  Seljiik  family, 
conquered  both  Nîk-hissâr  and  Lâdîk  in  the  same  year.  There  are  three  Lâdîks 
in  the  Ottoman  Empire,  viz  :  that  of  Konia  now  quite  ruined  by  rebellions,  that 
of  Korlâdîk  in  the  province  of  Van  and  the  third,  Lâdîk  of  Amasia.  After  the 
conquest  of  the  town  by  Bayazid  I.,  Lâdîk  surrendered  its  keys  to  Timür-tâsh 
Pâshâ,  who  accepted  them  with  the  good  wish  that  the  inhabitants  might  live 

VOL.  II.  B  E 


210  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

long.  Tlie  blessing  of  this  wish  is  still  evident  in  the  long  and  prosperous  lives 
of  the  inhabitants.  Bayazid  II.,  when  governor  of  Amasia,  passed  six  months  of 
the  year  in  this  place  and  made  a  delightful  garden,  which  is  kept  in  order  by 
a  Master  (Usta)  and  forty  Bostânjîs,  Kurüjî  and  Tablakjî.  It  is  a  town  free  from 
all  duties  and  gifts,  because  it  is  the  wakf  of  Bulbul  Khatun  the  mother  of  Ahmed 
I.  The  governor  of  Sivas  has  no  right  to  interfere  by  his  officers.  The  judge 
has  the  rank  and  pay  of  three  hundred  aspers,  but  may  collect  in  a  fair  way  six 
purses  annually  from  the  districts.  There  is  a  Muftî,  Nakîb,  Serdâr,  Kiaya-yerî, 
Naîb  and  Mohtessib.  The  Castle  is  an  old  pile  of  building,  which  is  now  without 
a  commander  or  garrison  ;  the  Bostdnjis  run  over  the  woods  and  heaths  and 
watch  the  town,  which  has  seventeen  quarters ;  forty-seven  Mihrâbs,  six  of  which 
are  jamfs  and  three  of  them  Imperial  ones  ;  three  thousand  and  twenty  houses 
covered  with  bricks  and  surrounded  with  gardens  ;  seven  convents,  the  most  re- 
markable of  which  is  that  of  Seid  Ahmed  Kebir ;  two  baths  ;  seven  khans ;  a  large 
caravanserai,  built  by  Ghâzi  Davud  Pâshâ  ;  four  hundred  shops,  and  a  bezestan  ; 
forty-one  palaces  of  Vezirs  and  great  men,  all  having  baths  ;  no  particular  college, 
but  lectures  are  given  in  all  the  mosques ;  eighteen  schools  for  boys  and  two 
dining  establishments.  The  Noblemen  wear  sable  pelisses,  the  merchants  ferraje 
and  kontosh  of  cloth,  and  the  women  velvet  trowsers,  boots,  ferraje  of  cloth, 
white  veils  and  pointed  caps  ;  they  are  no  where  to  be  seen  but  in  the  bath  and 
in  the  houses  where  they  pay  visits.  They  are  most  modest,  lovely  creatures,  who 
entangle  lovers  with  sweet  words  and  gracious  behaviour. 

Its  eatables  are  large  pears  better  than  those  of  Malatia,  Nissû,  Khûî  and 
Merend;  delicious  cherries,  a  kind  of  bread  called  Memejik-ekmek  which  is  the 
first  bread  in  the  world  after  the  Sumun  of  Sapanja :  there  are  no  raisins, 
melons,  water-melons,  figs,  &c.  The  white  honey  called  Tâghbâlî  is  not  equalled 
either  by  that  of  Creta,  Adana  or  Sicily.     Its  fine  cotton  linen  excels  the  linen 

of  Mossul  and  Lekefur  in  Persia. 

The  Walks  of  Lddik. 

The  head  fountain  of  the  water  Bâllî-kiasü,  which  flows  through  the  town,  is 
a  pleasant  walk  on  the  Kiblah  side.  Another  famous  walk  on  the  east  side  is 
called  Frenk-gozi,  the  Frank's  eye  ;  Hossein  Pasha  built  a  koshk  by  the  splendid 
spring  which  arises  here  ;  the  water  is  so  cold  that  people  cannot  take  out  of  it 
three  stones  consecutively.  The  rivulets  formed  by  those  two  sources  of  Ballf 
and  Frenk-gozi  flow  through  the  town  supplying  water  to  the  palaces,  khans, 
mosques,  gardens,  and  mills,  and  terminate  in  the  lake  of  Lâdik.  Another 
walk  is  that  called  Akbînâr,  a  fountain  of  cold  water,  which  does  not  flow  through 
the  town,  but  outside.     All  these  sources  rise  in  the  high  mountains  to  the  north 


evliya  efendi  211 

of  the  town  and  find  their  way  into  the  lake  of  Ltidik.  On  the  west  of  Lâdik,  a 
pleasure-place  called  the  monastery,  a  delightful  spot  with  a  water  called  Râmja, 
which  is  sweeter  than  the  water  of  Ma'avia.  These  united  sources  divide  below 
the  castle  into  two  branches,  one  of  which  waters  the  gardens  of  Kowa-mahallessi 
below  the  pilgrimage  of  Khizrlik,  and  the  other  passes  by  the  pilgrimage  of  Balî- 
dedeh,  where  the  principal  men  come  to  meet  the  pilgrims  returning  from  Mecca. 

The  warm  baths  of  Lddik. 

A  hot  spring  is  situated  one  hour  and  a  half  on  the  west  of  Lddik  on  a 
high  hill  in  a  village,  called  Khalliz,  below  which  it  flows  as  a  small  rivulet,  turns 
some  mills,  and  falls  into  the  Kizil  Irmak ;  being  situated  behind  the  mountains  of 
Lâdik  it  cannot  fall  into  the  lake.  The  warm  bath  of  Khalliz  is  much  renowned. 
In  the  cherry  season  this  place  is  visited  by  thousands  of  people,  who  here 
renovate  their  health  by  God's  command.  An  outlet  from  this  hot  bath  flows 
into  the  river  Khalliz  which  empties  itself  into  the  Kizil  Irmak.  Another  warm 
bath  (Ilije,  Turkish  ;  Humma,  Arabic  ;  Germâb,  Persian  ;)  is  on  the  west  side  of 
Lâdik  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Kaiiza.  Kauza  is  in  this  country  the  name  of  a  hot 
bath,  which  in  Rumeli  is  called  Kainarje ;  in  Tartary,  Ilissi ;  in  Mogolastân, 
Kerenda  ;  and  Frangistan,  Bagno.  It  is  a  double  bath  so  that  men  and  women 
have  their  separate  bathing  places.  The  basin  in  the  men's  apartment  is  ten  feet 
square  and  is  such  a  delightful  sight  that  it  might  restore  dead  men  to  life.  The 
water  rushes  forth  from  four  lions'  mouths,  which  are  at  the  four  corners.  The 
water  is  not  very  warm,  but  in  addition  to  this  great  basin  there  is  a  small  one 
the  water  of  which  is  so  extremely  hot,  that  no  man  can  bear  it.  On  the  four 
sides  of  this  great  basin  under  vaults  are  eight  bathing  troughs,  where  thousands  of 
men  are  cured  in  the  cherry  season.  In  the  same  bath  is  a  cold,  limpid  spring, 
called  the  maiden's  eye  (Kiz-gozi),  which  gives  fresh  life  to  those  who  drink 
of  it.  The  distance  between  this  spring,  cold  as  ice,  and  the  hot  spring  is  but 
a  yard. 

Description  of  the  Lake  of  Lddik. 

This  is  a  large  lake  to  the  east  of  Lâdik,  which  would  take  a  day  to  go  round ; 
eleven  different  sorts  of  fish  are  found  in  it,  the  description  of  which  would  be 
too  long  to  give.  Twenty-six  springs  and  rivulets  flow  into  this  lake  on  its  four 
sides,  from  the  districts  of  Zedai,  Sunssa,  Kauza  and  Zeitum  ;  it  has  no  outlet. 
On  its  border  is  Boghâzi-koî,  a  pleasant  village,  and  the  village  of  Otuz,  renowned 
for  its  kaimak  (cream),  which  is  no  where  better  ;  it  can  be  cut  like  cheese  and  is 
elastic  as  gum.  If  any  Kaimak  can  be  compared  with  it,  it  is  that  of  Bfngol 
(thousand  lakes).     Amasia  lies  eight  hours  to  the  south  of  Lâdik,  and  to  the 


212  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

eastward  is  Nîk-hissâr ;  the  jurisdiction  of  Kavâkelî  is  at  a  journey's  distance. 
To  the  west  is  the  town  of  Koprî  and  the  jurisdiction  of  Zeitum  at  a  journey's 
distance.     North  to  it  is  the  harbour  of  Samsun  and  further  on  Sinope. 

Pilgrimages  of  Lddih. 

Sheikh  Seid  Ahmed  Kebîr,  buried  in  his  own  convent,  was  the  disciple  of 
Sheikh  Ekber  who  is  also  buried  here  in  the  old  mosque,  built  by  himself  in  the 
year  952  (1545)  ;  he  was  one  of  the  Sheiks  of  Sultân  Orkhân.  Beneath  the 
castle  Sheikh  Ya  Wiidiid  is  buried,  and  Bâli-dedeh  at  the  meeting  place  of  the 
caravan  of  Mecca.  Ghâzî  Taydr  Mustafa  Pasha  is  also  buried  here  beneath  a 
lead  covered  cupola. 

I  remained  at  this  place  three  days  with  my  gracious  Lord,  the  Pasha,  to  whom 
great  feasts  were  given,  and  then  marched  five  hours  to  the  west  to  the  village 
of  Shabfn-dghci,  of  two  hundred  houses,  where  Kâssim  Aghâ  gave  a  grand  feast ; 
five  hours  further  on  we  reached  the  village  of  Korkof,  of  three  hundred  houses, 
a  mosque  and  gardens.  The  next  day,  when  the  tails  were  about  to  be  carried 
forward,  two  Chaushes  arrived  as  messengers  from  Constantinople  to  Diarbekr, 
whom  the  Pasha  arrested.  On  their  being  searched  nothing  was  found  but  a 
Khatti'-sherif  to  the  Pasha  of  Baghdad,  Saleh  Pasha,  removing  him  from  his 
government  and  recalling  him  to  Constantinople  in  order  that  he  might  be  made 
Kâpûdân  Pâshâ.  The  same  day  the  Pasha  despatched  his  messenger  Saleh  to 
Murteza  Pasha,  the  brother  of  Saleh  Pâshâ,  the  governor  of  Baghdad,  to  acquaint 
him  that  couriers  from  the  Porte  were  on  the  way  with  an  invitation  to  Constan- 
tinople to  which  he  should  pay  no  attention,  but  beware  of  the  snare  laid  for  him, 
and  join  instead  the  party  of  Varvar  Ah'  Pâshâ,  who  was  marching  to  Constan- 
tinople. The  Courier  Saleh  received  an  hundred  ducats  to  join  Murteza  Pâshâ 
with  all  speed  ;  and  on  the  fourth  day  the  Khasseki  and  Chaiish,  who  were  the 
bearers  of  the  Imperial  rescript,  were  set  at  liberty  and  continued  their  route  to 
Baghdad.  The  Pâshâ  remained  six  days  at  Korkoî  and  moved  on  the  seventh, 
when  after  five  hours  march  we  reached  the  old  town  of  Merzifun. 

Description  of  Merzifun. 

It  was  built  by  the  Dânishmend  family  and  conquered  by  Bayazid  T.  It  is  now 
a  castle  in  good  condition  and  useful  against  rebels,  in  the  sanjak  of  Amasia, 
belonging  to  Sîvâs,  and  is  guarded  by  watchmen.  The  town  is  a  wakf  of  Saint 
Pirdedeh  and  is  commanded  by  the  Kizlar  Aghâ.  The  judge,  appointed  with 
three  hundred  aspers,  may  annually  collect  from  the  different  districts  six  purses. 
As  it  is  an  inland  castle  it  has  neither  commander  nor  garrison.     Its    public 


evliya  efendi.  213 

officers  are  a  Mufti,  Nakîb,  Serdâr,  Kiayayerî,  Mohtessib  and  Naîb.  We  were 
here  the  guests  of  Dilawer  Aghâ,  the  Silihdflr  of  Tabanı  Mohammed  Pâshd,  who 
treated  the  Pâshâ  and  fourteen  hundred  men  of  his  suite  for  ten  days  witfi  the 
greatest  hospitahty  :  so  that  not  even  a  bag  for  the  horses  nor  a  cup  of  coffee  were 
provided  for  by  the  Pâshîi's  people.  The  officers  were  lodged  in  the  town  by 
billet  (Ydfteh)  and  lived  with  their  hosts  in  perfect  harmony  like  fathers  and 
sons  ;  four  thousand  men  of  the  troops  were  provided  with  lodgings  in  the  neigh- 
bouring villages,  the  inhabitants  of  which,  though  Turks,  are  of  a  gentle  and 
mild  temper,  and  give  freely  of  what  they  have.  Every  necessary  for  sustaining 
life  is  here  found  in  abundance.  The  town  is  situated  on  the  border  of  Mount 
Deshan  and  contains  four  thousand  houses  covered  with  brick,  forty  four  quarters 
and  seventy  mosques,  the  oldest  of  which  is  that  of  Murad  II.,  in  the  market- 
place ;  it  is  in  the  olden  style  with  one  minâreh,  and  is  much  visited. 

The  colleges  are,  that  of  Murad  II.,  where  lectures  are  held  also  on  tradi- 
tion, seventy  schools  for  boys,  and  two  dining  rooms,  one  of  which  is  at  the 
convent  of  Pirdedeh.  At  an  hour's  distance  from  the  town  is  the  Convent  of 
Akasha,  and  in  the  towns  are  those  of  Abdul  Kadir  Jîlanî,  and  one  of  Khalveti's ; 
the  Khans  are  in  the  market.  On  the  left  corner  of  the  gate  of  the  old  khan  is 
suspended  the  mace  of  a  Pehlivan. 

Description  of  the  Baths. 

The  old  bath,  divided  for  men  and  women,  was  built  by  Mohammed  I.,  and  has 
more  than  seventy  troughs  or  basins.  Round  it  dwell  the  felt  and  safian  makers, 
who  tan  blue,  yellow  and  red  safian.  The  walls  of  the  bath  are  all  lined  with 
chalk  mixed  with  musk  and  amber,  the  odour  of  which  pervades  the  whole 
building  and  renders  it  so  dry  that  neither  on  the  walls  nor  on  the  windows  does 
a  drop  of  moisture  collect.  Being  an  old  building,  however,  it  is  not  light,  but 
rather  dark.     The  water  is  very  warm  and  limpid. 

Praise  of  Pirdedeh. 

When  Murad  11.,  the  father  of  Mohammed  II.,  was  building  a  mosque  and 
college  here,  the  enemies  of  Pirdedeh  calumniated  him  by  saying,  that  he  accom- 
panied the  women  into  the  bath  and  foretold  to  them  hidden  things,  which  are 
forbidden  in  the  Koran,  such  as  whether  they  would  lie  in  with  a  boy  or  girl. 
Murad  II.,  angry  at  such  scandalous  behaviour,  took  his  sword  with  the  intention 
of  performing  a  meritorious  action  by  killing  the  accused.  When  he  came  to  the 
bath  and  saw  Pirdedeh  walking  about  with  an  apron  round  his  loins,  he  upbraided 
him  for  mingling  with  the  women  in  the  bath  and  rubbing  them  instead  of  letting 


214  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

it  be  done  by  the  waiting  women.  Pirdedeh  said,  "  My  Princej  I  do  such 
service  only  to  women  who  are  pregnant  with  great  Doctors  and  learned  men,  and 
therefore  enter  not  the  bath  in  the  common  way."  Thus  saying,  he  entered 
through  the  stone  wall  which  opened  for  him,  and  the  place  is  yet  shown  where 
he  passed  through  before  the  eyes  of  the  Sultân.  The  Sultân  then  said,  "  I 
came  hither  Dedeh  to  kill  you  with  this  sword  in  a  legal  way."  "  Such  is  not 
the  act  intended  for  you  sword,"  replied  the  Saint ;  "  your  sword  is  destined  to 
conquer  Smyrna,  which  Timur  was  unable  to  subdue ;  but  which  has  fallen  into 
the  hands  of  the  Greeks,  Go,  therefore,  and  conquer  Smyrna  and  eat  this  bread." 
On  saying  this,  he  took  up  two  pieces  of  marble  lying  before  the  bath,  kneaded  them 
like  dough  and  presented  them  bread,  one  to  Murad  II.,  and  the  other  to  his  son 
Mohammed  II.,  foretelling  the  conquest  of  Smyrna  to  the  first  and  that  of  Con- 
stantinople to  the  second.  This  prediction  being  fulfilled,  twenty-six  years 
afterwards  Mohammed  gave  to  his  convent  an  endowment  of  three  hundred  and 
sixty-six  villages,  so  that  the  whole  town  of  Merzifiin  belongs  to  this  foundation. 
Every  year  a  Mütevelli  (administrator)  from  the  Kizlar  Aghâ,  who  is  the  Nâzir 
(inspector)  accompanied  by  three  hundred  horsemen,  comes  to  take  possession  of 
the  village  and  distribute  its  revenues  among  the  dervishes  and  other  poor  men. 
The  two  pieces  of  white  marble  bread  are  actually  shown  fixed  into  the  wall,  where 
the  Saint  passed  through  it.  This  bath  is  a  place  for  miraculous  cures,  and  is  the 
counterpart  of  the  bath  built  by  Avicenna. 

The  houses  of  the  town,  adorned  with  Shâhneshîns  (projecting  wdndows)  all 
look  towards  the  kiblah.  Its  inhabitants  are  sound  and  healthy  on  account  of 
the  prevalence  of  easterly  winds.  In  the  summer  the  inhabitants  repair  to  Mount 
Deshan  for  summer  lodgings  (Yaila).  These  alps  were  given  of  old,  when  the 
Danishmend  family  came  from  Mohan  in  Khorassân,  to  the  sons  of  Deshan  and 
are  now  in  possession  of  one  of  their  descendants,  who  receives  a  duty  for  the 
pasture  of  many  hundred  thousand  head  of  cattle.  Some  hundred  rills  and 
rivulets,  flowing  down  from  these  heights,  water  all  the  fields  and  gardens  of  the 
town.  The  nature  of  the  soil  is  such,  that  however  copiously  it  may  rain,  the 
fields  are  not  productive  unless  watered  by  the  rills  of  Deshan  ;  but  then  they 
become  so  fertile  that  the  corn  returns  an  hundred  fold ;  for  one  kile  at  least 
eighty.  These  rills  are  under  the  inspection  of  a  particular  Aghâ,  who  regulates 
the  distribution  of  them,  for  if  such  a  magistrate  were  not  appointed,  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Merzifiin  would  kill  each  other  for  the  sake  of  the  water.  A  part  of  the 
rills  and  sources  of  Mount  Deshan  flow  in  the  direction  of  Koprî  and  water  its 
fields  and  gardens ;  another  into  the  district  of  Kauza  in  the  valley  of  Lâdik ; 
and  another  still  to  the  northward  to  the  valley   of  Osmânjik.     The   town   of 


evliya  efendi.  215 

Merzifun  stands  on  a  hilly  site  backed  by  Mount  Deshcin.  Amasia  is  fifteen 
hours  on  the  kiblah-side  of  this  town,  Ltidik  twelve,  Osmanjik  sixteen,  Gumish 
ten,  and  Kerkerân  eight.  On  the  northern  border  of  Mount  Deshan  stands 
the  castle  of  Koja  Kala'assi,  looking  upon  the  town  of  Kopri.  If  you  march 
from  Merzifun  along  Mount  Deshan  for  five  hours  to  the  northward  you  arrive  at 
Kopri,  and  in  three  journeys  further  at  Samssun,  which  is  the  harbour  of  Merzifun, 
it  being  nearer  to  it  than  Sinope. 

Products. 

Must,  pure  as  that  of  Aintab,  sweet  raisins,  and  the  white  bread  of  Pirdedeh  ; 
six  hundred  shops  almost  all  occupied  by  dyers,  who  dye  a  peculiar  blue  even 
finer  than  the  Persians.  Its  cotton  stuffs  are  exported  in  great  quantities  to 
Crimea  and  exchanged  for  prisoners  ;  the  ferrajes  and  dresses  of  the  inhabitants 
of  Crimea  are  made  of  the  stuffs  of  Merzifun.  Its  spun  cotton,  shirts,  blankets, 
cushions  and  other  printed  articles  are  also  in  good  estimation. 

Pilgrimage  to  the  Saints  of  Merzifun. 

The  first  of  all  the  Saints  of  this  place  is  Sheikh  Pirdedeh,  who  came  with 
Haji  Begtash  from  Khorassan  by  permission  of  Koja  Yessiii.  He  dwelled  outside 
of  Merzifun  to  the  north  on  a  hill,  and  spent  his  days  in  the  baths  as  a  Santon 
from  the  time  of  Orkhan  to  that  of  Mohammed  II.  His  convent  which  is  a 
larger  building  than  even  that  of  Koyün-bâbâ  at  Osmanjik,  is  provided  with  a 
kitchen  and  cellar  (Kîlâr)  and  affords  every  night  lodgings  and  food  to  two  or 
three  hundred  travellers  ;  two  hundred  dervishes  of  the  order  Begtâshî,  barefoot 
and  bareheaded,  serve  their  guests  who  visit  the  tomb  of  the  Saint,  say  a  Yass  in 
honor  of  the  deceased  and  perfume  their  brains  with  the  sweet  odour  of  musk, 
which  exhales  from  his  tomb.  So  great  a  number  of  candlesticks,  lamps, 
candelabra,  vases  for  rose  water  and  censers  are  not  even  to  be  seen  at  Iman 
Riza.  His  habit,  carpet,  banner,  drum,  crown,  mace,  sling  and  strap,  the  treasure 
of  these  dervishes,  are  preserved  in  boxes,  and  many  thousand  travellers  both  on  land 
and  sea  have  here  suspended  their  slings  and  maces  in  eternal  remembrance.  I, 
poor  Evliya,  being  a  great  friend  of  Dervishes,  according  to  the  Prophet's 
tradition :  "  Poverty  is  my  glory  !"  put  with  their  permission  the  crown  of 
Pirdedeh,  which  is  a  Turkish  cap  of  felt,  on  my  head  ;  the  whole  convent  mean- 
while resounding  with  the  cries  of  Allah  and  pious  prayers.  The  building  is 
entirely  covered  with  lead.  The  second  pilgrimage  is  that  of  Sheikh  Abd-ur-rahim 
Ben  Emir  Merzifûnî,  who  was  the  disciple  of  Zein-ud-di'n  Hâfî  at  Brussa  and 
composed  the  work,  Wassayai  Kudsie  (Mystic  Admonitions).  He  accepted  a 
living  of  eight  aspers  a  day  at  the  mosque  of  Sultân  Mohammed  I.,  at  Merzifun, 


216  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

where  he  hved  and  died  ;  his  tomb  is  now  a  place  generally  visited.  In  his  mystic 
poems  he  has  taken  the  name  of  Rûmî,  they  are  all  in  the  style  and  cant  of  the 
Sofis.  We  remained  ten  days  in  this  town  to  look  at  its  curiosities.  On  the 
tenth  day  arrived  Murâd  the  Khasseki  and  Haunizji  the  Chaush,  who  had  been 
put  into  prison  for  four  days  by  our  gracious  Lord,  the  Pasha,  that  his  messenger, 
Sâleh,  despatched  before  them  to  Murteza  Pasha,  might  arrive  first ;  but  "  Man 
proposes  and  God  disposes ;  "  Sâleh  was  struck  by  apoplexy  at  Nissibin  and 
remained  there,  while  the  two  messengers  of  the  Porte,  who  started  four  days 
after  him,  arrived  at  Murteza  Pasha's  lodging  at  Diarbekr,  presented  him  first 
with  the  diploma  of  Captain  Pâshâ,  for  which  good  news  they  received  a  sable 
])elisse  and  a  purse  of  money  each,  and  then  attacked  him  suddenly  and  severed 
his  head  from  his  body.  They  now  arrived  at  the  Mehkemeh  (Court  of  Justice) 
of  Merzifun  with  the  head  in  a  box,  which  they  there  deposited,  and  then  came 
into  the  presence  of  the  Pasha,  who  was  surrounded  by  all  his  men,  their  hands 
grasping  the  daggers  in  their  belts.  The  Khasseki  and  Chaush  trembled  like 
leaves,  kissed  the  threshold  of  the  gate  and  after  having  sat  down  on  their  heels,  the 
Pâshâ  upbraided  them  saying,  "  Infidels,  why  have  you  killed  this  unfortunate 
Murteza  Pâshâ?  All  your  things  and  saddlecloths  had  been  searched,  and 
nothing  was  found  but  the  diploma  appointing  Murteza,  Kapûdân  Pâshâ  ;  where 
did  you  hide  the  order  for  his  death  ?  Pray,  speak  the  truth."  They  said,  "  Most  for- 
tunate Vezir  we  are  servants  who  but  do  what  we  are  ordered.  The  proverb  says, '  If 
there  were  not  the  Sultan's  words  the  executioner  would  not  commit  the  deed.*  We 
hid  the  order  for  death  in  a  leaden  box,  in  the  water-bottle,  where  it  escaped 
the  search.  We  reached  Murteza  Pâshâ  before  your  messenger,  who  was  struck 
by  apoplexy,  and  after  having  prevailed  on  him  to  return  from  Baghdad  to 
Diarbekr,  we  there  opened  the  bottle,  took  out  the  firman  and  executed  it.  The  head 
is  now  at  the  Mehkemeh,  and  the  command  is  yours  ;  who  should  beware  of  your 
own  head.  Health  to  you  !  "  The  Pâshâ  satisfied  with  the  Khassekfs  answer 
gave  him  a  purse  of  money,  saying,  "  Now  get  you  gone,  or  God  may  send  you 
misfortune !"  The  Pâshâ  was  now  troubled  about  his  own  fate,  and  began  to 
collect  Sarija  and  Segbân  (irregular  levies),  wrote  letters  to  Vârvâr  Pâshâ  and 
sent  me  to  Koprili  Mohammed  Pâshâ,  who  was  then  in  the  town  of  his  birth 
(Kopri)  and  to  Hassan  Aghâ  who  was  at  Kilis. 

Journey  from  Merzifun  to  Kopri. 

We  set  out  on  the  10th  Moharrem  in  a  northerly  direction  along  Mount 
Deslıân,  passed  the  village  of  Begorân  and  in  six  hours  reached  Koja  Kala'a 
a  small  castle  on  a  rock  accessible  but  by  one  road  and  one  gate.     It  was  besieged 


evliya  efendi.  217 

at  different  times  by  the  rebels  Karayâzijf,  Said  Arab  and  Kalender,  but  never 
was  taken  by  them.  It  was  however  conquered  by  Bayazi'd  I.,  from  the  Danish- 
mend  family  and  belongs  now  to  the  district  of  Koprî ;  the  garrison  consists  of 
an  hundred  men,  and  it  has  a  mosque,  cistern,  magazine  for  corn  and  seven  or 
eight  small  guns,  but  no  bath,  khan  or  bezestân.  The  inhabitants  make  cans  of 
fir-tree,  which  go  by  the  name  of  boduj,  they  also  manufacture  musical  instru- 
ments called  chekur,  tanbur,  râdha,  karadozen,  yıinghâr,  &c.  In  six  hours  more, 
after  passing  many  villages  on  the  border  of  Mount  Deshân,  we  arrived  at  Koprî. 

Description  of  the  old  town  and  great  bridge  of  Kopri. 

We  dismounted  at  the  house  of  Yûssüf  Aghâ,  where  we  stopped  as  guests,  and 
delivered  our  letters  to  Koprili  Mohammed  Pâshâ  and  the  other  principal  men, 
we  then  collected  the  Buluk-bashfs  and  ordered  cryers  to  proclaim  that  all  those 
who  wished  to  have  goods  and  slaves,  and  possessed  breeches  and  a  horse,  were  to 
come  to  us.     After  this  w^  went  to  view  the  town.     Koprî  is  a  fortress  in  good 
condition  on  the  border  of  Mount  Deshân,  in  a  tract  intersected  by  hills  and 
valleys  at  a  place  watered  by  two  rivers.     One  of  these  is  called  Bogha-koî  and 
flows  past  the  bottom  of  the  town ;    the  other  is  at  an  hour's  distance,  and  is 
called  Astavoluz.     The  town  of  Koprf  is  situated  between  them.     At  the  time  of 
their  overflowing  they  inundate  the  whole  plain  of  Koprî ;    the  town  derives  its 
name    Koprî   (bridge)   from  the  great  wooden  bridge  by  which  the   Astavoluz 
river  is  crossed.     It  is  a  wonderful   work  constructed  of  fir-trees.     At  an  early 
period  this  town  was  called  Shebender,  the  name  for  a  bridge  in  the  language  of 
the  Amalekites.     The  stone  bridge,  which  was  formerly  here,  broke  down  on  the 
night  of  the  birth  of  the  Prophet,  and  was  replaced  by  this  wooden  one.     The  two 
rivers  which  flow  past  the  town  of  Koprî  unite  below  it  and  fall  into  the  great 
river  Bafra.     This  town  was  first  built  by  the  Amalekites  and  was  taken  by  Melek 
Ghâzî,  the  Prince  of  the  Dânishmend  family,  from  the  Greek  Emperors  of  Trebi- 
sonde.     Bayazîd  I.  took  the  fortress,  the   abovesaid  castle  of  Koja  Kala'a,  by 
capitulation.     It  now  belongs  to  the  government  of  Amasia,  half  of  it  being  a 
ziâmet   and    the   other  half  a  subashilik  subordinate   to   Tokdt;     the  judge  is 
appointed  with  three  hundred  aspers.     Its  districts  contain  no  less  than  an  hun- 
dred and  forty  villages  with  gardens,  khans,  mosques  covered  with  lead,  and  from 
three  to  four  thousand  houses  all  covered  with  bricks  ;  the  great  borough  Boghâz- 
koî  has  three  thousand  houses  ;  the  other  remarkable  places  of  similar  extent  are 
Baghjeh-koî,  Doyân-koı,  Akdepeh-koî  and  Akoren-koî.     From  these  hundred  and 
forty  villages  and  boroughs  the  judge  annually  collects  seven  thousand  piastres. 
There  is  a  Muftî,  Nakîb,  Serdâr,  Kiayayerî,  Mohtessib  and  Naîb,  but  as  it  is  an 

VOL.  II.  F   F 


218  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

inland  castle  it  has  neither  commander  nor  garrison.  The  rebels  Kara  Yaziji 
and  Said  Arab  were  natives  of  this  town,  but  having  been  defeated  at  Erla  they 
fled  and  became  rebels.  To  secure  this  town  against  them  a  second  castle  of 
earth  was  built  close  to  the  stone  castle,  and  the  two  have  four  gates,  but  the 
shops  and  markets  are  outside  in  the  suburb. 

The  town  of  Kopri  consists  of  six  thousand  houses  covered  with  bricks  of  two 
stories,  the  lower  story  being  built  of  stone  and  the  upper  of  oak  whitened  with 
chalk  ;  so  that  all  the  houses  dazzle  the  eye  by  their  brilliancy.  The  winter 
being  severe  they  are  all  provided  with  chimneys,  which  lift  their  bonneted 
heads  like  white  Minârehs.  These  chimneys  looking  like  tall  white  columns  give  a 
good  appearance  to  the  town,  which  is  all  covered  with  red  bricks.  The  principal 
building  of  stone  in  the  castle  is  the  Serai  of  Elhâj  Yıissûf  Aghâ  built  by  Koprilî 
Mohammed  Pıishâ;  there  are  altogether  seventy  palaces,  and  twenty  mihrâbs, 
in  eleven  of  which  the  khutbeh  is  performed.  In  the  stone  castle  is  the  mosque 
of  Hâjî  Yûssûf  Agha,  with  a  water  basin,  a  jet  d'eau,  and  a  minâreh  covered  with 
lead.  Of  the  convents  the  first  is  that  of  the  great  Sheikh,  that  of  the  Kâderites, 
and  of  the  Khalveti,  but  there  are  none  of  the  Mevlevi.  The  people  generally  are 
friendly  to  Dervishes.  There  are  eleven  khans,  two  imârets,  and  five  colleges, 
because  its  lawyers,  divines,  medical  men  and  students  are  numerous.  The 
schools  for  boys  are  forty-eight,  that  of  Hâjî  Yûssûf  is  covered  with  lead  and 
richly  endowed.  There  are  various  baths,  the  best  of  which  is  the  double  one  of 
Ahmed  Pasha,  a  thousand  shops,  and  a  strong  bezestdn  with  four  gates.  Yûssûf 
Aghâ  may  be  called  the  last  builder  of  this  town  which  he  enriched  by  a  great 
many  endowments ;  the  bezestan  was  also  his  building.  The  most  elegant 
market-place  is  that  of  the  tanners,  who  illuminate  every  night  their  shops  with 
candles  ;  there  are  also  a  great  many  dyers.  Its  gardens  are  in  full  cultivation 
and  produce  excellent  fruits.  The  pears,  grapes,  cotton  wares,  wove  and  spun, 
and  the  blue  linen  are  as  famous  as  its  rosy-cheeked  beauties.  The  harbours  of 
this  town  on  the  shores  of  the  Black  Sea  are  Bafra  and  Sinope,  which  are  but  a 
journey  distant.  At  five  hours  distance  is  the  strong  castle  of  Ardoghan,  which 
I  am  now  about  to  describe. 

The  castle  of  Ardoghan  is  situated  on  a  high  hill,  which  is  ascended  by  five 
hundred  steps  and  therefore  only  accessible  to  men ;  it  is  a  single  rock  like  the 
fortress  of  Mardfn.  The  highest  point  is  a  crooked  rock,  which  seems  to  threaten 
ruin  every  moment.  Melek  Ghâzî,  the  conqueror  of  Nigissar,  also  conquered  this 
town  ;  and  it  was  afterwards  taken  by  Bayazid  I.  It  is  commonly  called  Seddi 
Turkman,  the  dyke  of  the  Turcomans.  The  castle  now  contains  an  hundred  and 
fifty  houses,  a  cistern,  mosque,  and  magazine  for  corn.     Precious  articles  are  kept 


evliya  efendi.  219 

within  this  castle  and  in  that  of  Koja  Kala'a  on  the  border  of  mount  Deshân.      A 

Dizdar  and  forty-eight  men   do   the  duty.      The   castle   is  rendered  safe  by   a 

drawbridge   against  the  attacks  of  rebels.     There  is  no  market  khan  or  bath. 

The  district  belongs  to  the  jurisdiction  of  Koprî.     Six  hours  westward  is  the 

station  of  Gol,  a  village  in  the  district  of  Zeitiin,  with  a  mosque,  a  khân,  and  a 

bath.     Six  hours  further,  the  village  of  Sûrük  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Zeitûn  ;    and 

after  a  march  of  six  hours  along  the  Yaila  of  Konduz  we  arrived  at  Zeitûn,  a  large 

place  in  the  territory  of  Amasia  of  two  thousand  houses  with  khdns,  mosques, 

baths,  schools  and    numerous  gardens.      Six  hours  further   is   the    large   place 

(Kassaba)  Karghu,  belonging  to  the  sanjak  of  Kanghri,  of  six   hundred  houses 

with  gardens,  a  mosque,  khân,  and  bath.     Six  hours  further,  the  town  of  Tusia 

which  has  already  been   described.     We   remained   here  one  day  and  returned 

again  to  Merzifun.     The  third  day  I  arrived  at  Koprî,  where  I  found  every  thing 

in  the  greatest  confusion  and  the  whole    town    in    an    uproar,  because    Koprili 

Mohammed  Pasha  had  received  orders  from  the  Porte  to  march  against  the  rebels. 

From  hence  I  went  in  six  hours  towards  the  kiblah  to  the  village  of  Begoran  on 

the  border  of  mount  Deshan,  which  we  had  passed  in  coming  but  did  not  stop  at. 

In    another   six   hours    we    again    reached    Merzifun    and    met    Defterdâr-zâdeh 

Mohammed   Pâshâ,  my  gracious  Lord,   to  whom  I  brought  two  hundred  men, 

Sârîja.      He  was  overjoyed  at  this  and  instantly  formed  them  into  two  companies 

(Boluk),  giving  them  the    names  of  the  company  of  Evliya  Guzerli  and  Habib  ; 

and  in  addition   to  twenty-four  other  companies  of  irregular  levies,  they  made 

together  twenty-sis   hundred  men.      I  remained  ten  days  longer   at    Merzifun 

employing   my  time  in  collecting   men,  and  on   the   27th   of  Moharrem  left  it 

for  the  farm  of  Murteza  Pashd,  whicli  I  reached  in  six  hours. 

This  is  a  very  productive  farm  (Chiftlik)  situated  in  the  plain  of  Merzifun.  As 
snow  was  falling  here  we  suffered  much  from  the  cold  and  in  three  hours,  after 
many  difficulties,  reached  Kulak  Hâjî  Koî,  a  village  of  two  hundred  houses  with  a 
ruined  khan  and  a  mosque.  The  inhabitants  had  all  fied  and  there  remained 
not  even  a  cock  in  the  village.  The  troops  were  dying  of  hunger,  and  during  the 
night  so  heavy  a  storm  blew  that  the  snow  was  five  spans  deep  in  the  morning. 
When  the  trumpets  of  departure  sounded  we  moved  on,  though  every  one  cursed 
the  march,  and  struggling  with  difficulty  against  the  gale  and  snow  reached  the 
straight  called  Diriklipûl,  where  the  distress  was  very  great  owing  to  the  fury  of 
the  gale,  the  quantity  of  snow,  the  uncertainty  of  the  road  and  the  want  of  pro 
visions.  The  Pâshâ  distributed  money  and  encouraged  some  of  the  bravest  to  go 
in  search  of  the  road,  through  the  midst  of  the  snow,  which  they  passed  over  in 
shoes  made  of  horse-hair.     This  sort  of  shoe  is  called  Pachila,  and  is  used  in 


220  THETRAVELSOF 

Türkistan  and  Persia  when  snow  has  fallen  to  any  depth.  It  consists  of  a  circle 
like  a  sieve,  the  inside  of  which  is  fashioned  into  a  shoe  made  of  horse-hair  ; 
this  they  put  on  their  feet  to  walk  over  the  snow.  The  circle  round  the  shoe  is 
to  give  a  greater  surface  to  the  foot  in  order  to  prevent  it  from  sinking  into  the 
snow.  Provided  with  such  shoes  the  troops  entered  the  straight,  but  were  in  the 
greatest  distress,  for  some  were  lost  notwithstanding  these  Pâchila.  Mules,  camels 
and  horses  were  stumbling  one  over  the  other  and  cries  and  lamentations  pierced 
the  air.  The  Sarija  and  Segbans,  so  many  Calibans  (Kaltiban)  were  the  first  who 
fled.  In  short  it  was  impossible  to  pass  the  straight  of  Diriklipul  and  therefore 
we  were  obliged  to  repair  with  the  rest  of  the  troops  and  the  heavy  baggage 
of  the  Pasha  to  Gumish  Kala'a  (Silver  Castle),  which  we  reached  after  a  six  hour's 
march.  We  remained  here  three  days  till  tlie  falling  of  the  snow  had  ceased. 
All  those  who  hastened  to  the  fire  lost  their  sight  for  some  time,  and  those  only 
who  did  not  approach  it,  but  endured  the  cold,  retained  the  use  of  their  eyes. 
Seventeen  men  lost  either  a  leg  or  a  hand  or  a  foot  by  the  excessive  cold,  and 
the  leg  or  hand  being  cut  off,  the  stumps  were  dipped  into  boiling  resin,  so 
that  their  cries  pierced  the  air. 

Description  of  the  toxvn  of  Gumish. 

It  was  built  by  the  Byzantine  Emperors  and  was  conquered  by  Melek  Ghâzî 
of  the  Dânishmend  family.  When  Bayazid  I.  marched  to  the  conquest  of 
Amasia  the  inhabitants  of  Gumish  met  him,  and  presented  him  with  some  silver 
vases  and  the  keys  of  the  castle.  The  inhabitants  are  therefore  free  of  all  duties, 
but  it  is  incumbent  upon  them  to  work  the  silver  mines.  The  inspectorship  is 
held  by  lease,  and  furnishes  annually  to  the  Porte  seventy  quintals  of  pure  silver, 
and  one  thousand  pair  of  horse-cloths.  In  the  Ottoman  Empire  there  are  no  less 
than  seventy  silver  mines,  but  this  affords  the  purest  silver  ;  the  goldsmith  alloy 
an  hundred  drachms  of  this  pure  silver  with  ten  of  copper,  and  yet  it  is  a  good  white 
silver,  which  receives  the  Imperial  stamp.  There  are  seven  veins  underground, 
which  increase  from  day  to  day.  The  inhabitants  of  the  town  are  all  employed 
in  the  mines,  and  their  commander  is  the  inspector  of  the  silver  mines.  The  judge, 
appointed  with  an  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  may  collect  seven  purses  a  year. 
The  castle  of  this  town  situated  on  a  hill  is  in  a  ruined  state  and  has  no  accommo- 
dation at  all  within  ;  being  an  inland  castle  it  has  neither  a  garrison  nor  com- 
mander. There  is  a  Serddr  and  a  Kiaya-yeri  of  the  Janissaries,  and  the  town 
consists  of  a  thousand  houses  covered  with  planks,  eleven  mosques,  of  which  that 
in  the  market-place  is  the  most  frequented,  but  no  hospital,  the  salubrity  of  the 
air  rendering  one  superfluous.     Its  products  are  the  purest  silver  and  horse-cloths 


EVLIYAEFENDI.  221 

and  bags,  which  the  Imperial  stables  and  those  of  the  principal  men  of  Constan- 
tinople are  furnished  with  from  hence.  The  gardens  produce  good  grapes.  In 
the  town  are  heaped  up  mounds  of  earth  taken  from  the  mines.  We  remained 
here  three  days  on  account  of  the  heavy  gales,  and  then  advanced  five  hours  to 
the  south,  suffering  from  the  snow,  to  Dankaza-kof,  a  village  of  an  hundred 
houses  belonging  to  the  jurisdiction  of  Gumish  in  the  territory  of  Amasia.  Near 
the  farm  of  Kosseh  Sha'abân  Pâshâ  is  the  Pilgrimage  of  Bardâklî-bâbâ  and  Akche- 
bâbâ,  who  are  both  buried  here.  The  first  gained  his  living  by  making  cans 
(Bardak)  for  which  the  village  is  still  famous.  We  visited  the  tomb  of  Bardâklî- 
bâbâ  ;  after  holding  a  council  we  approached,  amidst  a  thousand  difficulties,  the 
high  mountain  of  Kirk  Dilim,  which  was  passed  with  much  suffering  and  the  loss 
of  many  stragglers  who  returned  to  Dânkaza.  Alî  Aghâ,  the  Kiaya  of  the  Pâshâ, 
encouraged  some  brave  lads,  who  had  not  yet  lost  their  hands  and  feet,  to  wrap 
up  the  feet  of  the  horses  and  mules  by  tearing  up  many  carpets  and  coverlets, 
and  in  this  way  passed  them  over  the  snowy  mountain  of  Kirk  Dihm ;  but  the 
heavy  baggage,  the  munition,  cellar,  kitchen,  and  artillery  were  all  left  in  the 
snow.  The  Kiaya  of  the  Pâshâ  again  distributing  money,  the  bags  and  casks 
were  dragged  up  and  rolled  over  the  snow.  This  night  was  passed  in  a  woody 
valley  without  the  means  of  getting  on,  and  seventy  men,  who  had  lost  their 
hands  and  feet,  remained  behind.  The  next  morning  we  continued  our  way 
amidst  snow  and  storms  through  the  straight  of  Kirk  Dilim,  and  arrived  after 
eight  hours  painful  march  at  a  village,  the  name  of  which  has  escaped  my 
memory,  whose  inhabitants  had  all  fled  upon  the  news  of  our  arrival.  Men  and 
horses  during  the  night  were  nearly  dying  of  hunger,  and  there  was  such  a  gale 
and  heavy  storm  of  snow  that  in  the  morning  it  was  five  spans  in  depth.  On  the 
signal  of  departure  being  given  the  Kullâkjî,  conductors  (Sarban),  and  tent-pitchers 
(Mehter)  assembled  before  the  Pasha's  tent  and  declared  they  were  unable  to 
stir.  Ten  piastres  were  promised  to  the  men,  but  they  answered,  "  Health  first, 
then  weath."  The  Pasha  said,  "  My  children,  how  is  it  possible  to  remain  in  this 
place,  where  there  is  not  a  grain  of  provisions  ?"  In  short  the  Kullâkjî  (leaders) 
could  not  be  induced  to  move  on  until  they  had  received  a  present  of  fifteen 
purses  from  the  Pâshâ.  There  was,  however,  such  a  storm  of  wind,  hail  and  snow 
that  the  horses  danced  like  Dervishes  Mevlevi,  and  the  camels  like  Lulus  (Tatar 
robbers).  The  unhappy  leaders  of  them  put  their  hands  in  their  bosoms  and 
uttered  a  piteous  cry.  Praise  be  to  God  !  we  now  entered  a  forest  and  were  a 
little  sheltered  against  the  wind  and  snow,  and  after  a  march  of  five  hours  arrived 
at  the  great  village  of  Bardâkji,  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Gumish,  consisting  of  an 
hundred  houses.     From  hence  continuing  our  march  to  the  south  we  arrived  in 


222  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

four  hours  at  the  station  of  Kirk  Dilim,  a  place  of  two  hundred  Mussulman  houses 
in  the  sanjak  of  Chorûn.  Here  both  men  and  horses  rested  till  the  following  day, 
when  the  weather  clearing  up  we  proceeded  through  cultivated  villages  to  the 
town  of  Chorum,  said  to  have  been  built  (God  knows  if  truly)  by  Kilij  Arslân, 
the  Prince  of  the  Seljuk  family,  who  sent  his  son  Yakub  Mirza  and  some  hun- 
dred sick  men  to  this  town,  where  being  cured,  it  received  in  consequence 
the  name  of  Choriun.  From  the  hands  of  the  Seljukides  it  passed  into  those  of 
the  Dânishmend  family  from  whom  it  was  taken  by  liderim  ;  it  is  now  the  seat 
of  a  Sanjak  Beg  in  the  government  of  Sivas.  His  khass  is  three  hundred  thousand 
aspers,  nineteen  ziâraets,  and  thirty-one  tinicirs.  There  is  a  Colonel  (Alaî-beg)  a 
Captain  (Cherî-bâshî)  a  judge  appointed  with  an  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  and 
receiving  from  its  districts  annually  five  purses,  a  Mufti,  Nakîb,  Serdâr,  Kiaya-yerî, 
Mohtessib,  Sıibâshi,  Inspector  of  the  hall  (Kapan  Emini)  and  Nâîb  of  the  town. 
The  military  officers  are  in  great  favour  because  the  troops  are  numerous  and 
there  are  a  great  number  of  bad  men.  Lodgings  were  positively  refused  to  our 
Pâshâ ;  but  mediators  were  employed  and  documents  were  made  out  at  the 
Mehkemeh  (Court  of  Justice),  so  that  they  were  prevailed  upon  to  give  us 
lodgings,  but  only  for  the  space  of  three  days.  The  town  consists  of  forty-two 
quarters  in  which  are  forty-two  mosques,  four  thousand  three  hundred  houses 
covered  with  bricks  and  surrounded  with  gardens  ;  nine  mosques  were  the  Friday 
prayer  is  performed,  of  which  that  of  Sultân  Murad  is  the  best,  it  had  but  one 
minareh  which  was  throw  down  by  liderim  Bayazîd.  The  mosque  of  Sultân 
Ala-ud-dîn  was  repaired  under  Sultân  Suleiman  by  the  architect  Sinan ;  as  it  is 
situated  in  the  market-place  it  is  much  frequented.  That  of  Murad  covered  with 
lead  is  the  finest.  The  new  bath  is  a  foundation  belonging  to  the  bath  of  Alî 
Pâshâ  at  Tokat ;  in  the  palaces  are  many  other  baths.  Of  the  colleges,  of  which 
there  are  seven,  that  of  Murad  is  the  most  frequented ;  there  are  eleven  schools 
for  boys,  seven  khans  and  eighteen  fountains,  the  water  by  which  they  are  supplied 
was  conducted  hither  by  Sultân  Suleiman,  in  honour  of  the  martyrs  of  Kerbela 
(who  died  of  thirst).  The  convents  of  Dervishes  are  three,  but  no  house  for 
reading  the  koran  or  for  tradition  exists.  The  shops  are  three  hundred,  in  which 
all  the  necessaries  of  life  are  to  be  found,  although  this  is  a  town  of  Türkistan. 
Tlie  temperature  of  the  climate  gives  red  cheeks  and  good  proportions  to  the 
inhabitants,  who  almost  all  wear  cloth.  The  fair  sex  and  the  winter  are  both 
renowned.  The  Castle  on  the  kiblah  side  of  the  town  has  only  been  built  for 
protection  against  riots  and  rebellion.  It  has  an  iron  gate,  a  commander  and 
garrison.  God  knows  !  but  it  seems  to  have  been  built  since  the  Islam,  because 
there  is  no  trace  of  any  building  of  the  time  of  the  infidels. 


evliya  efendi.  223 

On  the  day  we  came  here  the  hite  chief  barber  of  the  Sultân  arrived  in  the 
quahty  of  Kapijî-bâshî  accompanied  by  forty  other  chamberlains,  saying,  that  he 
was  the  bearer  of  the  diploma  of  the  government  of  Diarbekr.  The  Pasha 
surrounded  himself  with  all  his  guards,  Sarija,  Segbân,  Gonullî  (volunteers)  three 
hundred  pages  and  all  the  Levends.  The  forty  kapijis  entered  trembling  and 
the  Pasha  having  asked,  where  the  diploma  was  they  had  boasted  of,  was 
assailed  all  at  once  by  them,  but  before  they  were  ablo  to  do  any  harm  to  him, 
they  were  all  disarmed  and  bound  by  his  guards  and  soldiers.  The  Segbân  and 
Sârija  called  for  the  executioners  and  were  going  to  cut  off  their  heads,  when  the 
principal  men  of  the  town  kissed  the  earth  before  the  Pasha,  and  begged  the 
lives  of  these  kapijî-bashîs,  who  were,  they  said,  O'llv  servants  executing  their 
master's  commands  and  therefore  should  be  spared.  The  Pasha  yielding  to  their 
prayers  set  them  at  liberty,  instead  of  thrashing  them  to  death  as  he  ought  to  have 
done.  Being  liberated  they  went  to  the  Mehkemeh,  called  the  Sanjak  Beg,  read 
the  firman  and  demanded  in  consequence  that  the  troops  should  be  driven  out  of 
the  town.  The  inhabitants  remonstrated  against  it,  showing  that  they  might  all  be 
in  danger  of  being  cut  to  pieces  and  their  houses  burned  down,  if  they  were  to 
undertake  the  least  thing  against  the  troops.  The  Pasha  being  made  acquainted 
in  time  of  what  was  going  on,  sent  word  to  the  kapijis  immediately  to  quit  the 
place  if  they  wished  to  escape  in  safety.  Thus  they  were  all  driven  out  of  the 
town.  The  next  day  a  messenger  was  despatched  to  Vârvâr  Alî  Pâshâto  acquaint 
him  with  what  had  happened.  The  inhabitants  finding  that  our  Pasha  was  a 
goodnatured  and  righteous  Vezir  gave  him  the  salutary  advice  not  to  march  to 
Constantinople,  but  always  to  remain  at  one  or  two  journeys  distance  from  Vârvâr 
Alî  Pashâ,  and  to  take  his  station,  until  the  snow  should  melt  and  the  weather 
clear  up,  at  Tokat  or  Kazova.  The  Pasha  approving  of  their  advice,  visited  the 
tomb  of  Sheikh  Olvân  Chelebî,  the  son  of  Ashik  Pâshâ,  and  proceeded  to  Tokat.  In 
this  plain  we  remained  ten  days,  during  which  the  Pâshâ  received  letters  from 
Vârvâr  Alî  Pâshâ,  exhorting  him  to  be  on  his  guard,  and,  as  the  spring  was  now 
approaching  and  the  weather  clearing  up,  to  collect  as  many  troops  as  he  could 
for  the  march  to  Constantinople.  The  Pâshâ  made  as  though  he  were  going  to 
Angora,  and  on  the  eleventh  day  we  arrived  in  the  plain  of  Chorum  at  the 
convent  of  Sidim  Sultân,  a  convent  of  bareheaded  and  barefooted  Begtâshî, 
where  the  Pâshâ  was  lodged  and  splendidly  feasted.  The  village  of  Kara 
Kecheli  of  two  hundred  houses  in  the  territory  of  Chorum  is  an  hour's  distance 
from  the  red  river.  Here  the  snow  beginning  to  fall  and  the  wind  to  blow,  the 
Sârija  and  Segbân  drove  the  families  out  of  their  houses,  threw  the  cradles  with 
the  children  in  them  on  to  the  snow,  dug  out  the  gates  and  thresholds  to  bring 


224  t'hetravelsof 

their  horses  into  the  rooms  to  the  fire,  and   committed   the  same  excesses,  that 
they  did  at  Gumish  and  Dânkaza,  and   which  exceeded  even    the  tyranny   of 
Yessuf  Hejâj.     The  next  day  we  left  Kara  Kechell  and  instead  of  passing  over 
the  bridge  of  Chashnegir  on  the  red  river,  proceeded  to  the  passage  of  Kara 
Yechid ;  which  was  indeed  a  bad  measure,  because  the  passage  is  a  cruel  one. 
It  had  ceased   snowing  but  was   so  piercingly  cold  that   the   men   and   horses 
trembled  like  leaves ;    nevertheless  the  orders  for  the  passage  were  given.     It 
commenced  with  the  tent-camels,  the  kitchen,  stable  and  other  heavy  baggage  of 
the  Pasha's  led  by  twenty  able  pilots.     Two  hundred  strings  of  camels  and  one 
hundred  of  mules  belonging  to  the  Pâshâ,  as  well  as  mine  and  the  Kiaya's  passed 
over,  and,  went  with  all  this  heavy  luggage  to  Kûrdseraî,  but  myself  and  the 
Kiaya  remained  on  this  side  of  the  river  waiting  to  see  the  passage  of  the  baggage 
of  all  the  Aghâs.     In    the   morning   their  heavy  things  arrived  along  with  the 
treasure-camels  of  the  Pasha,  but  at  the  moment  the  pilots  had  entered  the  river 
with  them,  there  arose  such  a  storm  of  hail  and  snow,  of  thunder  and  of  lightning, 
that  the  strings  of  mules  and  camels  were  broken,  numbers  of  them  upset  in  the 
middle  of  the  river,  and  a  great  many  lost.     Great  masses  of  ice,  the  shape  of 
mill-wheels,  now  began  to  float  down   the  river  and   blocked  the  shores  at  the 
bridge  of  Chashnegir.     In  the  midst  of  the  confusion   which   took   place  on  both 
shores  of  the  river,  the  Pasha  arrived  with  his  music  sounding.     He  distributed 
large  sums  of  money  amongst  the  inhabitants  of  Kûrdseraî,  who  rescued  the  men 
and  animals,  while  the  troops  on  both  side  of  the  river  were  running  about  crying 
and  lamenting.     Some  brave  fellows  swam  amongst  the  drifting  shoals,  l)ut  others 
were  submerged,  and  camels,  mules,  horses  and  men,  were  floating  about  in  con- 
fusion  and   dismay ;    some   of  whom   were  drowned   and   some  saved.      Some 
Kurds  and  Turcomans  swam  into  the  midst  of  the  ice  and  rescued  many  camels, 
mules  and  horses,  but  as  those  who  had  crossed  had  left  their  clothes  on  this  side 
the  river,  it  so  happened  that  a  great  number  perished  from  cold.     Of  all  the 
baggage,  only  that  which  had  passed  over  before  the  ice  began  to  drift  was  saved, 
the  rest  was  lost.     An  hundred  and  sixty  men,  more  than  a  thousand  horses  and 
mules  were  drowned,  but  only  a  small   number  of  camels.     The  drowned  men 
were  for  the  most  part  Kulenkjî,  Sârija  and  Segbân  ;    some  going  to  paradise  and 
others  to  hell :  the  latter  were  at  least  delivered  from  the  hell  of  winter.     This 
horrible  discomfiture   lasted    only  from  the  morning    till  afternoon,  when   the 
drifting  of  the  ice  and  the  storm  suddenly  ceased,  so  that  the  Tatars,  Delis,  and 
Gonillâs,  who  had    waited    till  then,  crossed  over  without   the   least   difiiculty. 
Witnessing  these  misfortunes  I  reflected  on   the  cruel  conduct  of  those  troops, 
who  had  behaved  in  so  barbarous  a  manner  in  the  passage  at  Chardâkli-pûlî,  and 


evliya  efendi.  225 

now  at  Körd-dereh  :  burning  down  the  houses,  throwing  infents  on  the  snow  and 

wounding  men  and    women  with  battle-axes.      The  inhabitants   of  the   villages 

came  crying  and  lamenting  to  the  Pasha ;   but  what  was  to  be  done  with  this 

crowd  of  Sarija  and  Segban,  of  whom  the  Pâshâ  stood  in  need  and  whose  excesses 

therefore  he  was  obliged  to  tolerate.     I,  poor  Evliya,   whilst  witnessing  those 

scenes,  shivered  at  the  thought  of  the  vengeance  which  God  would  send  one  day 

on  those  cruel  troops. 

Praise  of  Sheikh  Bdrddkli-hdbd. 

Near  the  above  mentioned  place  is  the  pilgrimage  of  a  Saint  called  Bârdâklî- 
bâbâ,  a  disciple  of  Sheikh  Hâjî  Bairâm.  He  obtained  his  living  by  making  cans, 
which  afforded  a  continual  supply  of  water  for  the  ablutions  of  his  disciples.  His 
can  is  suspended  from  his  tomb  and  therefore  he  is  called  Bârdaki î-bâbâ,  the 
father  of  cans  or  tankards.  With  the  leave  of  the  tomb-keeper,  I  took  down  the 
suspended  can  to  perform  my  ablutions  and  found  it  full  of  clear  water,  though 
covered  with  the  dust  of  forty  years.  The  Pasha's  Imdm  and  some  others  of  his 
suite  were  astonished  at  this  extraordinary  sight,  they  asked  the  keeper  if  he 
would  swear  the  can  had  not  been  recently  filled  with  water.  He  swore  that  it 
had  not  been  touched  for  forty  years  until  I,  poor  Evliya,  had  taken  it  down  to 
perform  my  ablutions.  The  Imam  and  the  others  said,  "  Well  then  Evliya  hang  it 
up  again,"  but  I  being  determined  to  carry  my  point  would  not  until  I  had  per- 
formed the  ablution  in  the  legal  way.  The  Imam  and  four  other  persons  then 
did  the  same,  but  the  water  was  not  diminished  in  the  least  to  our  great 
astonishment.  We  again  hung  up  the  can,  which  was  of  a  reddish  colour,  and  on 
its  side  was  written  the  verse  of  the  Sûra  Ra'ad,  "  He  sent  water  from  heaven," 
the  number  66626,  three  Ks,  two  Js  and  one  M,  the  figure  of  a  glass  and  of  a 
can.  I  now  began  to  recite  the  Koran  according  to  the  intention  of  the  Saint, 
with  whom  I  made  spiritual  acquaintance,  remarking  the  Prophet's  tradition,  "  If 
you  are  perplexed  in  your  affairs  look  for  assistance  from  the  Inhabitants  of  the 
tombs."  The  mirror  of  my  heart  was  polishing  and  rubbing  off  the  rust  of 
sadness,  when  a  woman  walked  in,  who  threw  the  body  of  a  dead  child  and  herself 
on  the  threshold  of  the  tomb,  crying  and  lamenting  that  her  child  had  been  killed 
by  the  troops,  who  had  cast  it  on  the  snow,  and  calling  down  divine  vengeance 
upon  them,  tln-ough  the  aid  of  the  Prophet  and  the  Saints.  She  was  followed  by 
a  great  number  of  injured  men,  who  united  their  prayers  and  imprecations  with 
hers.  I  trembled  at  hearing  them,  and  drawing  near  with  a  friendly  face,  kissing 
their  hands  and  cheeks,  I  said  to  them,  "  People  of  Mohammed,  I  also  belong  to 
the  troops  of  the  Pasha,  who,  God  knows,  does  not  approve  of  thc"r  excesses ;  but 
he  has  been  forced  to  collect  them  in  order   to  save  his  own  head,  which  is 

VOL.  II.  G   G 


226  THETRAVELSOF 

endangered  by  the  Grand  Vezfr,  Ahmed  Pasha,  on  whom  must  be  laid  the  fault 
of  all  this."  An  old  man  gave  me  some  comfort  by  saying,  that  I  was  not  in- 
cluded in  this  imprecation,  which  was  to  full  only  on  the  troops ;  and  a  good  deal 
of  it  was  realized  at  the  above  described  passage  of  the  river,  where  so  many  lost 
their  lives  and  goods,  while  I,  poor  Evliya,  God  be  thanked  for  it !  passed  over 
safely  to  the  opposite  side. 

The  borough  of  Kûrdlar-seraî  (wolves'  palace)  is  situated  in  the  Sanjak  of 
Kânghrî  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Kala'ajik  on  the  bank  of  the  red  river  and  consists 
of  four  hundred  houses  covered  with  terraces,  a  mosque,  a  khân  and  a  bath. 
Here  the  Pasha  appointed  two  Aghâs  to  watch  the  endeavours  made  to  retrieve 
from  the  river  some  of  the  lost  baggage.  Moving  on  to  the  north  we  arrived  at 
the  village  of  Boyalı,  situated  in  the  territory  of  Kanghrî ;  five  hours  further,  the 
village  Akche-Koyûnlî  of  an  hundred  Turcoman  houses ;  and  three  hours  further, 
the  village  of  Kojı-bâbâ,  situated  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Kala'ajik,  of  two  hundred 
Turcoman  houses,  which  do  not  appear  above  ground  but  are  all  below  it,  with 
stables,  kitchens  and  sitting-rooms.  The  reason  for  the  construction  of  these 
subterraneous  houses  is  the  violence  of  the  winter ;  they  are  all  built  of  a  soft  stone, 
which  has  the  appearance  of  having  been  whitened  with  chalk.  Chests,  boxes, 
and  rafters  are  all  cut  in  this  stone,  which  is  as  soft  as  cheese ;  the  houses  are  so 
large,  that  a  thousand  men  might  be  lost  in  them,  and  yet  is  there  nothing  seen 
of  them  above  ground.  Here  is  the  pilgrimage  of  Kojf-bâbâ,  one  of  the  disciples 
of  Hâjî-begtâsh.  There  is  no  other  building  but  the  convent ;  the  tomb  is 
adorned  with  lamps  and  candelabras.  His  banner,  drum,  habit  and  carpet  are  all 
preserved  as  though  he  were  himself  present.  The  Turcomans  have  great  faith 
in  this  saint.  At  Keskin  (the  name  of  this  place)  is  also  the  tomb  of  Sheikh 
Ibrahim  Tenûrî  Ben  Sarraf  Hossein,  one  of  the  disciples  of  Ak-shems-ud-din ;  he 
was  born  at  Sivas.  Five  hours  further  to  the  north  is  the  village  of  Sheikh 
Shâmî  of  the  order  of  Bairamis,  whose  name  was  Hamza  ;  the  sect  of  the  Hamzevi 
take  their  name  from  him.  Many  miracles  are  recorded  of  him,  one  of  them 
is  the  spring  which  he  called  forth  by  his  staff  and  which  is,  therefore,  actually 
called  the  Spring  of  the  Staff.  He  is  buried  beneath  a  high  cupola  near  the 
mosque  which  he  himself  built,  but  which  is  not  covered  with  lead.  Its  mihrab 
is  of  very  great  dimensions,  and  the  stones  are  adorned  with  inscriptions  in  Kufi, 
Jelli,  Mostea'assemi,  Rı'hânî,  and  Thuluth  characters.  The  verses :  "  Every  time 
Zacharias  went  before  the  Mihrab,"  and  "  He  was  standing  praying  before  the 
Mihrdb,"  and  the  verses  Kursi  and  Emen-er-ressul  are  written  upon  it.  On  both 
sides  it  is  carved  and  sculptured  in  a  most  astonishing  way  with  flowers  and  ara- 
besque ornaments,  so  that  the  stone  seems  rather  to  be  engraved  or  painted  than 


evliya  efendi.  227 

sculptured.     Some  say  it  is  the  work  of  Sheikh  Sham  himself,  and  it  is  indeed 

probable  because  it  is  such  a  wonderful  work,  like  the  paintings  of  Mdni  and 

Behzad  Aghâ  Riza  Wdnî.     Before  his  tomb  rises  the  Spring  of  the  Staff  which  is 

much  visited.     From  hence  we  went  five  hours  to  the  north  to  the  village  of 

Hossein  Aghâ  in  the  district  of  Kala'ajik  and  five  hours  further  to  the  village  of 

Kala'ajik  itself,  which  was  built  by  the  Prince  of  Briissa  Sirtina  for  his  daughter. 

Topal  the  commander  of  Kastemûnî  conquered  it ;  and  he  resisted  the  Ottoman 

power,  till  at  last  liderim  Bayazîd  took  by  surprise  this  castle,  which  is  not  to  be 

conquered  in  any  other  way.     It  is  now  the  seat  of  a  Subâshî  of  the  Sanjak  of 

Kânghrî,  and  a  judge  is  appointed  to  it  with  an  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  and 

collects  from  the  districts  annually  four  purses ;   there   is  also  a  Dizdar  and  a 

garrison  of  twenty  men. 

Form  of  the  Castle. 

It  is  situated  on  a  high  reddish  cliff,  towering  into  the  clouds,  as  though  built 
by  Ferhâd.  The  walls  are  sixty  royal  cubits  high,  as  it  is  an  isolated  rock  there 
are  no  ditches.  An  iron-gate  opens  to  the  kiblah  side  and  within  the  castle 
are  about  twenty  houses,  a  mosque,  a  magazine  of  corn,  a  cistern,  and  six  small 
guns.  The  inhabitants  of  the  neighbouring  tracts  deposit  in  this  castle  their 
effects  and  precious  things  from  fear  of  rebels  and  robbers,  and  the  commander 
is  the  keeper  of  these  deposited  goods.  It  is  not  commanded  by  any  neighbouring 
height  and  is  surrounded  with  gardens.  One  the  kiblah-side  is  a  well-built 
suburb,  but  without  fortifications  (robât),  consisting  of  two  thousand  houses  partly 
covered  with  bricks  and  partly  with  earth ;  the  largest  is  the  palace  of  Shehsuvdr 
Pâshâ,  they  all  face  towards  the  kiblah-side ;  the  streets  instead  of  being  paved 
with  stone,  are  all  strewn  with  sand.  There  are  seventeen  mosques,  that  in  the 
market  place  having  one  minâreh,  thirteen  schools  for  boys,  a  small  bath,  three 
khans  and  six  coffee-houses  ;  the  air  is  good,  but  not  the  water.  We  lodged  here 
in  the  palace  of  Shehsuvâr  Pâshâ,  and  I  thanked  God  that  I  could  change  clothes, 
and  lie  quietly  down  after  the  many  fatigues  undergone. 

TJie  Pilgrimages  of  Kardnji-bdbd  Sultân. 

There  is  but  one  steep  path  from  the  castle,  at  the  bottom  of  which  near  the 
market  is  the  tomb  of  this  saint  in  a  narrow  place.  On  leaving  it  we  marched  five 
hours  to  the  North  to  the  village  of  Kürbâghlî,  in  the  territory  of  Kânghrî  and 
the  district  of  Kala'ajik,  of  two  hundred  houses  with  mosques  and  gardens,  where 
Sheikh  Abd-allah,  the  son  of  Sheikh  Shâmî,  is  buried ;  his  tomb  is  covered  with 
a  simple  roof,  and  is  without  a  convent.  Five  hours  further  to  the  North  we 
came  to  the  village  of  Nenegler,  in  the  territory  of  Kala'ajik,  a  Turkish  village  of 


228  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

an  hundred  houses ;  a  cubit  of  snow  fell  during  the  night,  so  that  nobody  could 
leave  their  lodgings.  In  the  morning  when  departure  was  sounded  the  horses 
were  loaded  with  the  greatest  pain  ;  Turks  served  as  guides,  and  thus  we  marched 
three  hours  to  the  straight  of  Alâk-pııh',  where  we  were  assailed  by  such  a  storm 
and  rain,  that  the  confusion  and  horror  was  general,  and  many  lost  their  lives. 
The  Aghds  of  the  Pâshâ,  and  even  his  treasurers  left  the  treasure  and  fled  away. 
Mustafa  Beg  the  son  of  the  Pâshâ  with  his  governor  (Lala),  master  (Khoja)  and 
servants  were  missing ;  the  strings  of  mules  and  camels  were  broken  and  they  were 
straying  on  the  mountains.  I  halted  a  little  in  a  sheltered  valley  and  then  with 
six  of  my  boys  and  three  packhorses  looked  for  a  house,  where  I  found  three 
others  of  my  slaves  and  ten  Châshnegîrs ;  so  that  we  were  now  twenty-five 
persons.  Thus  we  passed  the  straight  of  Sâri  Alâk  and  arrived  happily  at  the 
plain  on  the  other  side  without  knowing  where  we  were  going  to. 

(Here  six  pages  of  the  original  are  omitted,  ivhich  give  a  detailed  account  of 
Evliya  s  falling  into  a  nest  of  robbers,  headed  by  Hyder-zddeh,  Kdtirji-zddeh  and 
other  robbers,  who  held  their  meeting  at  Hdji-bdbas,  an  old  rogue.  The  robbers, 
on  being  informed  by  Evliya  of  the  Pashas  being  near,  made  off,  and  Evliya  was 
kept  by  Hdji-bdbd  until  rescued  by  his  people  and  other  armed  men  of  the  Pdshd's 
suite,  with  îühom  he  shared  the  rich  presents  ivhich  he  forced  out  of  Hdji-bdbd 
upon  taking  an  oath  that  he  would  not  betray  this  den  of  robbers.  Evliya  again 
joined  the  Pdshd  at  the  village  of  Hossein  Aghd.) 

The  village  of  Hossein  Aghâ  is  situated  in  the  district  of  Jubiik-owassa  on  a 
high  hill.  This  is  the  pilgrimage  of  Ghazi  Hossein  of  Malatia  the  father  of  Sîdî 
Battal.  Where  there  are  more  than  an  hundred  Dervishes  Begtâshî  versed  in 
Arabic  and  Persian  knowledge.  The  tomb  is  surrounded  with  golden  candlesticks, 
Korans,  &c.  There  are  two  places  of  religious  exercise  for  the  summer  and 
for  the  winter.  The  valleys  of  Jubuk,  Yebân,  and  Merbiit  are  at  the  foot  of  this 
convent :  Every  year  a  Mevliid  or  birth-feast  is  held  here,  when  forty  to  fifty 
thousand  men  assemble  to  celebrate  the  feast  of  Hossein  Sidi  Batal's  father,  one 
of  the  descendants  of  Imam  Hossein,  and  who  like  him  was  killed  by  the  hands 
of  the  Infidels.  I  gave  to  the  Dervishes  ten  piastres  for  alms,  immolated  three 
victims  and  received  the  Sheikh's  benediction  amidst  the  general  shout  of  Allah ! 
At  the  foot  of  the  hill  I  met  my  Lord  the  Pâshâ  with  whom  during  ten  days 
I  overran  the  plain  of  Jubuk,  as  if  I  were  going  on  conscription.  This  plain 
comprehends  seven  districts,  and  seventy  villages.  We  spent  ten  more  days  on 
the  plain  of  Yebân,  containing  an  hundred  cultivated  villages  belonging  to  the 


evliya  efendi.  229 

jurisdiction  of  Angora,  and  ten  days  more  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Jorba  of  eighty-six 
villages.  We  passed  a  month  in  these  three  plains  and  celebrated  Nevruz  (the 
spring's  commencement)  near  Angola.  The  weather  now  was  mild,  but  we  were 
all  exhausted  from  the  continual  fatigue  of  loading  and  unloading  heavy  loads. 
At  last  we  returned  to  the  village  of  Hossein  in  the  commencement  of  the  year 
1058  (1648).  From  hence  we  marched  in  seven  hours  to  the  north  amidst 
cultivated  villages  and  arrived  at  Angora. 

Description  of  Angora. 

On  the  day  that  our  quartermasters  entered  the  town  with  the  tails  it  was 
declared  to  them  in  the  court  of  justice,  that  the  Pâshâ  would  not  be  allowed  to 
enter  the  fortress  on  account  of  his  intentions  being  known  to  be  those  of  a  rebel, 
but  that  in  consequence  of  the  great  number  of  friends  and  clients  in  the  town,  he 
would  be  well  treated  and  lodged  there  for  three  days.  We  entered  with  a  great 
istikbâl  (procession  of  meeting)  and  were  saluted  by  the  firing  of  twenty  guns  I 
was  lodged  in  the  house  of  Keder-zadeh  and  went  straight  to  the  convent  of 
Hâjî-bairâm,  where  I  read  the  Koran,  and  fulfilled  the  vow  I  had  made  when 
in  the  hands  of  the  robbers,  distributing  to  the  Dervishes  an  hundred  piastres 
of  the  money  obtained  at  the  village  of  Balik-hisscir  from  the  robbers. 

Angora  was  conquered  by  Yakübshâh,  the  Prince  of  Kiitahia  of  the  Germidn 
family  and  by  his  Vezir  Hezâr-dînar,  and  then  by  Sultân  Orkhân.  If  Angora  is 
viewed  from  the  village  of  Erkiksii,  which  is  a  journey's  distance  from  the  north, 
it  appears  a  brilliant  place  ;  for  the  houses  rising  one  behind  the  other,  similarly  to 
Buda  on  the  Danube,  makes  it  look  like  a  ship  of  transport  (Mauna)  which  has 
set  up  its  trees  and  adorned  its  head.  Buda,  Van  and  Angora  are  the  three  first 
fortresses  of  the  Empire  :  its  name  (Engûrî)  is  Persian,  given  from  the  quantity  of 
grapes  (Engur)  which  are  found  here.  It  is  said  to  have  been  built  by  a  Byzantine 
Emperor,  and  employed  forty  thousand  workmen  for  seven  years,  who  each  day 
received  forty  nuts  and  a  loaf  apiece.  It  is  also  called  the  leafy  castle  (Motabbak), 
because  its  different  parts  cover  one  another  like  leaves  of  a  tree,  and  the 
castle  of  the  chains  (Selasil)  because  the  Emperor  HeracHus  surrounded  it  with 
seven  chains  on  the  birth  year  of  the  Prophet.  The  Mogols  call  it  Ankra ;  the 
Tatars,  Kermen  Ankra ;  the  Germans,  Constantinople  (!)  the  Turks,  Aidin  Karı, 
Unkûr  and  Ungorû.  In  the  Imperial  Registers  it  is  spelled  Ankra.  It  is  the  seat 
of  a  Sanjak  Beg  in  the  province  of  Anatoli,  and  has  been  given  many  times  as 
living  (Arpalik)  to  Vezirs  of  three  tails.  The  khass  of  the  Pâshâ  is  two  hundred 
and  sixty  three  thousand  four  hundred  aspers,  fourteen  ziâmets,  and  two  hundred 
and  fifty  seven  timars,  an  Alai-beg  (Colonel)  Cheri-beg  (Captain)  and  Yûzbâshî 


230  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

(Lieutenants).  The  Zaiins  and  Timariots  with  the  Jebelle  make  three  thousand 
armed  men.  The  Sûbashîs  depending  from  Angora  are,  those  of  the  town, 
that  of  Mertâtova,  of  Yebdnava,  of  Jubûkova,  and  of  Jorba,  which  annually 
import  forty  thousand  piastres.  The  Judge  is  a  Molla  of  five  hundred  aspers, 
whose  revenues  may  be  calculated  at  twenty  purses  a  year.  There  are  also 
a  Shiekh-ul-islam  or  Muftî,  a  Nakib-ul-eshraf,  or  head  of  the  Emîrs,  Seids  and 
Sherifs  (the  relations  of  the  Prophet),  a  Serdâr  of  the  Janissaries,  a  Kiaya-yerf 
of  the  Sipâhîs,  a  Nâı'b  of  the  town  and  a  Mohtessib  (provost  and  lieutenant  of 
police)  the  commanding  officers  of  the  Jebeji  and  Topji,  a  Dizdar  (commander  of  the 
castle)  and  a  garrison  of  an  hundred  men.  The  castle  is  situated  on  a  high  moun- 
tain, mocking  all  assaults,  rising  in  four  natural  terraces,  so  that  there  is  a  distance 
of  three  hundred  paces  from  one  enclosure  to  the  other  ;  the  height  of  each  wall 
is  sixty  cubits  and  the  breadth  ten  royal  cubits ;  the  foundations  are  all  built  on 
vaults.  The  castle  forms  an  oblong  square  from  east  to  west.  It  has  four  iron- 
gates  one  behind  the  other  towards  the  west,  each  strengthened  behind  by  iron 
cages.  These  iron  cages  or  gratings  are  thrown  before  the  gates  in  time  of  sieges, 
the  bars  are  of  the  thickness  of  an  arm.  The  gate  on  the  extremity  of  the  fortress 
looking  to  the  Horse  market  opens  to  the  west,  on  the  upper  part  of  it  are  sus- 
pended the  arms  of  old  knights,  and  the  bones  of  a  whale.  The  guards  keep 
watch  here  day  and  night.  If  the  commander  leaves  the  castle  the  garrison  are 
empowered  to  kill  him,  or  at  least  to  exile  him  for  ever.  Abaza,  the  rebel,  besieged 
this  town  with  an  hundred  thousand  men,  and  took  possession  of  the  lower  town, 
but  wounded  by  a  cannon  shot  from  the  upper  castle,  he  was  obliged  to  return 
to  Erzerum  ;  the  commander  ever  since  has  been  prohibited  from  leaving  the  castle, 
and  the  watchmen  all  night  long  cry,  Yegdir-allah,  One  is  God  1  It  has  no  ditch  on 
one  side  on  account  of  the  rocks,  and  it  is  not  easily  to  be  attacked  by  mines 
because  its  quarters  rise  one  behind  the  other.  The  four  enclosures  have  eighteen 
hundred  battlements,  and  its  circumference  is  four  thousand  paces.  On  the  east 
side  is  a  place  of  pilgrimage  situated  on  a  hill,  it  is  called  Khizrlik ;  this  hill  looks 
over  the  town,  which  is  of  no  consequence  as  it  is  not  within  gun-shot  distance. 
The  inner  castle  is  defended  by  sixty-eight  guns,  but  none  of  them  are  large.  The 
houses  number  six  hundred  and  are  all  terraced,  but  have  neither  gardens  nor 
vineyards  ;  the  old  mosque  was  formerly  a  convent.  The  lower  town  was  sur- 
rounded with  a  wall  by  Ahmed  Pâshâ  against  the  rebels.  It  has  four  gates,  and 
its  circumference  on  the  three  sides,  on  which  it  does  not  join  the  citadel,  is  six 
thousand  paces.  On  the  east  side  of  the  superior  castle  you  descend  into  the 
valley  of  Khizrlik  by  a  road  leading  down  for  fetching  water.  In  the  inner  castle 
are  cisterns  and  magazines ;  but  in  the  lower  town  are  no  cisterns,  because  water 


evliya  efendi.  231 

is  in  abundance,  there  being  an  hundred  and  seventy  fountains,  three  thousand 
wells,  seventy-six  mosques,  those  of  Ahmed  Pâshd  and  Hâjî  Beirâm  the  saint, 
having  been  built  by  the  great  Sinan,  fifteen  convents  of  Dervishes  with  mihrâb 
(mosques)  the  greatest  of  them  is  that  of  Hâjî  Bairâm,  where  three  hundred 
Dervishes  of  his  order  follow  the  rules  of  their  founder.  Their  first  patron  is 
Khoja  Abd-ul-Kadir  Jeilanf,  by  whom  they  ascend  to  the  prophet ;  in  Rûmelî 
they  are  called  also  Hamzevi  from  Sheikh  Hamza.  There  is  likewise  a  fine  con- 
vent of  Mevlevis  founded  by  Ahmed  Pâshâ.  The  colleges  are  richly  endowed, 
three  houses  for  lectures  on  tradition,  an  hundred  and  eighty  schools  for  boys,  two 
hundred  baths,  seventy  palaces  with  gardens  ;  all  these  buildings  are  of  brick  not 
stone,  and  covered  with  earth  instead  of  with  bricks,  six  thousand  six  hundred  and 
sixty  houses,  and  two  hundred  sebîl-khâneh  or  establishments  for  distributing 
water.  The  shops  are  two  thousand,  and  there  is  an  elegant  bezestan  with  four 
gates  with  chains  ;  the  market  places  are  almost  all  on  elevated  spots  ;  the  coflPee 
houses  and  barber's-shops  are  always  crowded  ;  the  public  places  and  streets  are 
paved  with  white  stones.  Its  divines,  poets,  and  learned  and  pious  men  are 
innumerable,  although  it  is  a  Turkish  town,  it  counts  more  than  two  thousand  boys 
and  girls  who  know  the  Koran  by  heart ;  some  thousand  also  know  by  heart  the 
Mohammedieh,  or  works  on  the  Mohammedan  religion  by  Yâzijî-zadeh  Moham- 
med Efendi.  Some  of  its  inhabitants  have  the  repute  of  performing  miracles  like 
Abd-ur-rahman  Efendi,  a  pious  man,  who  is  free  of  four  enticements,  viz.  hair, 
brows,  beard  and  eye-lashes  ;  he  is  descended  from  Hâjî  Bairâm's  family,  who  had 

the  same  advantage. 

Praises  of  Hdji  Bairdm  the  Saint. 

In  his  youth  he  was  once  invited  by  a  cunning  woman,  who  in  order  to  seduce 
the  Saint,  with  whom  she  was  in  love,  began  to  praise  his  hair,  beard,  brows  and 
eye-lashes.  The  Saint  retired  into  a  corner  and  prayed  to  God  that  he  might  be 
dehvered  of  these  four  inducements  to  lust,  and  become  of  an  ugly  form  ;  he  then 
returned  without  a  hair  into  the  woman's  presence,  who  shocked  at  his  ugliness 
had  him  turned  out  of  doors  by  her  maidens.  Hence  the  descendants  of  the 
Saint  by  his  daughter  actually  wear  short  beards  (Kosseh). 

The  rich  inhabitants  of  the  town  wear  Ferrâjes  of  sable,  those  of  the  middle 
class,  Serhaddîs  of  cloth  and  Contoshes,  the  workmen  Ferrajes  of  white  linen,  the 
Ulemas,  of  wool,  and  the  women  also  of  wool  of  different  colours.  The  climate 
and  temperature  being  mild  the  inhabitants  are  fair  with  red  faces. 

The  Eatables  and  Products, 
The  calves  and  sheep's  feet  of  Angora  are  the  counter  part  of  those  of  Kvitahia ; 


232  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

the  salted  flesh  (Passdh-ma)  of  its  goats  has  an  excellent  perfume.  These  goats 
called  Teftekgechî  are  of  a  brilliant  whiteness ;  of  the  hair  is  made  the  soft 
(Shalloon)  of  different  colours  which  is  worn  by  Monarchs.  If  the  wool  is  cut 
by  scissors  it  becomes  coarse,  but  if  pulled  out  it  is  as  soft  and  as  fine  as  the  silk 
of  Eyilb  (Job).  The  poor  goats,  when  the  hair  is  pulled  out  in  that  way,  raise 
lamentable  cries;  to  avoid  this  some  wash  them  with  a  mixture  of  chalk  and  ashes, 
by  which  they  are  enabled  to  pull  out  the  hair  without  difticulty  or  giving  pain ; 
thus  the  poor  goats  are  stripped  naked.  The  hair  is  then  worked  into  Shalloons, 
and  both  men  and  women  are  busy  at  making  or  selling  them.  The  Franks  tried 
to  transport  the  goats  of  Angora  into  their  own  country,  but  God  be  praised  !  they 
degenerated  into  common  goats,  and  the  stuff  wove  from  their  hair  was  no  Siif 
(Shalloon).  They  then  took  the  hair  of  the  Angora-goat  and  tried  to  work  it  into 
Sof,  but  were  never  able  to  give  it  the  true  lustre  (Maj).  They  now  make  of  it 
for  their  monks  a  kind  of  black  shalloon,  which  however  has  neither  colour  nor 
lustre.  The  inhabitants  of  Angora  say  that  the  exclusive  working  of  fine  shalloon 
is  granted  to  them  by  the  miracles  of  Hâjî  Bairâm,  and  the  water  and  air.  Indeed 
the  sof  (Shalloon)  of  Angora  is  the  most  famous  in  the  world ;  the  chalk  also  of 
Angora  is  renowned.  Its  inhabitants  make  great  journies  to  Frengistan  and  Egypt 
to  sell  their  Shalloons.  There  are  a  great  number  of  Jews,  but  few  Greeks  and 
Copts.  The  inhabitants  are  a  goodnatured  hospitable  people.  It  is  an  incomparable 
town,  which  may  God  preserve  till  the  end  of  time  in  the  hands  of  the  Ottomans  ! 
The  day  I  entered  Angora  I  visited  the  tomb  of  Hâjî  Bairâm,  recited  the  Koran 
and  then  returned  to  my  lodgings  where  I  soon  fell  asleep.  In  a  dream  I  saw  a 
man  with  a  yellow  beard,  honey-coloured  cowl  and  a  turban  of  twelve  folds  on  his 
head,  who  upbraided  me  for  having  visited  Hâjî  Bairâm's  tomb  and  passed  by  his- 
I  asked,  who  he  was  ?  and  he  said,  "  Didst  thou  not  call  on  Sâri  Sâltik  Dedeh, 
when  in  thy  youth  thou  performed  prayer  in  the  Convent  of  the  Wrestlers  at  Con- 
stantinople in  Sultân  Murad's  presence  ?  didst  thou  not  say  that  I  was  known 
here  by  the  name  of  Er  Sultân  ?  I  am  lying  here  under  a  thick  cupola  near  the 
wood  market,  where  thou  shouldest  visit  me  and  give  me  joy  with  a  fâtihah.  I  will 
send  to-morrow  morning  a  man  of  my  resemblance,  who  shall  lead  thee  to  my 
tomb."  I  awoke,  said  my  prayers,  and  was  waiting,  when  a  man  came  of  the  form 
of  him  I  saw  in  my  dream,  and  told  me,  that  Er  Sultân  had  appeared  to  him  in  a 
dream  and  had  commanded  him  to  show  me  his  burying  place.  This  man  had  a 
radiant  face,  and  his  voice  was  as  hollow  as  if  it  came  from  underground.  We 
passed  through  eleven  quarters  of  the  town  and  visited  in  passing  all  the  tombs  of 
Saints,  which  I  shall  mention  by  and  by,  if  it  pleases  God !  At  last  there  appeared 
on  the  western  side   of  the  wood-market  a  small  cupola,  which   my   companion 


evliya  efendi.  233 

pointed  out  to  me,  saying,  "  This  is  the  tomb  of  Er  Sultân."      Whilst  I  was 
looking  at  it  on  my  right  side,  he  disappeared  on  my  left,  and  I  was  at  a  loss  to 
know  what  had  become  of  him  and  fancied  that  he  must  have  walked  through  a 
door  covered  with  felt  which  was  near  me.     I  opened  it,  walked  in,  and  saw  it  was 
a  Bûza-house   full  of  riot.      Ashamed  of  having  got  into  such  society  I  left  the 
room  immediately  and  made  the  best  of  my  way  to  the  cupola  which  had  been 
shown  to  me.     There  I  laid  my  face  on  the  threshold  and  prayed  to  the  Saint, 
saying,  that  I  had  arrived  by  his  blessing,  and  begged  he  would  not  let  me  depart  void 
of  benediction  in  this  and  the  other  world.     I  now  commenced  the  recital  of  the 
Koran,  and  sheltering  myself  under  the  green  Suf  with  which  the  coffin  was 
covered,  said,  "  Protection,  protection,  O  Er  Sultân ! "     I  then  fell  asleep  and 
sweated  to  such  a  degree  that  when  I  woke  my  clothes  were  wet.     Er  Sultân  ap- 
peared to  me  again  and  I  begged  that  he  would  not  let  me  go  hence  void  of 
benediction.     He  replied,  "  Thou  wilt  not  be  void  of  it,  because  thou  art  a  Hdfiz 
(knowing  the  Koran  by  heart)  and  a  lover  of  the  Saints  (Evliya)  whose  tombs  thou 
always  visitest.     I  led  thee  myself  to  this  place,  I  am  a  perfect  leader  (Murshid 
Kâmil),  thy  path  is  straight.     Be  merciful  to  the  poor  and  weak,  and  tell  thy 
Pasha  not  to  molest  the  inhabitants  of  Angora.     God  will  grant  to  thee  travel  and 
good  health,  and  in  thy  last  moments  faith.     Eat,  speak,  sleep  and  know  little,  but 
do  a  great  deal,  for  actions  are  necessary  to  discover  the  way  to  God,  because  He 
hath  said  in  the  Koran,  '  Good  words  ascend,  and  good  works  exalt.'     Honour  thy 
parents,  and  the  Sheikhs  (Pır),  and  thy  end  shall  be  happy.     Say  now  a  fatihah 
with  this  intent."     Here  I  was  awoke  by  a  noise  and  voices  saying,  "  Is  there  no 
tomb-keeper  ? "  I  arose  from  beneath  the  cover  of  the  coffin  and  to  the  question 
of  the  visitors,  "  Whether  I  was  the  tomb-keeper  ?"  replied,  "  Yes  !  "  When  they 
were  gone  I  returned  home  shedding  many  tears,  and  related  my  vision  to  the 
Pasha,  who  also  related  to  me  a  similar  dream  that  he  had  had.     He  instantly 
gave  orders  that  all  the  Sarija  and  Segbân  should  deliver  up  their  arms  and  leave 
in  quiet  the  inhabitants  of  Angora.     The  Pasha  had  had  some  idea  of  shutting 
himself  up  in  the  town  and  declaring  it  in  a  state  of  rebellion,  but  he  immediately 
abandoned  it  after  these  visions.     I  then  made  it  a  duty  to  myself  to  visit  every 
day,  during  my  stay  at  Angora,  the  tombs  of  Hâjî  Bairam  and  Er  Sultân  and 
others  of  the  Saints,  which  I  am  now  about  to  mention. 

Pilfrrimaffes. 

Sheikh  Hâjî  Bairâm,  the  pole  and  column  of  sanctity,  was  born  on  the  bank  of 
the  river  Chepul  in  the  village  of  Solkof  and  was  the  disciple  of  Sheikh  Hâmed. 
At  the  time  when  Sultân  Bâyazîd  I.  was  at  Adrianople,  Sheikh  Bairâm  preached 

VOL.  II.  H  H 


234  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

there  in  the  old  mosque,  and  the  pulpit  which  he  ascended  is  still  shown.  Differ- 
ent Sheikhs  who  tried  to  ascend  this  pulpit  could  never  utter  a  word,  because  none 
were  worthy  to  preach  after  him  in  the  same  place.  After  his  death,  which  hap- 
pened in  Bâyazîd's  reign,  he  was  buried  beneath  a  high  cupola  in  the  inner  castle 
of  Angora.  Sheikh  Er  Sultân,  the  leader  of  divine  truth,  the  discoverer  of 
mysteries,  called  Mahmud  by  his  proper  name,  was  born  at  Angora,  and  reposes 
beneath  a  small  cupola  in  the  wood  market.  East  of  Angora  on  a  high  mountain 
is  the  pilgrimage  of  Hizr,  a  pleasure  place  from  which  a  fine  view  of  the  town  is 
enjoyed.  This  Saint  was  the  disciple  of  Sheikh  Hossam-ud-din,  and  being  impri- 
soned at  Angora  he  gave  the  order  one  evening  to  be  buried  the  next  day,  and  in 
the  morning,  without  any  body  having  been  near  him,  he  was  found  washed, 
perfumed,  and  ready  for  burial.  Sheikh  Katib  Salâh-ud-dîn  was  a  great  astronomer, 
a  second  Pythagoras.  There  are  a  great  number  of  other  Saints,  which  I  do  not 
mention,  as  I  could  not  visit  their  tombs  during  my  short  stay. 

The  day  of  our  departure  being  fixed,  I  made  myself  as  light  as  possible,  by 
giving  away  a  part  of  what  I  had  taken  from  the  robbers'  den  in  alms,  and  the  rest 
as  a  pawn  to  the  master  of  the  house  where  I  lodged  and  got  ready  with  seven 
Mamlucs  and  one  light  pack  horse.  In  the  morning  I  heard  an  uproar  and  riot  by 
which  heaven  and  earth  was  thrown  into  confusion.  Some  were  exclaiming  that 
they  were  satisfied  with  the  Pâshâ,  others  that  he  was  a  rebel  for  having  united 
with  Vârvâr  Pâshâ,  and  that  it  was  necessary  to  obey  the  Emperor's  com- 
mand. In  short  Mustafa,  one  of  the  Emperor's  Kapiji,  had  arrived  with  forty 
of  his  companions ;  they  had  shut  the  gates  of  the  castle  and  proclaimed  a 
general  call  to  arms  (Neffr-a'âm).  Most  fortunately  the  Pâshâ,  who  had  been 
terrified  by  a  disastrous  dream,  was  gone  incognito  to  visit  the  tomb  of  Sidi 
Battal's  father,  and  could  not  therefore  be  found  in  his  palace,  which  was  searched 
in  every  part  by  the  Kapiji.  The  Pasha  of  course  did  not  re-enter  the  town  but 
repaired  to  the  village  of  Erkeksii,  which  is  to  the  north  of  it,  and  sent  a 
letter  to  his  Kiaya  to  request  him  to  send  his  troops.  In  the  mean  time  the 
Pâshâ  not  having  been  found  the  gates  were  opened  and  a  proclamation  issued, 
that  all  who  belonged  to  the  Pâshâ  were  to  leave  the  town  instantly ;  I  therefore 
took  leave  of  the  master  of  my  house  and  Haji  Bairam  and  Er  Sultân,  and  arrived 
after  seven  hours'  march  at  the  village  of  Erkeksû  consisting  of  two  hundred 
houses  and  a  mosque  at  the  foot  of  a  rock.  Seven  hours  further  on  we  arrived  at 
the  great  place  Istanozi,  with  a  judge  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  in  the 
district  of  Mortatova,  bordering  on  a  valley,  on  each  side  of  which  are  towering 
rocks  ;  it  has  a  thousand  houses  without  gardens,  a  mosque,  a  bath  and  market : 
the  river  Erkek  flows  through  it.  This  place  had  formerly  two  great  gates  at  either 


evliya  efendi.  235 

end,  which  were  destroyed  in  the  time  of  Murad  III.  by  the  rebel  Korayaziji;  if 
these  two  gates  were  restored  it  would  be  impossible  to  take  the  place,  because 
it  is  situated  between  two  walls  of  high  rocks  on  which  eagles  and  vultures  build 
their  nests,  but  to  which  man  scarcely  dares  to  lift  up  his  eyes.  These  rocks  are  as 
tremendous  as  those  of  Van,  Shabîn  and  Mdrdin,  some  of  them  are  excavated 
below  like  Mount  Bisütön  and  some  are  shaped  above  like  dragons,  lions  and 
elephants.  The  inhabitants  are  for  the  most  part  Armenians.  About  a  thousand 
looms  are  employed  in  working  Suf.  This  place  being  enclosed  by  two  rocks  the 
air  is  very  warm.  The  Armenian  girls  here  are  famed  for  their  beauty.  There 
are  caverns  which  can  hold  a  thousand  horses.  Formerly  an  old  castle  stood  here 
on  a  rock. 

The  day  we  entered  the  town  there  was  a  great  conflux  of  men  to  see  tumblers 
and  wrestlers  exhibit  their  tricks ;  Istanoz  and  the  town  of  Kodoz  in  Anatoli  being 
the  places  where  tumblers  and  wrestlers  assemble  to  make  bets.  They  stretch  the 
rope  from  one  rock  to  the  other  and  place  watchmen  at  each  end,  that  enemies 
may  not  cut  it  when  they  are  dancing  on  it.  The  rocks  and  the  valley  beneath 
are  crowded  with  spectators  and  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  which  flows  through 
the  valley,  tents  are  pitched  for  the  spectators.  We  witnessed  during  three  days 
the  tricks  of  seventy  six  tumblers,  who  were  followed  by  three  hundred  scholars, 
to  whom  they  gave  lessons  in  their  art. 

(The  Description  of  the  tricks,  and  an  account  of  two  letters  from  and  to  Vdvdr 
Pdshd,  are  here  omitted.) 

Having  received  the  letters  of  My  Lord  the  Pâshâ  I  passed  Hossein  Ghâzî  and 
Bâlik-hissâr,  halted  at  the  village  of  Sâri  Alan,  and  further  on  passed  Kala'ajik, 
Sheikh  Shâmî,  Akche-koyûnli,  and  the  river  Kizil  Irmak  with  great  ease  at 
Kârdlar,  heard  that  Vârvâr  Pâshâ  had  left  the  station  of  Turhal,  and  met  him 
further  on  to  the  eastward  at  Gergezâr.  I  first  went  as  the  rule  requireth  to  his 
kiaya,  who  conducted  me  to  the  presence  of  the  Pâshâ.  He  was  seated  in  a  tent, 
like  Solomon  surrounded  by  many  thousand  Sârija  and  Segban.  I  kissed  the 
ground  and  delivered  the  letter  in  the  usual  form.  Having  looked  into  my  face 
and  said,  "  Art  not  thou  Evliya  Chelebî,  who  at  the  mosque  of  Aya  Sofia  recited 
in  the  night  Kadr,  the  Koran  in  eight  hours  ?  and  who  was  received  by  Sultân 
Murad  amongst  the  pages  of  the  Kîldâr."  Having  replied,  "  Yes,"  he  asked 
further  in  what  office  I  was  to  the  Pâshâ.  I  said,  that  on  the  way  to  Erzenim  I 
was  head  of  the  Muezzins,  but  that  he  afterwards  made  me  clerk  of  the  Custom- 
house and  sent  me  three  times  into  Persia,  and  that  now  I  was  his  Imam  and 
intimate  companion.     The  servants  having  been  ordered  to  withdraw  he  called 


236  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

the  Divân  Efendî  and  read  the  letter.  "  It  is  a  pity,"  said  he,  "  that  your  Pâshâ 
did  not  with  such  an  army  shut  himself  up  at  Angora ;  he  might  have  played  the 
devil  there,  and  by  this  glorious  deed  have  hung  his  sword  in  the  skies  (like  that  of 
Orion)."  Rejoiced,  however,  at  the  number  of  our  troops  he  gave  me  an  hundred 
zechins,  a  rosary  of  corals  and  a  watch  set  with  jewels.  I  was  also  invested  with  a 
magnificent  sable  pelisse  and  recommended  as  a  guest  to  the  Khazinedâr. 

The  same  day  news  arrived  that  Koprili  Mohammed  Pasha  and  seven  Vezirs 
had  taken  post  at  the  bridge  of  Osmânjik  and  the  rocks  of  Sarimshik,  where  they 
were  entrenching  themselves  ;  and  that  Hossein  the  Pâshâ  of  Amasia  had  closed  the 
pass  (PÛ1)  of  Dirikli  and  carried  the  population  away  to  the  mountains.  Upon  this 
news  Vârvâr  Alî  Pâshâ  directed  his  inarch  straight  to  the  passage  of  the  Kizil 
Irmak.  Our  march  was,  from  Kiraz  to  Dânkaza  seven  hours,  to  Bardâklf-bâbâ 
seven  hours  and  to  the  river  Kizil  Irmak  six  hours.  The  passage  of  the  river  was 
effected  in  the  best  order,  without  the  least  harm  happening  to  any  body.  We 
halted  at  Airak  which  lies  north  of  the  Kizil  Irmak  in  the  Sanjak  of  Kangru ;  it 
has  an  hundred  houses  and  a  mosque.  We  here  visited  the  tomb  of  Mohammed 
Shah  Dedeh,  who  came  with  Haji  Begtâsh  from  Khorassan  to  the  court  of 
Bayazid  I.,  a  large  hospitable  convent  of  an  hundred  Dervishes  Begtâshî.  I 
witnessed  the  Pasha  perform  his  visit  to  the  tomb  with  a  devotion  and  a  faith 
outshining  that  of  many  preachers  from  the  pulpit.  The  tomb  is  surrounded  with 
censers,  vases  for  rose-water,  lamps  and  candelabra.  Every  year  the  Sheikh  of 
this  convent  kills  a  horse  and  abandons  the  carcase  to  the  eagles  and  vultures 
of  the  rocks,  who  live  upon  it  till  the  next  year.  The  Sheikh  has  bred  eagles 
instead  of  falcons  for  hawking  beasts  of  all  kind.  From  hence  we  marched  for 
three  hours  along  the  bank  of  the  Kizil  Irmak  to  the  village  of  Torduk,  in  the 
territory  of  Kânghrî.  At  the  convent  of  Hassam  Efendi  a  great  repast  was  given 
to  the  Pasha.  Three  hours  further  on  we  came  to  the  convent  of  Kûm-bâbâ,  and 
then  we  entered  the  Keskin  of  the  Turcomans  in  the  land  of  Kânghrî.  Having 
overran  it  for  ten  days  we  halted  on  the  eleventh  at  the  village  of  Sâlî.  I 
perceived  that  the  army  was  preparing  for  battle  and  learned  that  spies  had 
brought  the  news,  that  Koprilî  Mohammed  Pâshâ,  who  had  been  named  com- 
mander against  Varvar,  was  ready  to  give  him  battle  on  the  following  day.  The 
troops  having  armed  during  the  night,  the  Pasha  put  himself  in  the  morning  at 
the  head  of  six  thousand  men  of  light  troops,  and  pushed  on  for  seven  hours 
towards  the  kiblah.  Here  the  two  armies  engaged  and  that  of  Koprilî  was 
entirely  routed ;  a  great  number  were  killed  and  the  rest  dispersed  or  made 
prisoners.  Amongst  the  last  was  Mohammed  Koprilî  Pasha  himself,  the  Pasha 
of  Amasia,  Kor  Hossein,  and  the  Pâshâ  of  Kara  Shehr,  both   of  two  tails,  who 


evliya  efendi.  237 

V?ere  obliged  to  walk  on  foot  with  chains  on  their  feet  and  blocks  on  their  necks, 
along  with  the  tails  of  Vârvâr.  Such  is  the  state  of  the  world,  that  these  great 
and  powerful  men  were  now  in  the  power  of  the  Sârija  and  Segbân,  who  tortured 
and  killed  their  men  before  their  eyes  and  the  executioners  flung  their  swords 
over  their  necks.  In  brief  a  Vezir  (Koprili)  and  five  Begler-begs  were  bound 
to  the  poles  of  Vârvâr's  tent,  who  elated  with  this  victory  declared  now  more 
than  ever  open  rebellion,  collected  all  kinds  of  rabble,  wrote  letters  to  Begs  and 
Begler-begs  enforcing  them  to  come  and  join  him  with  their  troops,  and  in  fact 
collected  an  army  of  thirty-seven  thousand  men.  When  we  arrived  at  the  village 
of  Buzoghldn,  in  the  Sanjak  of  Kanghril,  I  waited  on  him  wishing  him  joy  of  his 
victory,  and  begging  he  would  despatch  me  with  the  letters  expected.  I  endea- 
voured to  persuade  him  to  be  mild  and  merciful,  and  to  pardon  and  set  at  liberty 
his  prisoners,  according  to  the  text,  "  O  God !  Thou  art  all-pardoning,  Thou 
likest  pardon,  pardon  me."  He  however  remained  obstinate,  saying,  I  should  see  in 
a  few  days  what  would  happen  when  his  friends  little  Chaush  Pasha,  Ipshir  Pashd 
and  Shehsuvar  Oghlf  Pasha  should  arrive  to  join  him.  He  was  an  open  frank 
man,  but  extremely  simple  and  of  little  judgment,  and  therefore  blindly  believed 
in  the  assurances  of  these  Pâshds ;  and  being  overjoyed  with  the  news  he  had 
received  from  them,  he  despatched  me  with  letters  to  my  master,  presenting 
me  with  an  hundred  piastres,  a  completely  caparisoned  horse  from  Koprili's  stable, 
and  a  complete  dress. 

From  YÛZ  Oghlan  in  the  Sanjak  of  Kanghrii  I  rode  for  three  days  trusting  in 
Cod,  left  Angora  on  my  right  and  met  with  the  Pasha  on  the  plain  of  Murtât. 
The  Pâshâ  hearing  of  Vârvâr's  blind  confidence  glowed  with  anger  and  said,  "  He 
shall   see  it,  the  blockhead   (Potur)."     He  then  gave  me  Ipshir  Pasha's  letter, 
which  he  had  sent  him  to  read,  and  I  saw  it  was  full  of  flattery  and  deceit.     The 
Pâshâ  was  about  to  answer  this  letter,  when  a  Khasseki  and  Kapiji-bashi  arrived 
with  Kiatib  AH  Chelebf,  the  Khazinedâr  of  Seyavush  Aghâ  Kiatib  Alî  Chelebî. 
The  Imperial  rescript  was  instantly  read,  and  contained  the  most  positive  orders 
to  join  till  the  first  of  Jemâzî-ul-akhir  the  united  troops  of  Ipshir,  Chaush,  Bakî, 
Ketgâj  and  Sîdî  Pâshâ  against  Vârvâr,  whose  head  or  the  Pasha's  was  required. 
If  he  refused  to  comply  all  his  property  was  to  be  confiscated,  and  his  children 
and  relations  killed  ;  but  under  the  supposition  of  ready  obedience  the  Governorship 
of  Egypt  was   conferred   upon   him.      The  Pâshâ   made   immediate   obeisance, 
ordered  the  tails  to  proceed,  gave  to  the  Khasseki  a  purse  for  the  expenses  of  the 
road,  and  recommended  him  as  a  guest  to  his  kiaya.     The  next  day  the  Châhne"-îr 
(head  carver)  of  Vârvâr  arrived  from  Constantinople  with  a  Khatti-shen'f  of  the 
following  tenor  :    "  My  Lâlâ  (Governor)  thy  fault  is  pardoned,  but  the  rebellion  of 


238  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

Defterdctr  Oghli,  who  wished  to  put  himself  in  possession  of  Erzerûm  and  Angora, 
is  evident.  His  head  or  yours  is  demanded.  If  you  send  the  first  the  Governor- 
ship of  Egypt  is  assured  to  you."  The  Pasha  remained  dumb  at  the  sight  of  this 
Khatti-sherif  and  instantly  despatched  me  back  with  that  which  he  had  received 
to  Vârvâr. 

(Here  follows  the  relation  of  Vdrvdrs  complete  defeat  by  Ipshir  Pdslid  hy  whom 
he  was  ensnared;  occupying  three  sheets  of  the  original.) 

Evliya  at  last,  afraid  for  his  head,  waited  on  Ipshfr  Pasha  and  asked  for  letters, 
that  he  might  return  as  he  came.  "  Here,"  said  Ipshir  showing  Vârvâr's  dead 
body,  "  is  the  man  from  whom  you  may  ask  your  expedition."  Evliya  begged 
to  be  spared  as  he  was  no  rebel  and  no  Sanjak  Beg.  Ipshir  Pdshâ  laughed  and  said, 
"  What  art  thou  doing  at  thy  master's  ;  wert  thou  not  previously  with  Melek  Ahmed 
Pasha?"  "  By  God,"  I,  poor  Evliya,  answered,  "  I  am  the  common  servant  and 
joint  subject  of  two  Vezirs,  whom  I  accompany  alternately  as  they  come  into  high 
offices  for  the  pleasure  of  travelling.  Defterdar  Zâdeh  must  now  be  removed 
from  office  at  this  place,  and  your  Excellency  is  most  likely  to  go  as  Governor  to 
Damascus  or  Baghdad,  in  which  case  I  attach  myself  to  your  service."  "  No," 
said  Ipshir,  "  go  and  follow  Melek  Ahmed."  "  Well,"  I,  poor  Evliya,  replied, 
"  there  is  no  difference  between  you  three.  Is  not  the  mother  of  my  present 
master  the  nearest  relation  of  Melek  Pasha's  and  your  mother  ?"  "  Look  here," 
said  the  Pasha,  "  he  reminds  me  of  my  relationship  with  Mohammed  Pâshâ,  in 
order  to  become  the  mediator  of  peace  between  us."  I  got  up,  kissed  his  hand 
and  begged  he  would  give  me  a  letter  to  My  Lord  the  Pasha,  to  give  him  some 
solace  in  the  present  state  of  his  affairs.  He  ordered  me  a  tent,  seventy  secchins,  a 
horse  (being  an  extremely  avaricious  and  low  born  Abâzâ)  and  a  letter,  with 
which  I  got  under  way. 

From  Cherkesh  (where  Vârvâr's  defeat  had  happened)  I  rode  for  eight  hours 
to  Dûlûshja,  a  village  of  an  hnndred  and  fifty  houses  with  gardens  and  a  mosque ; 
eight  hours  further  to  Mestibeg,  a  village  of  an  hundred  houses,  a  ziâmet ;  and 
nine  hours  further  to  the  village  of  Alî  Zaîm,  a  Sûbashilik  in  the  plain  of 
Mûrtât,  a  ziamet  of  an  hundred  houses,  where  I  met  the  Pasha,  who  had  heard 
of  the  defeat  of  Vârvâr,  Kor  Hossein,  and  Haji  OghK,  but  knew  not  as  yet  of  their 
deaths,  which  I  related  to  him  as  it  happened  three  days  ago.  The  Pasha  read 
Ipshîr's  letter,  and  hearing  at  the  same  time  that  Bakî  Pasha  had  left  him  and 
joined  Ipshîr's  camp,  he  became  very  melancholy  and  prepared  for  attacking 
Ipshir,  who  from  Cherkesh  moved  towards  Karamanla  by  the  side  of  Keskin. 
The  Pasha  followed  him  at  three  day's  distance,  took  a  great  deal  of  booty  of  the 


evliya  efendi,  239 

baggages  of  Vdrvâr,  Koprilî  and  Kor  Hossein  and  arrived  in  three  days  at  the 
river  Sakaria.  At  the  village  of  Merja  in  the  district  of  Begbazârî  the  Divdn  Efendi 
of  Vârvâr  Pâshâ  was  overtaken  with  forty-three  tliousand  zecchins  and  seven 
purses  of  money.  He  confessed  to  ten  thousand  zecchins  besides  and  a  sum 
deposited  at  Angora  of  forty  purses  of  money,  after  which  confession  his  head 
was  cut  off,  and  sent  to  the  Porte  as  being  that  of  a  rebel.  According  to  the 
assignation  of  Khali'l,  the  Divanî  Efendî,  on  Hassan  at  Angora  in  whose  hands  the 
money  was  deposited,  Alaja  Atli  Aghâ  was  despatched  with  three  hundred  horse- 
men to  take  possession  of  it.  We  marched  along  the  bank  of  the  Sakaria 
river  to  the  village  Shikenji  Ahmed  Aghâ  in  the  district  of  Ayâsh,  a  village 
surrounded  with  gardens.  We  passed  the  village  of  Istanos  and  after  seven  hours 
reached  Erkeksu  at  last  arriving  at  Angora,  where  Atlı  Aghâ  was  lodged  in 
the  house  of  Hassan,  from  whom  he  demanded  the  money  deposited  by  the 
beheaded  Divân  Efendî,  and  I  lodged  with  my  old  friend  Kedr-zâdeh  who  returned 
to  me  all  my  things  and  effects,  which  I  had  left  in  his  hands.  The  next  day 
Hassan  Chelebî  was  obliged  to  pay  the  sum  mentioned  by  the  beheaded  Divân 
Efendî  and  to  accompany  us  in  irons.  My  friend,  Kedr-zâdeh  made  me  a  present 
of  two  pack-horses  to  facilitate  the  transport  of  my  things.  We  left  Angora, 
passed  as  before  through  Istanos,  then  during  eight  hours  along  the  pass  of  Ayâsh  ; 
Ayâsh  is  a  foundation  belonging  to  the  two  holy  cities  of  Mecca  and  Medina.  It 
is  a  jurisdiction  of  an  hundred  and  fifty  aspers,  and  contains  a  thousand  houses 
and  ten  mosques ;  the  castle  is  in  ruins,  but  there  is  a  Serdâr  and  Kiaya-yerî ;  the 
air  is  heavy  because  the  ground  is  uneven.  I  here  visited  the  tomb  of  Emîr- 
dedeh,  and  on  the  opposite  side  that  of  Sheikh  Bokhara  buried  under  a  cupola  on 
the  mountain. 

Description  of  the  town  of  Beg-bazdri  or  Bebek-bazdri. 

Dinâr-hezâr,  the  vezîr  of  Yakub  Shah  of  the  Germiân  family,  having  conquered 
this  town  gave  it  the  name  Germiân-hezârf.  Once  a  week  there  is  a  famous  mar- 
ket chiefly  of  goats-hair  spun  and  woven.  It  is  now  the  Khass  of  the  Mufti  of 
Constantinople  who  appoints  the  Sübashî.  The  judge,  appointed  with  an  hundred 
and  fifty  aspers,  may  easily  collect  seven  purses.  There  is  a  Serdâr  and  Kiaya-yerî, 
but  no  Dizdar  and  garrison,  the  castle  being  too  small  to  hold  any.  At  the  foot  of 
it  lies  the  town  distributed  over  two  valleys,  and  divided  into  twenty  quarters. 
There  are  forty  one  mosques,  three  thousand  and  sixty  seven  elegant  houses,  all 
of  mortar,  but  the  roofs  of  wood,  a  room  for  reading  the  Koran,  another  for  lectures 
on  tradition,  but  no  stone  built  colleges  as  in  other  towns,  and  seventy  schools. 
There  are  more  than  seven  hundred  men  and  boys  who  know  by  heart  the  Koran, 


240  THE    TRAVELS    OF 

and  the  Mohammedieh,  a  Mufti  and  Nakîb-ul-eshrâf ;  the  inhabitants  are  for  the 
most  part  Ulemds.  This  being  a  Turkish  town  the  people  are  chiefly  Oghûz,  that 
is  to  say  good  men  of  the  old  Turkish  simplicity.  There  are  seven  Khans,  pleasant 
baths,  six  hundred  shops  in  which  precious  articles  are  found,  but  no  bezestan  of 
stone.  On  the  bank  of  the  torrent,  which  flows  through  the  butcheries,  a  market 
is  held  every  week  ;  this  torrent  falls  into  the  river,  which  runs  below  the  town, 
and  with  this  river  into  the  Sakaria.  The  roads  are  strewn  with  sand  and  not 
paved.  The  young  men  are  fine,  and  the  girls  very  retired  and  modest,  but  not 
pretty.  The  gardens  of  Beg-bazârî  are  numerous  ;  among  its  products  is  a  par- 
ticular melon  much  distinguished  for  its  sweetness  ;  the  inhabitants  make  of  it  a 
Zerdeh  (dish)  with  cinnamon  and  cloves,  sweet  as  the  Zerdeh  which  was  first  in- 
vented by  Moavia  ;  there  is  also  a  large  green  pear  four  or  five  of  which  go  to  an 
occa.  Every  year  some  thousand  of  them  are  sent  in  boxes  to  Constantinople  as 
presents,  such  sweet  pears  are  found  but  in  Persia  in  the  town  of  Nessu  and  are 
like  the  pears  called  Melje  in  the  town  of  Bâr.  Black  barley  is  produced  here, 
which  must  be  given  with  caution  to  horses,  and  there  is  a  great  quantity  of  rice. 
In  the  town  is  the  tomb  of  Az-dedeh. 

We  had  remained  here  three  days  when  letters  arrived  for  the  Pasha  from  my 
uncles,  Melek-zâdeh  and  Abd-ur-rahîm,  giving  notice  of  the  death  of  my  father, 
and  that  all  his  goods  remained  in  my  step-mother's  hands.  They  begged  leave 
from  the  Pasha  for  me  to  make  a  journey  to  Constantinople  in  order  to  arrange 
my  afFairs,  after  which  I  might  return  to  him.  I  received  three  letters  from  my 
relations  with  the  same  news,  which  I  showed  to  the  Pâshâ,  who  showed  me  those 
he  had  received.  He  gave  me  leave  to  go  on  condition  I  would  come  back  again, 
called  the  Kiaya  and  Khazinedar,  gave  me  five  hundred  dollars,  two  horses, 
and  two  slaves,  a  fine  tent  and  three  mules  in  addition  to  those  which  I  had  received 
as  a  present  from  the  late  Vârvâr  Alî  Pâshâ.  With  seven  Mamlûks  and  eight 
servants  attached  to  me,  I  took  leave  of  the  Pâshâ  and  set  out  at  the  end  of  Jemazi- 
ul-akhir  in  the  year  1058  (1648)  from  Begbazari  for  Constantinople. 

Journey  from  Beg-bazdri  to  Constantinople. 

We  marched  nine  hours  to  the  north  through  cultivated  villages  and  open 
meadows  to  the  village  of  Sârî-beg.  Here  a  gigantic  wall  is  seen,  which  is  said 
to  have  been  moved  by  the  mii'aculous  power  of  Haji  Begtâsh,  and  the  spot  is 
shown  where  he  sat  upon  the  wall.  It  has  no  foundation  and  therefore  it  is  evident 
it  must  have  been  moved  hither.  Seven  hours  further  is  the  village  of  Kostek- 
beg  of  an  hundred  houses  in  a  ground  intersected  by  valleys.  The  inhabitants  are 
free  from  all  duties.     At  the  time  of  the  rebellion  of  Kara  Yaziji,  Seid-ul-Arab, 


evliya  efendi.  241 

Kalender  Oghlî,  Jennet  Oglılî,  Deli  Hassan  and  Seji<lh  Oghlî  in  the  time  of 
Ahmed  I.  they  assailed  a  great  caravan  here,  which  they  plundered,  killing  more 
than  two  thousand  men.  The  road  then  remained  blocked  up  for  some  time,  till 
Nassif  Pasha  built  here  a  great  khan  and  transported  the  inhabitants  hither.  There 
is  a  mosque,  a  khdn,  an  imaret  and  a  bath.  The  raisins  of  this  place  are  cele- 
brated for  sour  preserves.  The  khdn  has  no  equal  in  the  whole  of  Anatolia  unless 
it  be  the  KhcCn  of  Katifa  and  Sa'asa'a  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Damascus.  The 
stable  holds  two  thousand  horses,  there  is  besides  a  stable  for  camels,  and  all  the 
buildings  are  covered  with  lead.  Eight  hours  further  to  the  north  we  arrived  at 
Nailî  Kkân,  a  small  affranchised  mussulman  village  of  an  hundred  houses  in  a  valley, 
governed  by  a  MutevelU  of  Nassif  Pâshâ.  This  khân  is  also  his  foundation  and  is 
built  like  that  of  Kostek-beg  Khan,  having  an  hundred  and  fifty  chimneys  with  a 
kitchen  like  that  of  Keikavus.  Travellers  receive  each  a  loaf  in  a  brass  plate,  a  dish 
of  soup  and  a  candle.  In  seven  hours  more  we  reached  the  village  of  Turbeli  Koilik, 
which  in  the  harsh  language  of  the  Turks  is  pronounced  Torbalı  Koiluk.  Akshems- 
ud-din  is  buried  in  this  village.  The  castle,  built  by  the  Greek  Emperors,  was 
conquered  by  Ghazi  Osman  in  the  year  712  (1312).  It  has  a  Kiaya-yeri  and 
Serdâr  but  no  Dizdar.  This  place  is  surrounded  on  both  sides  by  rocks  from 
which  the  water  of  life  flows  through  fir-wood  pipes.  Though  its  inhabitants  are 
Turks,  it  is  yet  a  sweet  town  of  two  thousand  houses,  all  covered  with  fir-wood, 
eighteen  mosques  and  eight  quarters.  The  houses  are  overhung  by  the  chalk 
cliffs,  which  from  time  to  time  fall  down  upon  them,  without  doing  the  least  harm 
to  men  or  mice.  The  number  of  the  houses,  immediately  overhung  by  the  rocks, 
is  two  hundred,  there  is  no  college  or  house  of  tradition  but  twenty  schools  for 
boys;  in  the  market-place  are  three  khans  covered  with  brick,  a  bath,  a  good 
number  of  mills  and  seventy-five  shops  in  which  saddle-bags  and  horse-cloths 
are  sold.     No  Jews  can  inhabit  this  place,  because  in  it  they  die  instantly. 

Description  of  the  tomb  of  the  great  Saint  Jkshems-ud-din. 

He  was  born  at  Damascus  and  derives  his  genealogy  from  Abubekr,  which  was 
proved  by  the  absence  of  one  of  the  joints  in  his  finger,  because  all  descendants 
from  him  are  born  with  that  defect.  He  had  conversed  with  Shehab-ud-din 
Sehrverdi,  who  is  buried  in  the  castle  of  Baghdad,  and  at  Angora  with  Haji 
Bairara.  He  accompanied  Mohammed  II.  to  the  conquest  of  Constantinople, 
and  foretold  the  day  when  the  town  would  be  conquered.  He  and  his  whole 
family  lie  buried  here.  It  was  he  who  discovered  the  tomb  of  Eyyiib  and  on 
whose  admonition  they  dug  on  the  spot  indicated  by  him.  He  composed  many 
volumes  of  books  and   was  in   medicine  a  second   Lokman.     His   son  Ahmed 

VOL.  II.  I    I 


242  THE    TRAVELS    OF. 

Chelebi  is  the  author  of  Yüssûf  and  Zuleikha,  one  of  the  most  renowned  of  poems 
in  the  Turkish  language,  he  did  not  accept  of  the  directorship,  which  his  father 
intended  for  him  and  which  after  his  death  devolved  on  Sa'ad  Allah,  another 
son  of  his,  and  who  is  buried  near  his  father.  Sheikh  Niirallah  his  third  son 
went  to  Brussa  to  finish  his  studies  and  killed  himself  accidentally,  his  penknife 
entering  his  stomach.  Sheikh  Chelebf  Emi-illah  did  not  follow  his  father's  man- 
ner of  life,  and  died  of  the  gout ;  he  composed  an  historical  work.  Sheikh 
Nasrollah  his  fifth  son  travelled  for  seven  years  in  Persia  and  is  buried  at 
Tabriz ;  the  Persians  visit  his  tomb,  and  some  erroneously  believe  him  to  be 
the  son  of  Shems  Tabi-fzi  who  is  buried  in  the  town  of  Khüî,  whither  he  walked 
with  his  head  cut  off,  carrying  it  in  his  hand.  Sheikh  Mohammed  Nûrolhüda 
the  son  of  Akshems-ud-din  ;  his  father  having  touched  his  mother's  womb  when 
she  was  pregnant  with  him,  she  was  immediately  delivered  on  the  salute  given 
to  the  child,  which  returned  it  saying,  "  Esseldm  aleikum."  This  ecstatic  child 
(Mejzub)  when  grown  up  could  discern  in  the  mosque  those  who  would  go  to 
heaven  from  those  who  would  go  to  hell.  He  is  buried  in  the  village  of  Evlek, 
which  was  given  to  him  by  Sultân  Mohammed.  Sheikh  Mohammed  Hamdol- 
lah,  the  abovesaid  second  son  of  Akshems-ud-din,  was  also  spoken  to  by  his  father 
when  in  his  mother's  womb.  At  eight  years  old  he  was  already  author 
of  a  Divân.  He  composed  Leila  and  Mejniin,  and  Yussiif  and  Zuleikha,  which 
has  no  equal  in  the  Turkish  language.  He  died  when  sixty-six  years  old.  Among 
a  great  number  of  treatises  he  wrote  one  on  physiognomy  which  is  much  esteemed. 
His  son  Mohammed  Chelebf  was  a  great  divine  and  in  caligraphy  a  second  Yakut 
Mostea'assemi  and  Ibn  Mokla.  The  tomb  of  Sheikh  Abd-ul-kadir,  the  son  of 
Sa'ad  Allah  ;  he  is  buried  outside  that  of  his  ancestor.  Sheikh  Abd-ur-rahim  one  of 
Akshems-ud-din's  followers,  who  lived  forty  yeai'S  after  him ;  he  is  the  author 
of  the  work  Wahdet-nameh  (book  of  unity). 

We  remained  here  one  day  and  then  travelled  seven  hours  to  the  north  to 
Taraklı,  built  by  the  Greek  Princes  of  Brussa  and  conquered  by  Osman.  The 
judge  is  appointed  with  an  hundred  and  fifty  aspers;  there  are  fifteen  hundred 
houses  in  a  valley  all  covered  with  brick,  eleven  mihrabs,  seven  quarters,  a  bath, 
five  khans,  six  schools  and  two  hundred  shops  ;  this  town  is  called  Taraklı  because 
spoons  and  combs  (Tarak)  are  made  here  from  the  box-trees  which  cover  the 
neighbouring  mountains.  These  spoons  and  combs  are  sent  into  Arabia  and  Persia. 
The  torrent  which  flows  through  the  village  falls  into  the  river  Hârmen  and  with 
it  into  the  sea.  Eight  hours  to  the  north  is  the  castle  of  Kiva,  properly  Kekiva, 
a  small  castle  for  the  sheep  of  a  Greek  Princess.  It  is  the  foundation  con- 
secrated to  the  famous  bridge  of  Sultân  Bayazîd  H.  here  built  over  the  Sakaria. 


evliya  efendi.  243 

It  was  formerly  a  large  town,  but  ruined  in  the  reign  of  Sultîin  Murad  IV.  by  the 
inundation  of  the  Sakaria,  it  consisted  of  three  hundred  houses,  a  mosque,  a  bath, 
three  khans,  and  seven  schools  for  boys.  It  is  now  situated  at  an  arrow's  shot  dis- 
tance from  the  river,  and  has  a  large  khan  covered  with  brick  and  twenty  shops  near 
it.  The  sour  preserve  of  raisins  and  the  melons  of  the  district  are  famous, 
two  melons  are  a  load  for  a  horse.  The  river  8akaria,  which  flows  here  under  the 
bridge,  comes  from  the  town  of  Beg-bazari  and  falls  into  the  Black  Sea  near  Irva. 
In  this  place  reside  a  Serdâr,  Kiaya-yerî  and  Mütevelli,  or  administrator  of  the 
Wakf.  Burhan  a  companion  of  Osman  I.  is  buried  here.  We  passed  the  bridge 
and  to  the  north  along  the  banks  of  Sakaria  through  the  great  forest,  called  Aglmj- 
denizi  (the  sea  of  trees),  a  den  of  wild  beasts  and  robbers,  where  many  strangers 
have  been  lost.  The  trees  are  high  firs  and  linden,  which  intercept  the  rays 
of  the  sun,  and  perfume  the  brain  with  their  sweet  scent. 

These  mountains  are  inhabited  by  some  tliousand  unmerciful  Turks,  who  live  by 
cutting  wood  and  loading  it  in  ships,  and  sometimes  by  cutting  passengers  and 
unloading  caravans.  This  forest  extends  through  four  Sanjaks,  viz  :  Brussa,  Ismid, 
and  Boll,  and  a  month  is  necessary  to  make  the  tour  of  it.  In  some  places  it  is  cut 
through  like  the  road  to  Kiva.  Three  hours  from  Kiva  we  came  to  the  castle  of  the 
shepherds  (Choban  Kala'assf),  a  small  castle  towering  to  the  skies.  It  is  here 
that  the  shepherds  of  Princess  Kekeva  dwelled  and  took  toll  from  those  who 
passed  ;  the  passage  being  straightened  between  the  mountains  and  the  river  Sakaria, 
they  obliged  every  body  to  pay.  We  passed  through  it  and  continuing  our  way  to 
the  West  along  the  bank  of  the  Sakaria  for  seven  hours  we  reached  Sabanja,  a 
cultivated  place  which  has  been  already  described  on  the  way  to  Erzerum.  From 
hence  we  came  to  Nicomedia,  also  described  in  the  journey  to  Erzerum.  We  pas- 
sed Herke,  Gebize,  the  tomb  of  Gemikli,  Ali-baba,  Pendik,  Kartal,  the  bridge  of 
the  Bostanjf-bashi,  and  Kadikoi,  and  arrived  at  the  end  of  Jemazi'-ul-akhir,  1058 
(1648),  in  the  great  town  of  Scutari,  and  at  last,  praise  be  to  God  !  at  Constantino- 
ple, with  all  my  baggage.  I  kissed  the  hand  of  my  mother  and  the  eyes  of  mv 
sisters,  then  mounted  again  on  horseback  to  fulfil  my  vow  by  visiting  the  tomb  of 
Eyyub,  wliere  I  immolated  and  distributed  a  victim,  and  returned  home.  In  a  dream 
I  saw  my  father  who  wished  me  joy  on  my  happy  arrival  and  on  my  visit  to  the 
tomb  of  Er-Sultan.  Having  thrice  said  the  Süra-et-tekâtherî,  I  awoke  and  took  a 
boat  to  visit  the  tomb  of  my  father  behind  the  arsenal,  and  my  ancestors  buried 
there  since  the  time  of  Mohammed  II,  thrice  said  the  above  Sura,  then  returned 
home,  took  possession  of  my  father's  heritage,  and  made  a  vow  to  consecrate  two 
thousand  zechins  of  it  to  the  pilgrimage  of  Mecca ;  visited  all  my  friends  and 
acquaintances,  and  enjoyed  with  them  the  pleasures  of  conversation,  when  the  great 


244  THE    TRAVELS    OF    EVLİYA    EFENDİ. 

rebellion  of  the  troops  began  on  the  eighteenth  of  Rejet,   1058,  and  terminated  in 
the  dethronement  of  Sultan  Ibrahim  and  the  accession  of  his  son  Mohammed  IV. 

(^Here  follows  the  account  of  the  dethronement  ofSiiltdn  Ihrahim,  which  is  nearly 
the  same  as  has  heen  given,  in  the  first  volume,  under  this  Sultân  s  reign,  and  is 
therefore  omitted  here.) 

Evliya  then  relates  how  his  master  Mohammed  Defterdar  Zâdeh  came  to  Con- 
stantinople, and  after  a  lively  contest  with  Koja  Mevlevi,  the  grand  vezir,  obtained 
from  him  the  nomination  to  the  Governorship  of  Malatia,  begging  he  would  grant 
it  him  with  the  Kharaj  (tribute),  Awariz  (accidental  duties)  and  the  Mohassillik  or 
collectorship,  which  was  done.  Evliya  waited  on  him  and  with  great  difficulty  ob- 
tained permission  to  go  on  the  pilgrimage  to  Mecca.  He  then  remained  sometime 
at  Constantinople,  and  attached  himself  to  Silehdar  Murteza  Pâshâ,  as  Mûezzin-bâshî 
(chief  proclaimer  of  prayer),  he  was  also  named  Imam  of  the  Mahmel  (the  Sultan's 
annual  present  to  Mecca),  and  went  from  Constantinople  to  Scutari  in  the  first 
days  of  the  month  Sha'abân,  setting  out  with  Murteza  Pâshâ  for  the  journey  to 
Damascus.  The  Pcâshâ's  Imam  being  an  Arab  whom  Murteza  disliked,  the  Arab 
performed  prayers  outside,  and  Evliya  inside  the  Pasha's  tent  and  was  continually 
in  the  Pasha's  company.  During  the  time  they  remained  at  Scutari,  the  famous 
robber  Hyder  Oghli,  in  whose  hands  Evliya  had  fallen  when  he  lost  his  way  in  the 
pass  as  before  related,  was  brought  in  by  Hassan  Aghâ,  and  hanged  at  Parmak- 
kapii  (finger-gate).  The  same  night  as  the  execution  of  the  robber.  Evliya 
slept  in  his  paternal  home  at  Constantinople,  then  took  leave  of  his  friends  and 
relations  and  passed  over  to  Scutari,  where  he  visited  Mahmud  Efendî  of  Scutari, 
and  Saint  Karaji  Ahmed  and  the  tombs  of  all  the  great  men  in  the  burying  ground, 
calling  their  spirits  to  his  assistance  in  the  Syrian  voyage,  which  he  was  about  to 
undertake. 

Amen,  by  the  grace  of  the  Lord  of  Apostles. 


END  OF  THE  SECOND  VOLUME. 


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